Radio and Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Radio and Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG)...
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Radio and Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Radio and Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Alexandre VASSILIEV ITU, Radiocommunication Bureau (BR) Radiocommunication Study Group Counsellor BR Focal Point on Radiocommunications and Climate Change ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 Slide 2 2 Radio and Minimizing GHG Emissions Main directions/activities: Minimizing GHG emissions from radio equipment/systems - The use of advanced technologies, such as modern chips, coding and compression technic, digital modulation allowed significantly reduce power consumption per unit for almost all radio applications. The use of radio-based devices/systems for reduction in other sectors - Wireless devices, such as mobile phones are currently the most common way of communications, which significantly reduce commuting and travelling. Radio, in many cases, is the most economically valuable solution of the last mile problem. Dematerialization through the use of radio equipment/systems The use of radio technologies, for example satellite systems, paves the way for Internet access from remote areas and allows to apply paperless working methods, switch from physical distribution DVDs and CDs to online delivery. Global Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Emissions - Radio-based devices called remote sensors are the main tool for the global monitoring of GHG emissions. Slide 3 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 3 Radio-based Devices and CO 2 Emissions It seems that radio-based devices are the most used telecommunication devices. According to the recent statistics there are currently in use: more than 4 billions mobile phones; ~ 2.5 billions radios; ~1.5 billions TV sets; plus many set-top boxes, Wi-Fi cards, powerful broadcasting transmitters, etc. Source: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2009/index.html and http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/med_tel-media-televisionshttp://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2009/index.html http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/med_tel-media-televisions Slide 4 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 4 2-2.5 % ICT global CO 2 emissions from ICTs Is everything included? Emissions from most radio devices (TV sets, broadcasting transmitters, etc.) except mobile phones are not taken into account. Are they significant? Lets try calculate Source: Kumar, Rakesh and Mieritz, Lars (2007) Conceptualizing Green IT and data centrepower and cooling issues The ICT Sector itself (excluding the broadcasting sector) contributes between 2-2.5 per cent of GHG. Slide 5 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 5 TV and Set Top Box Energy Consumption ApplianceUsagePer use Cost per year kg CO2 per year Primary TV CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) 34-37 inch On Power 6.5 hours a day198.5 W47.09203 Standby 17.5 hours a day4.2 W2.6812 Primary TV LCD 34- 37 inch On Power 6.5 hours a day211.1 W50.08215 Standby 17.5 hours a day1.8 W1.155 Primary TV - Plasma 34-37 inch On Power 6.5 hours a day263.9 W62.61269 Standby 17.5 hours a day3.6 W2.3010 Primary TV Rear projection 34-37 inch On Power 6.5 hours a day192.3 W45.62196 Standby 17.5 hours a day2.0 W1.285 Digital TV Adapter, Terrestrial On Power 6.5 hours a day7.1W1.687 Standby 17.5 hours a day6.4 W4.0918 Digital TV Adapter, Terrestrial Recorder On Power 6.5 hours a day17.6 W4.1818 Standby 17.5 hours a day11.3 W7.2231 http://www.carbonfootprint.com/energyconsumption.html Slide 6 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 6 Optimistic estimation could be done using the following values: TV set power consumption: 0.21 kW; On power usage: 6.5 hours a day (based on UK statistics see the previous slide). Then power average: P=0.211 500 000 0006.5/24=85 312 500 kW Using a coefficient 0.4 kG per 1 kW/hour from a draft Deliverable 1 and calculating for 365 days and 24 hours: 85 312 500365240.4=298935000000 Kg CO 2 298.9 million tonnes carbon dioxide! Almost the same as data centres CO 2 footprint 1 ! What about footpring of set-top boxes, radios, DVDs, VCRs, powerful transmitters??? 1 Source: http://www.theclimategroup.org/assets/resources/publications/Smart2020Report.pdf http://www.theclimategroup.org/assets/resources/publications/Smart2020Report.pdf TV Sets Carbon Dioxide Emissions Slide 7 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 7 Minimizing GHG Emissions by Introducing New Radio Technologies An impressive example in this area is a digital broadcasting Plan GE06 developed by Regional Radiocommunication Conference 2006 for 120 countries. GE06 Plan envisages: reduction (by almost 10 times) in transmitter power due to the use of digital modulation. There are hundreds of thousands of transmitters around the world with power of up to 100-150 kW each. The resulting energy saving is very significant; possible reduction number of transmitters due to the transmitting up to 10 TV programmes in one 8 MHz channel instead of 1 TV programme per channel. GE06 Plan is based on ITU-R and ITU-T standards (ITU-R and ITU-T Recommendations). Slide 8 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 8 Minimizing GHG Emissions Standardization Regulations (samples) IEC 62087 standard - the world's International standard for measuring the energy efficiency of the latest generation of plasma and LCD televisions and other devices such as cable set-top boxes; European Commission submitted to EU Parliament a report on mobilising Information and Communication Technologies to facilitate the transition to an energy-efficient, low-carbon economy expecting to reap from EU legislation