Reading and dyslexia

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Reading and dyslexia. Jason D. Zevin, PhD Assistant Professor of Psychology in Psychiatry jdz2001@med.cornell.edu. What is reading? What can go wrong with reading? What do we know about the brain basis of reading?. What is reading? What can go wrong with reading? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Reading and dyslexiaJason D. Zevin, PhDAssistant Professor of Psychology in Psychiatryjdz2001@med.cornell.edu

  • What is reading?

    What can go wrong with reading?

    What do we know about the brain basis of reading?

  • What is reading?

    What can go wrong with reading?

    What do we know about the brain basis of reading?

  • Lets read some words out loud together. Just say them out loud as they come up on the screen

  • HINT

  • MINT

  • PINT

  • HORS DOEUVRES

  • What happened there?

    There are (at least) two ways to read a word.

    - You can figure out how its pronounced based on rules.

    - You can remember how its pronounced because youve learned it before.

  • Coltheart et al., 2001, Psych ReviewPINTP as in PITI as in ITN as in NAPT as in TIEis pronounced with a long IA historically important model is based on more or less this intuition

  • English is quirky

  • What is reading?

    What can go wrong with reading?

    What do we know about the brain basis of reading?

  • Marshall & Newcombe, 1973PHASE -> FACEREAPPLY -> REPLYDEVOUR -> DAVER

    (but also):GAUGE -> JUGGOAL -> GOLDLOGIC -> LUGUS

  • SICK -> ILLLARGE -> BIGBERRY -> GRAPES

    (but also):SYMPATHY -> ORCHESTRARESIGN -> CROWNFREQUENT -> um, something to do with trains, wagon trainSLOW (?!)

  • Summary of a large number of cases by Crisp & Lambon Ralph, 2006

  • An alternative perspective

  • Consider:Phonological dyslexics typically have more general phonological problems.

  • Consider:Woollams et al., 2010 (Psych Review)There is a strong association between exception word reading and general semantic abilities.

  • What is reading?

    What can go wrong with reading?

    What do we know about the brain basis of reading?

  • Turkeltaub et al., 2002, meta-analysis of 11 studies

  • Richlan et al., 2009, Human Brain Mapping (meta-analysis of 17 studies of developmental dyslexia)

  • Some take-away pointsReading is complicated.* The brain is complicated.So its difficult to reverse-engineer cognitive processes from complex ramifications of brain lesions.

    Luckily, we have brain imaging. (So we can see that really an awful lot of the brain is involved in reading.)

    The puzzle is trying to fit our cognitive models (which work pretty well) together with what we know about the brain.*So far weve mainly been talking about single words!!

  • Note also in text bias toward producing higher frequency words when presented with low-frequency words*Next: Woollams et al. data on relationship b/w sem impairment and surface

    Data on association between phonological problems and nonword reading

    Development

    The brain (Pugh story)

    Other languages (?)

    Take homes: Reading is complicated the brain is complicated Difficult to reverse-engineer cognitive processes from complex ramifications of brain lesions sometimes its better to keep it simple but that means thinking about development, learning, etc. rather than trying to cover all the interesting cases we still have no idea what was going on with the patient who saw sympathy and said orchestra.*