Reading and dyslexia in deaf children

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Academic excellence for business and the professions Reading and dyslexia in deaf children Dr Rosalind Herman City University London
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Reading and dyslexia in deaf children. Dr Rosalind Herman City University London. Childhood deafness. 44,000 4 children in the UK have a permanent hearing loss A quarter have a severe-profound level of loss that significantly impacts access to spoken language - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Reading and dyslexia in deaf childrenDr Rosalind Herman

City University London

Academic excellence for business and the professionsChildhood deafness44,0004 children in the UK have a permanent hearing lossA quarter have a severe-profound level of loss that significantly impacts access to spoken languageOf these, approximately two thirds use spoken language

4CRIDE 2012loss in the UK (www.actiononhearingloss)

2Recent developments

Reading develops more slowly Reading delay increases with age5,6Are all deaf readers dyslexic? No, good deaf readers do exist7,8BUT some may be dyslexic

Reading and deaf children5Conrad 1979, 6Wauters et al. 2006, 7Marschark et al. 2007, 8Gravenstede & Roy 2009Reading in deaf and hearing children Hearing children with reading difficulties are likely to be diagnosed as dyslexic Deaf childrens difficulties are attributed solely to their sensory loss Given the genetic basis of dyslexia2, might some deaf children also be dyslexic?

1Allen, 1986; Conrad, 1979; Kyle & Harris, 2010; 2011; Wauters, van Bon & Tellings, 2006; 2Pennington & Olson, 20055Evidence reading develops in same way as hearing childrenFor both, phonological skills are important Hearing children rely on listeningDeaf children additionally use lip-reading (speechreading)9

Why start with oral deaf children?9Kyle & Harris 2010; 2011Identification of dyslexia in deaf readers: the challengesNo tests for deaf childrenCan we use tests developed for hearing children?

No tests of reading or dyslexiaPhonological nb for deaf includes speechreadingOur clinical experience some deaf people do have greater difficulty than others7Phase 1: Oral deaf children

Aims:Investigate the suitability of literacy and dyslexia-sensitive tests for deaf children Collect data from a representative sample of oral deaf childrenCompare deaf readers to hearing children with and without dyslexiaFind out if some deaf children have dyslexiaPhase 2: Signing deaf childrenParticipants in Phase 1

79 severely-profoundly children deaf from birth

Year 6 (10-11years), primary education in English

61% cochlear implants, 39% digital hearing aids: no difference in reading and phonological skills so combined into one group

Reference group of 20 hearing dyslexic children


LiteracyPhonological skillsVocabularyNon-verbalSpeech readingSpeech intelligibilityNamingspeedQuestionnair to parents

Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test Tests an ability to name objects, actions and concepts. The childs expressive vocabulary.

Dyslexia Portfolio (Turner) selected tests from this: digit span and non-word reading. Recall of digits being a classic test of short term auditory memory. Non-word reading useful to assess the childs phonological representations and application of rules.

Phonological Assessment Battery selected tests from this: naming speed, fluency test, spoonerisms. Naming Speed children are required to name randomly presented items. This is a test of their access to phonology. Spoonerisms Children are a) required to manipulate phonemes. Examples include cat with a /s/ givessat and if they complete this test move on to two word combinations where the new words do not necessarily make sense: King John gives Jing Kon. Fluency test Children are given a topic such as words beginning with the sound /k/ and are asked to name as many as they can in 30 seconds. This assesses the childrens phonological processing abilities. Phoneme Deletion

We suspected that not all children would be able to complete these tasks.

York Assessment of Reading for Comprehension we will be using the passage reading section to assess typical reading errors in connected reading. Comprehension questions are then asked for each passage, assuming the child has not made a high number of errors when reading. To determine the passage level to begin with, children will be assessed using the YARCs single word reading test. A further letter sound knowledge test will be administered. This is an test of alphabetic and letter sound knowledge.

British Ability Scales II A measure of cognitive functioning so that we can obtain a non verbal IQ score. For this, we will be using Recall of Designs where children are shown a geometric shape and then required to reproduce this on a sheet of squared paper. Matrices where children are shown a grid of 5 shapes with space for a sixth and are required to choose which shape would best fit on the grid and Pattern Construction where children are given blocks and required to make a pattern as represented on a picture. Also from the BAS II single word spelling test and single word reading test

Test battery

11Literacy Single words, nonword reading, reading comprehension, spellingPhonological tasks Digit span Fluency: rhyme, alliteration Phoneme deletion (rein/deer) Spoonerism (fun with b; riding boot) Naming speedNon verbal IQExpressive vocabularySpeechreading and speech intelligibilityFamiliar sequences

11Parent and teacher questionnaires12

Family history of speech/language, hearing, reading problemsChilds hearing background, type of amplification (hearing aid/cochlear implant), any additional difficultiesParental education, ethnicitySchool and home communication methodMethods used for teaching readingCould the children do the tests?

Deaf-friendly test administration: listening conditionsQuiet and distraction free test environment, important for hearing aid/cochlear implant usersAmplification fully functional prior to assessment


Optimal seating and lightingAccess to clear speech patterns to support speechreading


Deaf-friendly test administration: visual accessSigning/gesture/writing used as needed to explain tasksAdditional practice items offered where neededSensitivity to deaf childrens speech patterns in scoring

Note: all tests administered using spoken language only in Phase 1

16Tester skills

Are deaf children with cochlear implants better readers? 61% with implants 39% with hearing aids No differences between groups

Image of implantI agree lets keep this here for now and come back at the end to the age related finding17Differences among children with cochlear implantsSmall group of children implanted 18mths: no below average scoresChildren implanted 2yrs: mixed picture, good and poor readers

19Comparing deaf participants with hearing test norms

Deaf children had below average scores (