on smart technologies including radio technologies to tackle climate change (see at: http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/sustainable_growt h/docs/com_2009_111/com2009-111-en.pdf ). http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/sustainable_growt h/docs/com_2009_111/com2009-111-en.pdf Slide 9 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 9 Minimizing TV CO 2 Emissions - Labeling Labeling environment-friendly TVs is another way of minimizing emissions. Some samples: Energy Star programme: based on IEC 62087 standard; sets thresholds that would permit about 25% of the TVs on the market to receive the Energy Star label. LCD TV Association Green TV programme: based on IEC 62087 standard; sets the energy consumption thresholds of TV sets, regardless of technology; requires incorporation of advanced features such as ambient light sensors and boosting efficiency; takes account number of recyclable parts. Slide 10 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 10 Reduction of GHG Emissions by Mobile Radiocommunications Main methods: Sustainable energy use based on: use of radio standby mode power consumption can be reduced up to 40% under low traffic and by 10-20% on overall; optimization of remote radio units by moving RF converters and power amplifiers from the base to top of the tower reduction up to 30%; use of advanced air conditioners and/or passive cooling systems 10-15%, etc. Use of green energy solar panels, wind turbines, etc. These measures in combination with optimal network design and smart antennas will allow to reduce cellular radiocommunication network CO 2 footprint by ~ 50%. Slide 11 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 11 ITU-R Activities in Minimizing Power Consumption The World Radiocommunication Conferences (WRCs) facilitate the use of less power hungry radio technologies by incorporating the most efficient ones in the Radio Regulations international treaty status standard. WRCs also abolish the use of outdated radio-based applications and systems on international level. ITU-R Study Groups carries out analyses and approve ITU-R Recommendation allowing the use of the most environment-friendly methods, applications and systems. Slide 12 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 12 Dematerialization and Radio In terms of technologies for reducing carbon emission, the use of radiocommunications as a part of telecommunication infrastructure provides means for: reducing business travels by virtual presence (teleconferences) and working at home using remote access tools; online publications of documents; use Internet and specifically IPTV instead of DVDs/CDs; using e-commerce to reduce shopping trips; online billing (to save on paper bills), etc. However, radio, in certain extend, is the next step in dematerialization it dematerializes wires. Slide 13 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 13 ITU-R and Dematerialization and Remote Wireless Collaboration The work of ITU-R Study Groups 4, 5 and 6, on multimedia, is of particular importance, notably in terms of standards for remote wireless collaboration, such as the BO, M, S Series of ITU-R Recommendations on wireless audiovisual and multimedia systems, including video-conferencing, which provides means for people to collaborate/work at a distance without needing to travel (ITU-Ts also develops Recommendations on multimedia).456BOMS Slide 14 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 14 Climate Neutral ITU Radiocommunication Sector Role ITU-R and its predecessor IFRB were pioneers in application of electronic methods since 80-th. Few examples: voluminous ITU-R service publications, distributed to all ITU-R Member States on weekly bases, are published on DVD and Internet, that significantly reduced the amount of paper (1 space networks data up to 1000 pages); WRCs - the biggest ITU forums, are switching to paperless methods of work and reduced number of paper copies. WRC-07, attended by more than 2800 participants, saved several millions pages of paper; Publication of maritime Service Publications in electronic form from 2011 (Res. 335 (WRC-07)) will save about 300 tons of paper per year and reduce the carbon emissions from transporting paper copies; All frequency assignment data (several millions) are available through electronic means. Slide 15 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 15 Radio and Environment Information Most of people think that the radio frequencies are used for radiocommunications. However, radio emissions are also used for obtaining information about the environment with which they have been in contact. Environmental information, including climate monitoring data, is currently being obtained by special measuring instruments called remote sensors. Remote sensors (passive and active) are radio devices, that derive environmental information by analyzing the characteristics of received radio waves. Space-based remote sensors are the only tools that provide environmental data on a long term, repetitive and global scale. Slide 16 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 16 Altimeters identify a change of the sea level with precision of 2 to 3 cm. Modern tools measure the sea surface temperature with an accuracy of up to 0.2 C. CO2 global map July 2008 - in parts per million by volume. Remote Sensing for Climate and CO 2 Monitoring Slide 17 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 17 Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite "IBUKI (GOSAT) on January 23, 2009. The data are acquired by the onboard sensor. Source: http://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/en/imgdata/topics/2009/tp090319.htmlhttp://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/en/imgdata/topics/2009/tp090319.html Current ground observation points: ~ 260 (on the