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Moscow Military DistrictFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Moscow Military District is a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. General of the Army Vladimir Bakin has commanded the District since June 6, 2005. History In the beginning of the second half of the 19th century Russia officials realized the need for re-organization of the Russian Army to meet new circumstances. During May 1862, the War Ministry, headed by Army General Dmitry Milyutin, introduced to Tsar Alexander II of Russia proposals for the reorganization of the army, which included the formation of fifteen military districts. A tsarist edict of 6 August 1864, announced in a Defence Ministers order on 10 August of the same year, established ten military districts, including Moscow. The Districts territory then comprised 12 provinces: Vladimir, Vologda, Kaluga, Kostroma, Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Ryazan, Smolensk, Tambov, Tver, Tula, and Yaroslavl. The District was intended as a reinforcement source for troops and equipment, being some distance from the frontier, rather than an operational area. The District dispatched five infantry and a cavalry division south to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-8, as well as sending another division to the Caucasus area. This force totaled around 30,000 men and 20,000 horses. Over 80,000 men were also called into reserve units. The District also housed 21,000 Turkish prisoners of war. During the First World War over a million men were stationed in the district. Much of the garrison was involved in the October Revolution of 1917, and consequent establishment of a Soviet regime in the cities of Bryansk, Vladimir, Voronezh, Kaluga, Nizhniy Novgorod, Orel, Tver, Yaroslavl. By a resolution of the Moscow military revolutionary committee on 17 November [O.S. 4 November] 1917, N.I. Muralyov was assigned the as the new commander of the district. In the period of the Civil War and military intervention in Russia 1917 - 22 the District prepared military personnel for all the fronts and supplied the Red Army with different forms of armament and allowances. From June to the middle of September 1919 the District conducted 33 callups totalling more than 500 thousand people. In Moscow the 1 Moscow Rifle Division, Warsaw revolutionary regiment, and 2nd revolutionary regiment were formed, and Latvian forces were brought to the Latvian Rifle Division. In Voronezh two cavalry divisions were formed, two rifle divisions and two rifle regiments in Nizhniy Novgorod, and the 16th Rifle Division in Tambov. After the end of Civil War in the troops of region were demobilized, as a result of which their number was reduced from 580,000 (at the end of 1920) to 85,000 in January 1923, and the District was reorganised on a peacetime basis. In the 1920s the District had 10 rifle divisions: the 1st Moscow Proletariat Red Banner Rifle Division (first formed either in December 1924 or at the beginning of 1927), the 6th rlovskaya; the 14- ; the 17- ; the 18- ; the 19- ; the 48- ; the 55- ; the 81 - ; and the 84th .[1] Autumn manoeuvres began to be conducted yearly. In the beginning of the 1930 tanks started to be introduced, including the MS or T-18, T-26, T-27, BT, T-28, and the heavy T35. In 1930 the first mechanized brigade in the Soviet Army was formed in the district. The Russian Ground Forces' official site notes that the first tactical parachute landing took place in the District on 2 August 1930. In World War II the District formed three fronts, 23 armies, 128 divisions, and 197 brigades, an approximate total of 4.5 million men. In 1944-5 alone the District sent to the front 1,200,000 soldiers. From summer 1945 to summer 1946, in order to supervise the demobilisation process, the District was subdivided into four: the Moscow, Voronezh, Gorki (where the 324th Rifle Division was probably demobilised), and Smolensk Military Districts (33rd Army, home from Germany, formed Smolensk MD headquarters in late 1945). General Kirill Moskalenko took command of the District in 1953. On 22 February 1968, for the large contribution to the cause of strengthening the defense of the state, for its' successes in combat and political training, and in view of the 50th anniversary of the Soviet Army, the District was awarded the Order of Lenin. In 1979 Scott and Scott reported the HQ address as being Moscow, A-252, Chapayevskiy Per., Dom 14. The District's dispositions at the end of the 1980s were:[2] 13th Guards Army Corps o 60th Tank Division o 206th Motor Rifle Division, Tambov District Troops o 2nd Guards 'Taman' Motor Rifle Division, Kalinnets o 4th Guards Kantimirov Tank Division, Naro-Fominsk o 26th Guards Tank Training Division, Vladimir o 32nd Guards Motor Rifle Division, Kalinin o 106th Guards Airborne Division, Tula

