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Ethanol. Recycle Paper. Converting Waste Paper into Ethanol March 28, 2008. Outline. U.T.C. Engineering Agricultural Comparison Papernol Process Hydrolysis Fermentation Purification Equipment Sizing and Cost Full Scale Outlook. Distillation. Intro Chemical Process. Thermodynamics. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Recycle PaperConverting Waste Paper into Ethanol

    March 28, 2008


  • OutlineU.T.C. EngineeringAgricultural ComparisonPapernol ProcessHydrolysisFermentationPurificationEquipment Sizing and CostFull Scale Outlook

  • Freshman DesignHeat & Mass TransferReactor DesignDistillationProcess designUnit OperationsSenior Papernol ProjectEngineering EconomicsThermodynamicsIntro Chemical Process

  • UTC Papernol Team - 2008

  • How is Papernol Different?

  • Papernol AdvantagesConverts Waste Stream to Revenue StreamResource from Local CommunityImproves Local EconomyMinimal Transportation/Fuel InputsNo Cropland Requirement

  • Acid Hydrolysis:Dilute acid to generate glucose from celluloseFermentation:Convert Glucose into EthanolPurification:Separate Ethanol from water

    Preparation andHydrolysis





    Sulfuric Acid

  • Material BalancesPAPER10,000 lb/dayEtOH500 gal/day



    Sulfuric Acid

  • Preparation (Basis 10,000 lb paper/Day)10,000 lb paper150,000 lb H2O160,000 lb slurry*8,000 lb cellulose*Research: 7% paper water mixture 80% paper is cellulose

  • Hydrolysis (Basis 10,000 lb paper/Day)62,000 lb steam1600 lb H2SO4acid (98%)230 lb steam70% conversion150,000 lb H2O*5600 lb glucose*160,000 lb slurry2,200 lb solid waste

  • Evaporation - Fermentation (Basis 10,000 lb paper/Day)150,000 lb H2O*5600 lb glucose*62,000 lb H2O*5600 lb glucose*62,000 lb H2O*2850 lb EtOH*2850 lb CO2330,000 lb CW860 lb yeast80,000 lb steam

  • Purification (Basis 10,000 lb paper/Day)65,000 lb EtOHH2O2,800 lb EtOH62,200 lb H2O500 gal EtOH

  • Energy BalancesQIN = 49 million BTU/dayQPRODUCT = 38 million BTU/dayQADDED = 210 million BTU/dayQLOST = 49 million BTU/day



    Sulfuric Acid

  • Preparation41,000 BTU/day4.5 MM BTU/day1.5 MM BTU/dayTotal Daily Electrical Energy ~6 MM BTU

  • HydrolysisQIN=50 MM BTU/day QIN=185,000 BTU/dayQIN=13,000 BTU/dayTotal Daily Electrical Energy ~50.2 MM BTU

  • Evaporation - FermentationQOUT= 8 MM BTU/dayQIN=94 MM BTU/day

  • PurificationQIN= 66,000 BTU/dayQIN=60 MM BTU/dayQOUT= 41 MM BTU/dayQOUT= 223,000 BTU/day

  • Example of SizingEvaporator:Fxf = Lxlxf = current concentrationxl = desired concentrationL = F(xf/xl) = Liquid Exit Stream L/H2O = Volume of Evaporator

  • Equipment Size and Cost

  • Equipment Size and Cost

  • Stages of Project DevelopmentLabProof ofConcept MediumSmall DemonstrationPilotIntegrated ProcessingFull Scale UnitOrange Grove CenterLab Scale Proof of ConceptCurrently in Progress at UTCAvailable Budget: $500Restricted Testing

    Medium Scale: 2008-2009Small Demonstration Budget: $150,000Tested Using UTC ENGR Labs

    Pilot Scale: 2009-2010Integrated ProcessingUtilize TVA/UTC Chickamauga SiteEstimated Budget: $1,000,000

    Orange Grove:2010-2011Full Unit Skid-Mounted ModularEstimated budget: $3,000,000

  • Potential Orange Grove SiteProcess 10,000 lb Paper =500 gal of Ethanol per day=> Three Tractor Trailers

  • Current Work Toward our Preliminary Design:

    EconomicsEnvironmental Aspects (CO2 foot print)Utility Costs

  • Papernol OutlookCannot resolve the US energy dilemma Orange Grove = 500 gal/day max.Adds value to Orange GroveCompetitive with Corn & SwitchgrassA Renewable Ethanol Source

  • Thank You For Visiting Us !

