REMOVAL OF DERELICT FISHING GEAR, LOST OR ... ... Dynamic development of fisheries after the Second

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Transcript of REMOVAL OF DERELICT FISHING GEAR, LOST OR ... ... Dynamic development of fisheries after the Second

  • © 1986 P

    anda sym bol W

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    orld W ide Fund For N

    ature (Form erly W

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    OCTOBER

    2015

    REPORT

    THIS PUBLICATION HAS BEEN PUBLISHED IN PARTNERSHIP BY:

    REMOVAL OF DERELICT FISHING GEAR, LOST

    OR DISCARDED BY FISHERMEN IN THE BALTIC SEA

    FINAL PROJECT REPORT

  • October 2015 WWF Poland

    FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    REMOVAL OF DERELICT FISHING GEAR, LOST OR DISCARDED BY FISHERMEN

    IN THE BALTIC SEA

    OCTOBER

    2015

    REPORT

    THIS PUBLICATION HAS BEEN PUBLISHED IN PARTNERSHIP BY:

  • “REMOVAL OF DERELICT FISHING GEAR, LOST OR DISCARDED BY FISHERMEN IN THE BALTIC SEA” FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    Authors: chapters 1-3 i 5-6: Marek Szulc, PhD; Stanisław Kasperek, MSc, eng chapters 4: Piotr Gruszka, PhD; Piotr Pieckiel, MSc; Michał Grabia PhD, eng Tomasz Markowski, MSc, eng

    Typesetting: Agencja Wydawnicza EkoPress Translation: Ewa Milewska

    Published by: WWF Poland Mahatmy Gandhiego 3 Str., 02-645 Warszawa phone: +48 22 849 84 69 fax: +48 22 646 36 72

    © WWF Poland

    ISBN: 978-83-60757-47-5

    Published as part of Kołobrzeg Fish Producers Organisation and WWF Poland project titled „Removal of Derelict Fishing Gear, Lost or Discarded by Fishermen in the Baltic Sea”

    For further information on the project, please contact: Marta Kalinowska: mkalinowska@wwf.pl

    The entity responsible for the contents of the publication is WWF Poland. The publication is available on the website: wwf.pl

    Printed on recycled paper.

    Project co-financed by European Union in frame of European Fisheries Fund ensuring investments in sustainable fishing

  • 3FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    Contents:

    1. THE PROBLEM 6 1.1. The origin of the problem – factors causing the occurrence of ghost nets in the environment 7 1.2. Dynamic development of fisheries after the Second World War 7 1.3. Improvement of the existing fishing gears and techniques 9 1.4. Development of methods of determining the position of vessels at sea 10

    2. INFORMATION ON THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF GHOST NETS ON THE ENVIRONMENT 11

    3. POSSIBLE MEASURES TO REDUCE THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF GHOST NETS ON THE ENVIRONMENT 17 3.1. Legal and political measures 18 3.2. Planning future actions 18 3.3. Activities at sea and in the ports 19

    4. RESEARCH ON THE POSSIBILITIES TO USE THE RFID TECHNOLOGY TO IDENTIFY FISHING GEARS 21 4.1. Introduction 22 4.2. Research methodology 22 4.3. Research results 30 4.4. Conclusions 32 4.5. Recommendations 32

    5. ACTIONS CARRIED OUT IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE PROJECT 34 5.1. Retrieval of ghost nets from the sea bottom using the device towed by a fishing vessel 35 5.2. Retrieval of ghost nets from ship wrecks by divers 37 5.3. Public relations activities 39

    6. PROJECT SUMMARY – CONCLUSIONS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS ACHIEVED 40 6.1. Characteristics of source data 40 6.2. The results of actions carried out by fishing vessels 41 6.3. The results of actions carried out by divers 44 6.4. Characteristics of the material transferred to the recycling facilities 47 6.5. Final conclusions 47

  • 4 REMOVAL OF DERELICT FISHING GEAR, LOST OR DISCARDED BY FISHERMEN IN THE BALTIC SEA

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  • FINAL PROJECT REPORT

  • 6 REMOVAL OF DERELICT FISHING GEAR, LOST OR DISCARDED BY FISHERMEN IN THE BALTIC SEA

    Chapter 1. The problem Derelict fishing gears are lost, abandoned or discarded gears (or fragments thereof), often referred to in the liter- ature as „ghost nets”.

    This term captures the nature of the phenomenon caused by ghost nets, since these derelict, invisible gears con- tinue to fish uncontrolled for a long time, keeping their fishing efficiency for years, causing, above all, immeasur- able loss in fish resources, as well as in populations of diving birds and marine mammals.