Commanders 1945-91 General Colonel (P A Artemyev) (until 1947 and 1949-06/1953) Marshal of the Soviet Union Kirill Meretskov (1947-1949) Marshal of the Soviet Union Kirill Moskalenko (06 1953-10 1960) arshal of the Soviet Union Nikolay Ivanovich Krylov (10 1960-04 03 1963) General A P (A R Beloborodov) (05 03 1963-1968) General Colonel (E F Ivanovsky) (1968-1972) General V L Gororov (1972-1980) General (P G Lyshev) (1980-06 1985) General (V M Arkhipov) (A (06 1985-08 1988) General (K A Kochetov) (08 1988-05 1989) General Colonel (N V Kalinin) (05 1989-09 1991) General Lieutenant V Toporov (09 1991-17 05 1992) The 1990s and Today With the collapse of the USSR the District became for the first time in its history a boundary district and thus a new priority was put on building up combat forces within it, rather than the training and capital garrison focus of the Soviet period. In the early 1990s the District received the headquarters of the First Guards Tank Army from the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. It was relocated to Smolensk, and consisted of the 4th Guards Tank Division and 144th Guards Motor Rifle Division (at Yelnya). However the Army's headquarters disbanded later in the 1990s, along with the 144th Guards MRD. The 22nd Army Headquarters was reformed from 13th Army Corps in the early 1990s, to control the new 3rd Motor Rifle Division among other formations. The 22nd Army had previously been inactive for a long period; it was last operational immediately after the war (when it participated in the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive in late 1942) when its HQ along with the 109th Rifle Division arrived in the South Ukraine in May 1945. In the Northern summer of 1945, together with the headquarters of the Independent Coastal Army, located in the Crimea, it was reorganised as the new but shortlived Tavricheskiy Military District. After several years as a direct reporting formation, the Operational Group of Russian Forces in Moldova was realigned under the command of the Moscow Military District in 1998.[3] Previously the 14th Guards Army (it was renamed in April 1995[4]), forces and individuals from this command played a major part in the early 1990s in establishing and maintaining the trans-Dnestr separatists of the Transnistria as a viable de facto state. The District has around 75,000 troops assigned and consists of: 2nd Tamanskaya Guards Motor Rifle Division, 34th Guards Artillery Division, 27th Sevastopolskaya Guards Motor Rifle Brigade, 112th Rocket Brigade (Shuya) (Tochka SSM) 20th Guards Army, 20- o 4th Kantemirovskaya Guards Tank Division, o 10th Guards Uralsko-Lvovskaya Tank Division, - [5] o 397th MRL Regiment (Skopin) o 448th Rocket Brigade (Kursk) (Tochka SSM) o other units 22nd Army, 22- , Nizhni Novgorod o 3rd Vislenskaya Motor Rifle Division, o 50th Rocket Brigade (Shuya) (Tochka SSM) o 211th Artillery Brigade (Mulino) o 918th Multiple Rocket Launcher Regiment (Mulino) o Base for Storage of Weapons and Equipment (Tver) (ex 166th Motor Rifle Brigade) o other units Operational Group of Russian Forces in Moldova (Tiraspol) (formerly 14th Guards Army) o (two?) separate battalions, formerly from the 8th Guards MR Brigade[6] 16th Spetsnaz Brigade, 16- a division-sized weapons and equipment storage base at Yelnya, the former 144 Guards MRD 16th Air Army other formations and units Formations of the Airborne Forces, including the 98th Guards Airborne Division and Russian 106th Guards Tula Airborne Division, also are based within the District's boundaries, but report directly to VDV headquarters. Army General Vladimir Bakin was the former chief of staff - first deputy commander-in-chief of forces of the Volga-Ural Military District. Notes 1. 2. 3. 4.

^ Lenskii, 2001 ^ V.I. Feskov, K.A. Kalashnikov, V.I. Golikov, The Soviet Army in the Years of the Cold War 1945-91, Tomsk University Publishing House, Tomsk, 2004 ^ Andrew Duncan, Russia and Ukraine: restructuring for a new era, Jane's Intelligence Review, June 1998, p.5 ^ RAND, CF 129, Chapter 4 Trans-Dniestria

5.

6.

^ According to [1] the full name is 10 - . . ^ See 59th Guards Rifle Division for the history of this formation.

References Official Russian website - http://www.mil.ru/848/1045/1272/1365/1362/1890/index.shtml Kommersant-Vlast, 'Vys Rossiya Armia'. http://www.kommersant.ru/k-vlast/get_page.asp?page_id=2005769-22.htm, 14 May 2002 IISS Military Balance Harriet Fast Scott and William F Scott, The Armed Forces of the USSR, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1979.

Leningrad Military DistrictFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Leningrad Military District is a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. As the Russian Military of Defence site officially states, it traces its history from the Petersburg Military District of Imperial Russia. When the USSR dissolved, there was very little effective change for the LMD, though in the following years reductions and formation moves took place. Presidential Decree 900 dated July 27, 1998 gave the District's composition as