REVISING & PROOFREADING - USC · PDF file 2019-03-04 · Revising, Editing,...

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Transcript of REVISING & PROOFREADING - USC · PDF file 2019-03-04 · Revising, Editing,...

  • REVISING & PROOFREADING

    Francesca Gacho, Graduate Writing Coach

    [email protected] / cmgtwriting.uscannenberg.org

  • Goals of this Workshop

    § Identify the differences between the latter stages of writing: revision, editing, and proofreading

    § Identify practical and sustainable revision tasks

    § Learn how to manage revision tasks

  • Revising, Editing, Proofreading

    • Revising is the “big picture” work that allows you to assess if the paper is doing what it’s supposed to. • Adding, taking away, or modifying material. You are working with BIG STROKES. • Reorganize the paper or re-draft the introduction or several paragraphs of the

    paper.

    • Editing is typically done after revising. It looks to improve the coherence and style of the paper. • Correcting any awkward sentence structures or improving the flow of ideas (by

    adding better transitions).

    • Checking the accuracy of your citations and sources. • Proofreading is the final sweep of the paper for errors. The focus tends

    to be on sentences, grammar, punctuation, and spelling. • Look for tricky mistakes (confused words) and typos.

  • Revision Tasks

    Reverse Outline

    Eliminating Wordiness

    Editing & Proofreading

  • Reverse Outline

    § Reverse Outline is a revision method that helps you check the logical structure and function of your paper and its individual parts

    § How do I create a reverse outline? There are 2 approaches in creating a reverse outline: 1. writing one-sentence summaries of each paragraph; 2. listing the purpose or function of each paragraph in the overall structure of

    the essay.

    § What can it show me? § Organization

    § Thesis Support

    § Flow of the paper

    Do this relatively early and more than once

    throughout the writing process so you can keep

    track of how your paper is developing (and if tweaks along the way are needed).

  • Approach #1: One-Sentence Summary

    DO THIS IF YOU WANT TO CHECK PRIMARILY FOR:

    § Paragraphs that are relevant and coherent

    § Paragraphs that support your thesis statement

    1. Place a number to each paragraph of the paper. 2. On a separate sheet of paper, list the main point of each

    paragraph. The point is to be brief.

    3. Look at your outline to see an overview of the paper and its main points.

  • Approach #1 Sample • Claim: Deinstitutionalizing mental patients in the late twentieth-century led to transforming the “hobo”

    to the “homeless person.” • Paragraph 1: Introduction • Paragraph 2: The image of the hobo before World War II • Paragraph 3: The image of the homeless person today • Paragraph 4: The effects of deinstitutionalization • Paragraph 5: A history of deinstitutionalization • Paragraph 6: A history of the depression; how the depression is both different and

    similar to the time of deinstitutionalization; incorrect beliefs about the causes and timeframe of deinstitutionalization

    • Paragraph 7: The Reagan administration’s policies on deinstitutionalization • Paragraph 8: The realities of life as a “homeless person” contrasted to the romantic

    notions of “riding the rails.” • Paragraph 9: Conclusion

  • Ask Yourself

    § Are the paragraphs properly focused? § If you are having a hard time summarizing the paragraph, you might

    have too many ideas in one paragraph or it lacks clarity.

    § Either way, this should signal a possible problem with the paragraph and that it would probably need revision.

    § It is also possible that the paragraph doesn’t have enough ideas, making summarization difficult. In this case, consider why the paragraph is included in the first place.

    § Are there extraneous ideas within a paragraph that can be deleted or moved to another, more pertinent paragraph?

  • Approach #2: Checking for Structure

    DO THIS IF YOU WANT TO CHECK PRIMARILY FOR:

    § Paragraph structure and flow

    1. Print your paper. Make sure you see and can annotate both sides of the margins.

    2. Go through each paragraph and follow these two steps: a. On the left-hand margin, paraphrase the topic sentence and/or main idea. b. On the right-hand margin, write down how the paragraph advances the overall

    argument of the text. This should inform you of the logic of the text and should help you get a sense of the paper’s structure beyond “intro,” “body paragraph 1,2, or 3,” etc.