    On a global scale, entangling nets and traps are consid- ered to be the most common type of derelict fishing gears that contribute to marine debris1. In this respect, the Bal- tic Sea differs from other seas. Fixed gillnets as well as trawls are the main types of derelict gears. In comparison to these two types of gears, derelict traps and pots con- stitute a marginal problem in the Baltic.

    In the Baltic Sea, estimates of the amount of lost gillnets were made in respect to the Swedish fleet operating in open waters, both in the coastal areas as well as in more distant fishing grounds. The percentage of lost nets increased proportionately to the distance separating the

    1 Macfadyen, G. et al. 2009: Abandoned, lost or otherwise dis- carded fishing gear. UNEP Regional Seas Refootnoteorts and Studies, No. 185; FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, No. 523, Rome UNEP/FAO.

    fishing grounds from the coast. The loss of gears took place regularly only in fisheries targeting demersal fish such as turbot and cod. Until 1998, the amount of nets lost by the Swedish fleet was estimated at 2750–3000, which corresponds to approx. 156–165 km of total length2.

    In 2005–2008, the annual amount of cod nets lost in the Baltic by the EU vessels ranged from 5 500 to 10 000 pieces.

    The estimated amount of nets deployed on shipwrecks located in the Polish marine areas ranges from 150 to 450 tonnes3.

    The catch efficiency estimated in experiments amounted to 20% of normal efficiency in the first three months and to 6% after 27 months and was characterised by unfa- vourable size structure of captured fish.

    On the basis of present knowledge it is not possible to unequivocally state which type of the fishing gear has a higher fishing efficiency as a ghost net and therefore has a higher negative impact on Baltic resources. In general, the prevailing opinion is that gillnets pose a greater threat, however, taking into account the number of wrecks on the

    2 Tschernij V, Larsson, P.-O., 2003: Ghost fishing by lost cod gill nets in the Baltic Sea. Fisheries Research, 64 (2-3): 151-162. 3 WWF Poland 2011: Ecological effects of ghost net retrieval in the Baltic Sea. Pilot project. Final Report.

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  • 7FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    sea bottom and the available information on the amount of trawls snagged on them, it should be assumed that they are just as dangerous as fixed nets.

    In Polish marine areas, the actions undertaken so-far have resulted in the retrieval of 27 tonnes of ghost nets and the assumption that the total amount of derelict nets in these waters can reach 800 tonnes4. These results clearly indicate the need to continue the actions aimed at minimising the impact of ghost nets in the entire Baltic.

    The problem of derelict fishing gears in the Baltic (DFG), or “ghost nets” is related to marine debris, notwithstand- ing the scale: global, European or Baltic. This results from the classification adopted in relation to the litter in seas and oceans included in the UNEP-FAO report,5 an Ameri- can study devoted to tackling the problem of marine debris in the 21st century,6 as well as the European Com- mission document of October 20127.

    These three major sources of information on the ghost net phenomenon are characterised by a complex cover- age of the problem, ranging from the causes of this phe- nomenon, related to the widespread use of synthetic materials in the production of fishing gears, through description of different types of marine fisheries, which generate material debris, the most dangerous for the environment, together with the analysis of the impact of this debris on the living marine resources, which are exploited by fisheries, also including possible mitigation measures and methods of recycling of fragments of nets and other gear parts used by fishing fleets on a global scale. Due to the universal nature of these considerations and proposed practical solutions, it could be assumed that a similar approach to the problem of ghost nets in the Baltic is fully justified. The above mentioned publica- tions constitute a huge and comprehensive theoretical (references to other publications) and legal source of information on the specific problem of ghost nets.

    Reports summing up a big pilot project “Collecting ghost nets in the Baltic Sea”, carried out by WWF, published in 2011 and refer in detail to the problem of ghost nets in the Baltic.

    4 WWF Poland 2013: Collecting ghost nets in the Baltic Sea. Final report from activities carried out in 2012. 5 G. Macfadyeni in. 2009: Abandoned, lost or otherwise dis- carded fishing gear. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, No. 185; FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, No. 523, Rome UNEP/FAO. 6 National Research Council. 2008. Tackling Marine Debris in the 21st Century. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 7 COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT SWD (2012) 365 FINAL, Brussels, 31.10.2012. Overview of EU policies, legislation and initiatives related to marine litter.

    1.1. The origin of the problem – factors causing the occurrence of ghost nets in the environment

    The origin of the ghost net problem is the economic activ- ity at sea in the form of fishing activities with different fishing nets, which are made of netting with meshes.

    However, it should be noted that any loss of fishing gea