    What have we forgotten?

    Self explanatory I would say.Self explanatory I would say.

    Self explanatory I would say.

    Self explanatory I would say.

    Self explanatory I would say.

    Really, I would just read this. Be sure to mention that the waste stream is referring to paper that typically isnt recycled such as those that are very glossy (ie they have a lot of clay in them)There are three main phases in the Papernol process. Preparation and Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Purification. Preparation is primarily taking the waste paper, shredding it, and mixing it with water. This water/paper mixture is then heated and sent to the hydrolysis vessel where dilute sulfuric acid and pressure are added to convert the cellulose in the paper to the fermentable sugar glucose. There is a lot of water in this solution (only 7% of the solution is paper before being sent to hydrolysis), and some of it needs to be removed before being sent to fermentation. So, the solution leaves the hydrolysis vessel and goes to an evaporator where approximately 60% of the water is removed. This condensed sugar solution is sent to the fermentation vessel where yeast will be introduced and fermentation will take place. Once Fermentation is finished (about 3 days) the yeast is filtered out and the ethanol water solution is sent to the distillation column where the product is purified. After leaving the distillation column, the primarily ethanol solution is sent to a molecular sieve where even more water is removed from the solution. The ethanol that comes from the sieve is ready to be sold. After that explanation of the overall process, were going to look at the material and energy balances, starting with the material balance.Here you can see the paper shredder and the mixer. The basis for all our calculations are being able to process 10,000lb of paper per day. According to our research the paper solution should only be about 7% paper by mass, which is why there is so much water needed to be added. We have estimated that 80% of the paper we will be using will be made of cellulose. This slurry is heated and sent to the hydrolysis tank where acid is added and the conversion from cellulose to glucose takes place. We have assumed that 70% of the cellulose will be converted to glucose, which gives us a value of about 5600 lb of fermentable glucose.For ideal fermentation we want to have a more condensed solution that goes to the fermenter, so we remove approximately 60% of the water through the use of an evaporator. This condensed solution needs to be cooled from about 212F to 90F before being sent to fermentation and this is accomplished through use of a heat exchanger. Glucuse is on a 1 to 2 molar ratio to the products of fermentatioan, CO2 and EtOH. Currently we are working on a process to collect, store, and resell the CO2 given off. The EtOH produced from Fermentation is sent to the distillation column after the yeast has been filtered. (I would ask Josh to explain how he came up with the yeast requirement).The ethanol solution coming into the distillation column is purified to the azeotropic point, about 88 mole percent. This distillate is then further purified by use of a molecular sieve. All water removed from the ethanol solution via the column and the sieve will be reused throughout the process wherever possible.

    Next comes the energy balance. As of right now, before any optimization of the equipment is done, we show a net loss of energy from the system. We are looking at ways to reduce the energy added to the system to make this process more viable. The energy associated with preparation is electrical energy and comes to about 6 million BTU/dayThe primary source of energy input in hydrolysis is the steam needed to heat the water/paper mixture and secondary energy users are the slurry pump and the acid neutralizer (do we want to mention this here since we havent done so previously?)Evaporation needs quite a bit of energy input as steam to help reduce the quantity of solution between hydrolysis and fermentation and comes to about 94 million BTU/day. Cooling water will be used to remove about 8 million Btus/day so that the proper temperature solution enters the fermentation tank.Most of the energy cost associated with the distillation column will be required to heat the reboiler. (honestly, Im not sure what to say here)