left) GOSAT's observation points: 56000 Slide 18 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 18 ITU-R and Environment Monitoring As the steward of the global framework for spectrum, ITU-R: through World Radiocommunication Conferences (WRC) allocates the radio-frequency spectrum; treaty status Radio Regulations 4 volumes; voluntary standards (ITU-R Recommendations particularly in ITU-R Study Group 7 (Science services)); to foster the operation without interference of radio- based applications and radiocommunication systems used for environment monitoring, including greenhouse gases monitoring, weather forecasting, disaster prediction, detection and mitigation of negative effect of disasters. through World Radiocommunication Conferences (WRC) allocates the radio-frequency spectrum; carries out studies and develops radiocommunication standards: Slide 19 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 19 ITU-R Recent Decisions and Publication Related to Monitoring -WRC-07 and Radiocommunication Assembly (RA-07) adopted a number of Resolutions on studies related to remote-sensing, which is a vital component in the science of climate change.WRC-07Radiocommunication Assembly (RA-07) -ITU-R Recommendations on radiocommunication systems and radio-based applications operating in Earth-exploration satellite, meteorological-aids and meteorological satellite services, today provide most of data for the Global Observing System (GOS) and Global Climate Observing System (GCOS).ITU-R Recommendations -ITU-R Study Group 7 (Science services) in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization produced WMO and ITU Handbook on Use of Radio spectrum for meteorology: weather, water and climate monitoring and prediction providing information on development and a proper use radiocommunication systems and radio-based technologies for environment observation, climate control, weather forecasting and natural and man-made disaster prediction, detection and mitigation. It is the first handbook in the ITU history signed by the Secretary-Generals of two UN Agencies.ITU-R Study Group 7 (Science services) Handbook on Use of Radio spectrum for meteorology: weather, water and climate monitoring and prediction Slide 20 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 20 Slide 21 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 21 Supplementary Slides/ Information on ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) Activities/Standards Slide 22 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 22 SG 1:Spectrum management SG 3:Radiowave propagation SG 4:Satellite services SG 5:Terrestrial services SG 6:Broadcasting service SG 7:Science services >900 Recommendations Standards in areas of spectrum management and radio technology Result of consensus from meetings of world-wide experts Some referred to in RR Used by spectrum planners and system designers http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/go/rsg In addition: CCV: Coordination Committee for Vocabulary CPM: Conference Preparatory Meeting SC: Special Committee on regulatory and procedural matters Supported by Counsellors and Assistants in Study Group Department of BR Radiocommunication Study Groups Res. ITU-R 4-5 of Radiocommunication Assembly 2007: established 6 ITU-R Study Groups: Slide 23 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 23 Application of ITU-R Standards The best samples: Radio Regulations applied by all countries around the World for international spectrum management; ITU-R Regional Agreements applied by all country parties of a given agreement (some countries are parties of several Agreements/Plans); ITU-R M-Series Rec. e.g. for land mobile service: there are currently > 4 billions customers (more than 50% people on the Earth) using mobile phones built in accordance with ITU-R Rec.; ITU-R BT&BR-Series Rec. used for broadcasting (TV and sound). There are more than 1.5 billions TV sets based on ITU-R standards; ITU-R standards for the use of radiocommunication services/systems for emergency situations; etc.. Slide 24 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 24 BR International Frequency Information Circular (IFIC) terrestrial and space services Space Radiocommunication Stations on DVD-ROM Radio Regulations electronic file (WinWord, PDF) CD-ROM paper Service documents ITU-R Recommendations online subscriptions CD-ROM paper Handbooks, etc. http://www.itu.int/publications ITU-R Publications Slide 25 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 25 ITU-R Recommendation series BO:Satellite delivery BR:Recording for production, archival and play-out; film for television BS:Broadcasting service (sound) BT:Broadcasting service (television) F:Fixed service M:Mobile, radiodetermination, amateur and related satellite services P: Radiowave propagation RA:Radio astronomy RS: Remote sensing systems S: Fixed-satellite service SA: Space applications and meteorology SF: Frequency sharing and coordination between fixed-satellite and fixed service systems SM: Spectrum management SNG:Satellite news gathering TF: Time signals and frequency standards emissions V: Vocabulary and related subjects Slide 26 ITU Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change Quito, Ecuador, 8-10 July 2009 26 Some ITU-R Web Pages Main ITU-R Web page: http://www.itu.int/ITU-Rhttp://www.itu.int/ITU-R Terrestrial Services: http://www.itu.int/ITU- R/terrestrialhttp://www.itu.int/ITU- R/terrestrial Space Services: http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/spacehttp://www.itu.int/ITU-R/space Study Groups: http://www.itu.int/ITU- R/index.asp?category=study- groups&rlink=rsg&lang=en http://www.itu.int/ITU- R/index.asp?category=study- groups&rlink=rsg&lang=en ITU-R Publications: http://www.itu.int/publications/sector.aspx?secto r=1&lang=en http://www.itu.int/publications/sector.aspx?secto r=1&lang=en