  • Ask Yourself

    § Looking at the paper as a whole, does the organization of the paper reflect what you promised in your introduction and/or thesis statement?

    § Does the logic of the argument flow well from paragraph to paragraph? Is there important information that should occur earlier in the paper?

  • Revising the Introduction

    • Checking your draft against the CARS Model for Introductions • Creating A Research Space • Three Rhetorical Moves

    • Move 1: Establishing the Research Territory • Move 2: Identifying the Gap or Niche • Move 3: Filling the Gap or Niche

  • CARS Model Handout

  • Checking for Argument/Thesis Statement

    Can I clarify my central claim? • WHAT • In this paper, I will argue …

    • HOW • I will argue this by/through …

    • WHY • This argument is important/relevant/significant

    because …

  • Small-scale Revisions: Paragraphs

    • Useful for checking for well-developed paragraphs. • AXES Paragraph Structure • Assertion (Also known as a topic sentence)**

    • ** Makes a claim. Not a statement of fact. • eXample (Also known as supporting details, examples, results)

    • Facts, figures, anecdotes* • Explanation (Also known as analysis or discussion) Translates the evidence

    and gives

    • Significance (Also known as reflection, significance, or relevance) • Explains the connection between assertion & evidence • Connects to the thesis and shows assertion’s larger significance/relevance

  • Identifying AXES

    [1]“Seasoned” teachers, or those who have been teaching for five or more years, benefit from professional development. [2] Coaching support to teacher grade level teams provides experienced teachers confidence to make changes to include new instructional techniques (Goodwin, 2011). [3] The new Common Core Standards (CCS), which will be implemented in the 2014-2015 school year, will require teachers to expand their instructional strategies to include rigor, problem solving, and constructivist learning situations (Smith, 2012). [4] This shift in teaching is enormous, and our aging teaching population needs to know how to present these standards in the classroom with a renewed energy and focus. [5] Observing peer classrooms, creating lessons, and sharing instructional strategies is the need our “baby boomer” teachers have to assure they are confident teachers who instruct rigorous, 21st century classrooms.

  • Identifying AXES

    [1] “Seasoned” teachers, or those who have been teaching for five or more years, benefit from professional development. [2] Coaching support to teacher grade level teams provides experienced teachers confidence to make changes to include new instructional techniques (Goodwin, 2011). [3] The new Common Core Standards (CCS), which will be implemented in the 2014-2015 school year, will require teachers to expand their instructional strategies to include rigor, problem solving, and constructivist learning situations (Smith, 2012). [4] This shift in teaching is enormous, and our aging teaching population needs to know how to present these standards in the classroom with a renewed energy and focus. [5] Observing peer classrooms, creating lessons, and sharing instructional strategies is the need our “baby boomer” teachers have to assure they are confident teachers who instruct rigorous, 21st century classrooms.

  • AXES Practice

    [1] In addition to highlighting platform jumping practices in Zambia, our informants foregrounded different motivations for and gradients of anonymity in online environments. [2] Anonymity is critical to online identity construction, and social media provide different possibilities for maintaining anonymity (Van der Nagel & Frith, 2015). [3] Alice Marwick and danah boyd have noted that while in offline situations people know the context within which they are conversing, in social media sites there is often a “context collapse” in the sense that users are unsure who exactly is viewing their performance of self and are unable to restrict this performance to a particular audience segment (Marwick & boyd, 2011). [4] Anonymity provides a way to negotiate this context collapse. [5] The desire for anonymity depends on the user’s perception of a particular news site, blog, or social media platform and the kinds of people and social groups the user thinks will frequent the platform. [6] As users gauge varied online contexts, they enact anonymity in the process of making their views public, and they may either critique or endorse the status quo.

  • AXES Practice

    [1] In addition to highlighting platform jumping practices in Zambia, our informants foregrounded different motivations for and g