Results of field testing the indicators for resilience of socio-ecological production landscapes...

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  1. 1. Results of field testing the indicators of resilience in SEPLS Nadia Bergamini, Dunja Mijatovic & Pablo Eyzaguirre Rome, 29 January 2014
  2. 2. Socio-ecological Production Landscapes and Seascapes (SEPLS) Mosaic production landscapes that have been shaped through long-term harmonious interactions between humans and nature in a manner that fosters well-being while maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services (Gu & Subramanian 2012)Photo by N. Bergamini
  3. 3. Resilience in SEPLS The three characteristics of resilience in SES (Carpenter & Brock 2008)The capacity to: i. absorb shocks and maintain function ii. self-organize and iii. learn and adaptPhoto by N. Bergamini3
  4. 4. Indicators of resilience in SEPLS Measuring communitys capacity to adapt to change while maintaining biodiversityPhoto by N. Bergamini 4
  5. 5. Socio-ecological resilience indicators Bringing together communities, scientists, conservationist and other actors to strengthen communities capacity to adapt to change while maintaining biodiversity. Four categories comprising 20 indicators Ecosystems protection and the maintenance of biodiversity Agricultural biodiversity Knowledge, learning and innovation Social equity and infrastructureSocialEcologicalDeveloping strategies for Conserving biodiversity at various scales (from genetic to landscape level) Sustaining evolution and adaptation processes that maintain and generate diversity Empowering local communities and strengthening their role as innovators and custodians of biodiversity (Participatory research tool/approach) 5
  6. 6. Socio-ecological resilience indicators Testing sites In Cuba,Kenya, Bolivia and NepalFurther testing Several IPSI and non partners expressedinterest in testing the indicators The Potato Park in Peru Co-management and sustainable herding in Mongolia (JASIL) Fiji coastal communities (NTF)6
  7. 7. Case study sites in Cuba, Bolivia, Kenya and NepalFigure by D. Mijatovic7
  8. 8. Cuba case study Cuchillas del Toa MaB reserve One of the most biologically diverse tropical island sites on earthFirst field testing of the indicators Oct-Nov 2011Results: Identified areas of intervention in social infrastructures, access and sharing of informationLessons: Fine tuning of some of the indicators text to improve shared understandingNeed to develop a methodology for testing 8
  9. 9. Methodology developed for Kenya, Nepal and Bolivia case studies Focus group method (a group of X participants with good gender and age balance): 1.Introduction (common understanding of landscape & resilience ) Landscape (Indigenous map of the landscape, ABD richness and landscape components) Resilience (Timeline, resilience & adaptation)2.Questions Individual answer (score and trend)Group answer (agreement on categories, consensus ) 9
  10. 10. Characteristics of resilience in Kitui landscapes Strategies adopted - Increasing importance of - traditional drought-resistant crops (e.g. sorghum, millets) - wild plants (e.g. wild fruit trees) - introduction of modern varieties by the Min of Ag.(maize, beans, cowpea, sorghum) - the maintenance of landscape diversity (e.g. use of fields and gardens in different micro agro-ecological zones (landscape scale diversity) - Training by NGOs and Gov. in water and soil management especially to womens groups and cooperatives11
  11. 11. Characteristics of resilience in Candelaria landscapes Strategies adopted Vertical integration, intercropping and crop rotations, practices used to cope with climate change risks, to maintain soil fertility and regulate pests and disease are being modified due to expansion and intensification of Agriculture High levels of species and traditional varieties of (potato, oca, papalisa and isao) Capacity to learn and adapt to changing temperatures. Expansion of potato to higher elevations in both communities; adjustment of planting dates to avoid pest that affects potato in humid areas (benefits from climate change) Lessons Cultivation of traditional crops and varieties, unless combined with farm diversification and ecosystem protection, cannot ensure high resiliencePhotos by H. Gruberg13
  12. 12. Characteristics of resilience in Begnas landscapes Strategies adopted Highest capacity to adsorb stresses due to: restoration and protection of ecosystems, diverse production systems, rich ABD, high level of organization and cohesion at the landscape levelCapacity to learn and adapt to climate change. Longer growing seasons with multiple crops in one seasonPhoto by N. BergaminiAdoption of perennials and diversification of farming systems (goats, bee-keeping and fisheries)Lessons A resilient SEPL can be achieved by strengthening and building local institutions for the sustainable management of ABD and ecosystemsPhoto by N. Bergamini 15
  13. 13. Social-ecological resilience to climate change (case study results)16
  14. 14. Lessons Indicators help to reach a common understanding of threats and solutions, and define resilience-strengthening strategies (improving access to seeds, planting trees, protecting sacred sites, reducing deforestation.) Accessing new knowledge and practices from other communities, NGOs, research organisations.
  15. 15. SEPLS indicators the way forward DevelopmentTesting to identify gapsPolicy report to explain the considerations that went into creating the list of indicators and outcomes of first testingDevelopment of a Toolkit to assist in the use and to describe lessons learnt form their applicationTesting in a wider range of landscapes and seascapes to include pastures, wetlands and coastal area and revision of the indicatorsDissemination 18
  16. 16. Need to test the indicators in a wider range of landscapes and seascapes Pastoral systemsWetland and coastal areasHypothesis: Naturally renewable resources opposed to cultivated cropsNeed to capture issues like common pool resources governed by common property regimes based on self management by local communities 19
  17. 17. Project site in Fiji20
  18. 18. The Bouma National Heritage Park The Park was established to protect the forest but also as a means of generating an income for the four villages whose land is bounded by the park Marine Protected Area Example of community based conservation siteThe indicators will be tested in the 4 communities21
  19. 19.