Renaissance & Reformation
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Middle Ages Renaissance
Impact of the CrusadesA major results of the Crusades, includes an increase in trade. European interest in goods from the east was stimulated by returning Crusaders who brought back many things. As the Crusades ended, ships that were once used to carry soldiers to the Middle East, now carried trade goods. Merchants from rich Italian city states, such as Venice and Florence, dominated this trade. Trade Fairs and Growth of CitiesAlong the trade routes, trade fairs were established in towns with larger populations, or at major crossroads. Merchants and craftsman settled in these towns, and some grew to be cities of several thousand people. This fundamentally altered the way people lived in Europe, and marked the beginning of the end of feudalism as serfs began to pay their feudal obligations with cash instead of service. An economy based on money, not barter emerged.The Black DeathThe bubonic plague was a highly infectious disease spread by the fleas on rats. Rats were common in the cities of this time.This particular outbreak first appeared in China In the early 1300s with deaths of about 35 million Chinese.It was a global epidemic that that spread through the increased trade between counties.Between 1347 and 1353, the plague killed one person out of every three in Europe, over 25 million.
Church is all knowing
Focus on the Afterlife
Focus on GroupRenaissanceMiddle class, merchants
Questioned church practices
Celebrate life/Enjoy the Present/ Humanism
Focus on Individual
The RenaissanceRenaissance means rebirth. It was a golden age in the arts, literature and sciences.During the Middle ages, philosophers and writers were concerned with life after death.Instead of the medieval preoccupation of life after death, a new way of thinking, Humanism, focused on life in the present and emphasized individual achievements.Ancient knowledge was rediscovered and the Classical period of the Greeks and Romans were glorified.
Why Italy?Urban CentersLarge city-states in northern ItalyCities breeding ground for intellectual revolutionCities Florence, MilanThriving centers of trade and manufacturing Wealthy Merchant ClassMerchants wealthiest, most powerful class & dominated politicsHad $ to pursue other interests Arts/educationMedici Family Cosimo de Medici Influenced the ruling council (loans))Lorenzo de Medici behind the scene dictator
Classical HeritageReturn to Greek and Roman idealsArts and scholars inspired by ruins of Rome1300s = Latin and Greek manuscripts studiedNew Outlook/AttitudeClassical - WorldlyPatrons of ArtsChurch spent $$$ beautifying RomeWealthy families supported artistsRenaissance ManIdeal individual strove to master all areas of studyuniversal manRenaissance WomanInspire but not create artLess influential than middle age women
Renaissance ArtSome of the greatest paintings, sculptures, and architecture in the history of the world.Greek and Romans styles were used for columns, arches, and domes.Artists were supported by merchants, popes and princes.Art was detailed, realistic, and reflected study of human anatomy
MichelangeloLeonardo da Vinci
Literary AchievementsDante Wrote the Divine ComedyCervantes wrote Don QuixoteShakespeare wrote many plays and poetryMachiavelli wrote The Prince
Scientific achievementsGalileo Galileiwas an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope.Galileo has been called the "father of science.He supported the idea that the sun was the center of our solar system, which went against the teachings of the church at the time. He was tried for heresy and put under house arrest for the rest of his life. He died in 1642.The Catholic Church apologized to Galileo in 1992.
Impact of Printing PressBy 1300 papermaking and print technology had reached Europe from China.The invention of moveable type led Gutenberg to print the Bible in 1456.Books became more availableLiteracy increasedIdeas spread rapidly
Causes of ReformationThe Renaissance. Humanism led people to question Church authority as increasing faith was put in human reason.Strong Monarchs. A weakened church meant strong national monarchs could increase their power.Problems within the church. Corruption among church leaders. Increased fees for marriage, baptism and indulgences for the pardon of sins.
In 1517 a German monk, named Martin Luther posted his famous 95 Theses against indulgences.Promoted radical idea that faith in God alone, not the Pope granted pardon for sins.Sparked Protestant Reformation.Followers of Luthers beliefs were called Lutherans and---eventually----Protestants, because they protested Papal authority.A French priest, John Calvin, an influential reformer who also preached predestination started another protestant movement. Martin Luther and John CalvinIdeas spread to Northern Germany and ScandinaviaIdeas spread to France, Germany, Holland, England and Scotland
Unless I am convicted by scripture and plain reason, I do not accept the authority of the popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other, my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me. Amen. Martin Luthers defense at his Catholic inquisition, April 1521
Counter ReformationA reform movement also took place in the Catholic Church.The purpose was to strengthen the Catholic Church and keep Catholics from converting to Protestantism1545 Council of Trent reaffirmed Catholic beliefs and worked to end abusesIgnatius Loyola founded the Jesuits. Jesuit missionaries helped spread Catholism around the world Effects of ReformationFormation of Protestant ChurchesLoss of religious and political unity in Western EuropeReligious conflicts sparked wars among the European states for over 100 yearsAnti-Semitism. Religious persecution increased, especially against Jews. Witch HuntsSummaryFrom the late Middle Ages feudalism continued to decline as kings, nobles and the Church struggled for power. A growing population and increase in trade led to a commercial revolution in Europe and a growing middle class. The Renaissance sparked a new way of looking at the world and the printing press helped new ideas such as the Reformation continue to challenge the old order. Nations began to unite under strong monarchs and nation states emerged.