Report on Telecommunication

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    19-Aug-2014
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A report that is close to the field of Telecommunication and gives the basic idea on various technology used in this field.

Transcript of Report on Telecommunication

  • ALTTC BSNL Training Report A Report Submitted in the Partial Fulllment of the Requirements for the Degree of B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering by Sonal Bansal 1133231023 Under the Guidance of Mr. S.K. Gupta ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT MAHARAJA AGARSAIN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, GHAZIABAD 245304, INDIA June, 2014
  • UNDERTAKING I declare that the work presented in this report ti- tled ALTTC BSNL Training Report, submitted to the Electronics and Communication Engineering De- partment, Maharaja Agarsain Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, for the award of the B.Tech degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering, is my original work. I have not plagiarized or submitted the same work for the award of any other degree. In case this undertaking is found incorrect, I accept that my degree may be unconditionally withdrawn. June, 2014 Ghaziabad (Sonal Bansal) ii
  • CERTIFICATE Certied that the work contained in the report titled ALTTC BSNL Training Report, by Sonal Bansal, Registration Number 1133231023 has been carried out under my supervision and that this work has not been submitted elsewhere for a degree. June, 2014 (Mr. S.K. Gupta) ALTTC BSNL, Ghaziabad iii
  • Acknowledgment It would not have been possible to write this report without the help and support of almighty God and kind people around me, to only some of whom it is possible to give particular mention here. Above all, I am truly indebted and thankful to my parents and my family for their personal support and great patience at all times. My family has given me their unequivocal support throughout, as always, for which my mere expression of thanks does not sufce. This report would not have been possible without the help, support and patience of my training incharge, Mr. S.K. Gupta. His advice and unsurpassed knowledge has been invaluable, for which I am extremely grateful. I was privileged to experience a sustained enthusiastic involved interest from his side. I would like to acknowledge the academic and technical support of ALTTC BSNL, Ghaziabad and its staff. I am thankful for their valuable support and guidance. Last, but not the least, I would like to thanks everyone who has contributed for the successful completion of my training. - Sonal Bansal iv
  • Contents Acknowledgment iv 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Voice Signal Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Switching System Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Trunking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.4 Call Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.5 A Typical Telephone Exchange-OCB-283 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 Corporate Network 4 2.1 Security of Corporate Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 Signalling In Telecommunications 7 3.1 ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2 Signalling System Number 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4 Pulse Code Modulation Principle 9 4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2 Basic requirements for PCM system: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 v
  • 5 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing 13 5.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2 Challenges of Todays Telecommunication Network . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.3 Optical Fiber Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.3.1 Optical Fiber Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.3.2 Classication of Optical Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.3.3 Optical Fiber in the DWDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6 GSM Architecture and Technology 17 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.1.1 Mobile Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.1.2 The Base Station Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2 The Network and Switching Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2.1 The Mobile services Switching Center (MSC) . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2.2 The Gateway Mobile services Switching Center (GMSC) . . . . . 19 6.2.3 Home Location Register (HLR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.2.4 Visitor Location Register (VLR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.2.5 The Authentication Center (AuC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.2.6 The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7 Base Transceiver Station 21 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8 Introduction oF 3G Communication 23 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8.2 Architecture Model of 3G Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 9 CDMA Technology 25 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 9.2 Advantage of CDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 9.3 Disadvantage of CDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 9.4 Difference between CDMA and GSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 vi
  • References 28 vii
  • List of Figures 1 Corporate Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Frequency Division Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3 Time Division Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4 Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5 Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6 Optical Fiber Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7 Network of GSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8 Base Transceiver Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 9 Overview of BTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 10 Architecture of 3G Network[1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 xiii
  • Chapter 1 Introduction Telephone is a telecommunication device that is used to transmit and receive electroni- cally or digitally encoded speech between two or more people conversing[1]. It is one of the most common household appliances in the world today. Telecommunication networks carry information signals among entities, which are ge- graphically far apart. An entity may be a computer or human being, a teleprinter, a data terminal and so on. The entities are involved in the process of information transfer that may be in the form of a telephone conversation or a le transfer between two computers or message transfer between two terminals etc. With the rapidly growing trafc and untargeted growth of cyberspace, telecommuni- cation becomes a fabric of our life. The future challenges are enormous as we anticipate rapid growth in terms of new services and number of users. What comes with the chal- lenge is a genuine need for more advanced methodology supporting analysis and design of telecommuniction architectures. Telecommunication has envolved with a growth at an explosive rate in the recent years and will undoubtedly continue to do so. The communication switching system enables the universal connectivity. The univer- sal connectivity is realized when any entity in one part of the world can communicate 1
  • with any other entity in another part of the world. In many ways telecommunication acts as a substitute for the increasingly expensive physical transportation. 1.1 Voice Signal Characteristics The range of frequencies used by a communication device determines the communication channel, communicating devices, and bandwidth or information carrying capacity. The most commonly used parameter that characterizes an telephone system, the frequencies it passes are restricted to between 300 to 3400 Hz[2]. 1.2 Switching System Fundamentals Telecommunication switching systems generally perform three basics function:- They transmit signals over separate channels to convey the identify of the called address, and ring the called station. They establish connections through a switching network for conversational use dur- ing the entire call. They process the signal information to control and supervise the establishment and disconnection of the switching network connection. Switching techniques Space and time division are the two basics techniques used in establishing connections:- When an individual conductor path is established through a switch for the duration of a call, the system is known as space division. When the transmitted speech signals are sampled and the samples multiplexed in time so that high-speed electronic devices may be used simultaneously by several calls, the switch is known as time division. 2
  • 1.3 Trunking In telecommunication systems, trunking is aggregation of multiple user circuits into a single channel. The aggregation is achieved using some form of multiplexing[3]. 1.4 Call Routing Routing in the PSTN (public switched telephone network) is the process used to route telephone calls across the PSTN. This process is the same whether the call is made be-