Renewable Energy Sources. Cleaner Cars, Cleaner Fuels Cars release a lot of pollution Cars release a...
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Renewable Energy Sources
Cleaner Cars, Cleaner FuelsCars release a lot of pollution2005Bush administration7% improvement in mileage22.2 mpgDiesel engines need work
Electrical Generation Costs
Solar EnergyEnergy directly from the sunProsTremendous amountAlways availableDoesnt polluteConsMust be collectedExpensive to set up
Passive Solar HeatingNo mechanical devices to distribute heatNew home designRoom temperature is steadyConvectionSave on heating!
A Passive Solar Home
Photovoltaic (PV) Solar CellsConvert sunlight into electricityThin wafers or filmsNo pollutionMinimal maintenance
Photovoltaic (PV) Solar CellsCan be used in remote areasGood choice for developing countries: why?School, home use
Photovoltaic (PV) Solar CellsCan look like conventional roofingPrices are coming downFuture progress is critical
Solar Thermal Electric GenerationSuns energy concentrated by mirrors, lensesHeat a working fluidFluid is circulated to boil waterSteam generates electricity
Solar Thermal Electric GenerationBackup system neededVery efficientNo pollution producedMust be cost- competitive
Hydrogen As A Fuel SourceCould be the fuel of the futureWhere does the hydrogen come from?ElectrolysisMust use renewable fuel source to obtain the hydrogen!Few pollutants produced when burnedCan be used for transportation
Biomass EnergyWood, plants, animal wastesHalf of human population relies on for Cooking, heating ProsPotentially renewable: why?ConsBurned to release energy & pollutants
BiogasMixture of gasesSimilar to natural gasAnimal wastesBiogas digestersDecompose wastesUse gas for cooking, lightingSolid remains are fertilizerCan also be used to power fuel cells
Biomass As A Liquid FuelMethanol, ethanolGasohol: mix gasoline and ethanolBiodieselPlant, animal oilsBecoming more popularBurns cleaner than regular diesel
EthanolSugarcane, corn, wood, agricultural and municipal wastesGovernment subsidizesGood outlet for some wastesProblemsLand and water useSoil erosionDecreased food production
Wind EnergyNeed steady windsFastest growing energy sourcePro:No waste, emissionsCosts are decliningDenmark is a world leaderGreat Plains of U.S.
Wind Power Is On The Rise!
Wind Energy ProblemsBirds and bats killed by turbinesAvoid migration routesOperate only at certain timesMonitor the projectVisual pollutionMaple Ridge, NYMassachusetts coast
HydropowerFlowing or falling water spins turbinesMost efficient way to produce electricity19% worlds electricity2200 U.S. plants
Hydropower ProblemsDamages ecosystem, speciesDisplaces people: Three Gorges DamHigh construction costReduces downstream flowReservoirs eventually fill inDanger of collapseDegrades riverIncrease in waterborne disease: schistosomiasis
Geothermal EnergyUse energy from Earths interiorProBig potential sourceHydrothermal reservoir: hot fluidBring fluid to surface to generate electricity
Geothermal EnergyCons:Not located everywhereCould run out
Tidal EnergyUse power of the tides to generate electricityPros:No pollution, freeFrance, Russia, China, CanadaCons:Very few ideal locationsMay be damaging to ecosystems
Nuclear energy Splits apart heavy atoms such as Uranium to release energy.
Pros: - Produces large amounts of power -Very little air or water pollution Cons: - Radioactive waste is produced -Possibility of radioactive meltdown.
Conservation & EfficiencyEnergy conservationUsing less energyReduce use, wasteCarpoolingEnergy efficiencyUsing less energy for a taskMore fuel-efficient carsBoth very important!
Energy Consumption TrendsUse is on the increaseGreatest increase in developing countries: why?
Energy-Efficient TechnologiesAppliances, automobiles, light bulbs, furnaces, etcSuperinsulated buildingsMay cost more, but will save money!
Energy-Efficient TechnologiesNational Appliance Energy Conservation ActSets national standardsMuch greater efficiency todayInvest in energy improvements now to save money in the long run
Automobile EfficiencyHas improved since 1970s: why?Increased use of minivans, trucks, SUVsEfficiency must continue to improve
Electric Companies & Energy EfficiencyMake more money, generate less electricityIncentives for conservationHelp consumers save electricityLight bulbs, furnacesCompany doesnt have to invest in new power generation
Electric Companies & Energy EfficiencyUse cogeneration to save energyImprove electricity gridsSome energy lost in transmissionPlan for future use
Energy Conservation At HomeAverage household: $1500/year on utilitiesUse energy-efficient technologiesBetter insulation, windowsSeal cracksReplace inefficient appliances
Energy Conservation At Home
Case Study: Green ArchitectureConsider the environment when buildingEnergy conservationIndoor air qualityWater conservationBuilding materials
Case Study: Green ArchitectureAdam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin CollegeGeothermal heat pumpPV cells for electricityTriple-paned windowsMotion sensorsRecycle wastewaterSustainable woodRecycled carpet http://www.oberlin.edu/ajlc/ajlcHome.html