Renewable Energy Sources. Cleaner Cars, Cleaner Fuels Cars release a lot of pollution Cars release a...

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Transcript of Renewable Energy Sources. Cleaner Cars, Cleaner Fuels Cars release a lot of pollution Cars release a...

  • Renewable Energy Sources

  • Cleaner Cars, Cleaner FuelsCars release a lot of pollution2005Bush administration7% improvement in mileage22.2 mpgDiesel engines need work

  • Electrical Generation Costs

  • Solar EnergyEnergy directly from the sunProsTremendous amountAlways availableDoesnt polluteConsMust be collectedExpensive to set up

  • Passive Solar HeatingNo mechanical devices to distribute heatNew home designRoom temperature is steadyConvectionSave on heating!

  • A Passive Solar Home

  • Photovoltaic (PV) Solar CellsConvert sunlight into electricityThin wafers or filmsNo pollutionMinimal maintenance

  • Photovoltaic (PV) Solar CellsCan be used in remote areasGood choice for developing countries: why?School, home use

  • Photovoltaic (PV) Solar CellsCan look like conventional roofingPrices are coming downFuture progress is critical

  • Solar Thermal Electric GenerationSuns energy concentrated by mirrors, lensesHeat a working fluidFluid is circulated to boil waterSteam generates electricity

  • Solar Thermal Electric GenerationBackup system neededVery efficientNo pollution producedMust be cost- competitive

  • Hydrogen As A Fuel SourceCould be the fuel of the futureWhere does the hydrogen come from?ElectrolysisMust use renewable fuel source to obtain the hydrogen!Few pollutants produced when burnedCan be used for transportation

  • Biomass EnergyWood, plants, animal wastesHalf of human population relies on for Cooking, heating ProsPotentially renewable: why?ConsBurned to release energy & pollutants

  • BiogasMixture of gasesSimilar to natural gasAnimal wastesBiogas digestersDecompose wastesUse gas for cooking, lightingSolid remains are fertilizerCan also be used to power fuel cells

  • Biogas Digester

  • Biomass As A Liquid FuelMethanol, ethanolGasohol: mix gasoline and ethanolBiodieselPlant, animal oilsBecoming more popularBurns cleaner than regular diesel

  • EthanolSugarcane, corn, wood, agricultural and municipal wastesGovernment subsidizesGood outlet for some wastesProblemsLand and water useSoil erosionDecreased food production

  • Wind EnergyNeed steady windsFastest growing energy sourcePro:No waste, emissionsCosts are decliningDenmark is a world leaderGreat Plains of U.S.

  • Wind Power Is On The Rise!

  • Wind Energy ProblemsBirds and bats killed by turbinesAvoid migration routesOperate only at certain timesMonitor the projectVisual pollutionMaple Ridge, NYMassachusetts coast

  • HydropowerFlowing or falling water spins turbinesMost efficient way to produce electricity19% worlds electricity2200 U.S. plants

  • Hydropower ProblemsDamages ecosystem, speciesDisplaces people: Three Gorges DamHigh construction costReduces downstream flowReservoirs eventually fill inDanger of collapseDegrades riverIncrease in waterborne disease: schistosomiasis

  • Geothermal EnergyUse energy from Earths interiorProBig potential sourceHydrothermal reservoir: hot fluidBring fluid to surface to generate electricity

  • Geothermal Energy

  • Geothermal EnergyCons:Not located everywhereCould run out

  • Tidal EnergyUse power of the tides to generate electricityPros:No pollution, freeFrance, Russia, China, CanadaCons:Very few ideal locationsMay be damaging to ecosystems

  • Nuclear energy Splits apart heavy atoms such as Uranium to release energy.

    Pros: - Produces large amounts of power -Very little air or water pollution Cons: - Radioactive waste is produced -Possibility of radioactive meltdown.

  • Conservation & EfficiencyEnergy conservationUsing less energyReduce use, wasteCarpoolingEnergy efficiencyUsing less energy for a taskMore fuel-efficient carsBoth very important!

  • Energy Consumption TrendsUse is on the increaseGreatest increase in developing countries: why?

  • Energy-Efficient TechnologiesAppliances, automobiles, light bulbs, furnaces, etcSuperinsulated buildingsMay cost more, but will save money!

  • Energy-Efficient TechnologiesNational Appliance Energy Conservation ActSets national standardsMuch greater efficiency todayInvest in energy improvements now to save money in the long run

  • Automobile EfficiencyHas improved since 1970s: why?Increased use of minivans, trucks, SUVsEfficiency must continue to improve

  • Electric Companies & Energy EfficiencyMake more money, generate less electricityIncentives for conservationHelp consumers save electricityLight bulbs, furnacesCompany doesnt have to invest in new power generation

  • Electric Companies & Energy EfficiencyUse cogeneration to save energyImprove electricity gridsSome energy lost in transmissionPlan for future use

  • Energy Conservation At HomeAverage household: $1500/year on utilitiesUse energy-efficient technologiesBetter insulation, windowsSeal cracksReplace inefficient appliances

  • Energy Conservation At Home

  • Case Study: Green ArchitectureConsider the environment when buildingEnergy conservationIndoor air qualityWater conservationBuilding materials

  • Case Study: Green ArchitectureAdam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin CollegeGeothermal heat pumpPV cells for electricityTriple-paned windowsMotion sensorsRecycle wastewaterSustainable woodRecycled carpet