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RICE

MILLING

SOURCE OF RICE:

Rice is the seed of the monocot plant Oryza sativa. As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East, South, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second highest worldwide production, after maize (corn) The rice plant can grow to 11.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labour costs and high rainfall.

INTRODUCTION

Milling is the process wherein the rice grain is transformed into a form suitable for human consumption. Brown rice is milled further to create a more visually appealing white rice. After harvesting and drying, the paddy is subjected to the primary milling operation which includes dehusking. In this process the rice which is obtained after milling is called raw rice.

An other process through which rice is obtained after milling is called "Parboiling Rice. Nearly 60% of the total rice produced in India is subjected to parboiling. Rice milling losses may be qualitative or quantitative in nature. Quantitative or physical losses are manifested by low milling recovery while the high percentage of broken kernel reflects the qualitative loss in rice grains.

METHOD OF MILLING

TRADITIONAL METHOD:Before the advent of mechanical milling, hand-pounding traditional method of rice milling was in practice. In fact, hand-pounding rice has got more nutritive value as compared to machine milling rice. In hand-pounding, a variety of implements is used such as : Mortor and Pestle Dhenki Hand Stone (Chakki)

MECHANICAL METHOD:

With the introduction of mechanized mills, handpounding method has steadily decreased because it could not compete with machine mills. The conventional mills in use can be categorized into three main types : Huller mills Sheller-Huller mills Sheller-Cone Polisher mills.

RICE MILL PROCESSING:

RICE MILLING INDUSTRY

The process for modernisation of rice milling industry in the country was initiated in 1970. Higher yields of rice and better quality of byproducts such as bran and husk, suitable for edible oil/industrial oil extraction and as a source of fuel respectively. The Rice Milling Industry (Regulation) Act 1958 and the Rice Milling Industry (Regulation and Licensing) Rules 1959 were amended.

In view of the sustained efforts made by the Government, the number of modern/modernised rice mills have gone up from practically nil in 1970 to 34113 in 1995 . Also the quantity of rice bran processed for oil extraction has increased from 1.87 lakh tonnes in 1970-71 to 31.0 lakh tonnes in 1993-94.

GROWTH RATE OF MODERN RICE MILL:

POST HARVST TECHNOLOGY FOR RICE IN INDIA : India produces about 93 million tons of rice, which is about one-fifth of world production. India is the second-largest rice producing country in the world. India exports rice valued at about US$1.4 billion, of which Basmati is $420 million and non-Basmati is $980 million

DEVELOPMENT OF A MODERNISATION PROGRAM: In 1955, the government of India set up a committee to examine the problems concerning the development of a rice-milling industry. It recommended that preference be given to sheller-type mills over the existing metallic huller. On the basis of these recommendations, the government promulgated the Rice Milling Industry (Regulation and Licensing) Act and the Rules thereof for regulating the industry.

Further, modern mills yielded by-products (husk and bran) separately for better end uses. The government of India recognized for improving the entire post harvest technology of the paddy/rice system. Accordingly, the Rice Milling Industry (Regulation) Act, 1958, and Rice Milling Industry (Regulation and Licensing) Rules, 1959, were amended in 1968 and 1970, respectively.

MODERNISATION OF HULLER RICE MILLS:

Over the years, several designs of low-cost mini rice mills became available in the country. In July 1976, by an amendment to the Rice Mill Industry Rules, provision was made for the gradual modernization of single-huller mills. A huller subsidy scheme with 50% of the cost to encourage the modernization of huller mills.

MODERNISATION OF PADDY PARBOILING:

In 1950s- the Indian Council of Medical Research sponsored research at the Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore, and Jadavpur University, Calcutta, for improving the paboiling and drying processes. In 1957-58, the Ministry of Food and Agriculture recommended the new technique of parboiling.

MODERNISATION OF PADDY/ RICE STORAGE:

In 1965-66, the Save Grain Campaign was organized by the Government. It covers 19 states/union territories to popularize an effective method of grain storage among farmers, traders, etc.. The Indian Grain Storage Institute was established at Hapur, for conducting applied research, development, and training in grain storage with the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme.

PRESENT POSITION OF THE INDUSTRY:

Rice post harvest technology in India has come a long way over the past three decades. Now, more than 50% of the overall rice production is processed by modern mills, about 40% by traditional mills, and about 10% by hand pounding. Fifty percent of the total paddy production is parboiled. The estimated losses in storage and handling are about 10%. Rice husks are primarily used as fuel in husk-fired furnaces to produce steam through a boiler for parboiling.

At present in India, a large number of trained technical personnel are available. Many research workers are actively involved in rice post harvest technology research. India manufactures and also exports all types of rice-processing machinery and equipment. India also provides training to foreign personnel.

LIST OF RICE MILLING INDUSTRIES:

Rajarana impex Gujarat Forsberg Agritech India Private Limited Gujarat S. S. Milling And Engineering Co.-Uttar Pradesh Perfect Equipments- Chennai Kantam International-West Bengal Sanjeev Agro Private Limited - Punjab Bhullar Engineers - Punjab Grapes IP India and Company- Punjab Sager Scrap- Gujarat

REFERENCES:

FAI (Fertilizer Association of India). 2003. Fertilizer statistics. New Delhi (India): FAI. MA (Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India). 1971. Modern versus traditional rice millsa performance study. Delhi (India): MA. MFPI (Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Government of India). 2003. Annual report. New Delhi (India): MFPI.