Quran ‘Search for a Concept’ Tool and Website

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The Quran is undoubtedly an important book, covering many themes andconcepts. To help readers of the Quran to find and understand these concepts,this project developed a bilingual (English/Arabic) comprehensive search tool forthe Holy Quran that significantly enhances recall and precision when searchingfor concrete concepts as well as for abstract concepts. As most of the availabletools on the web use one English translation in the search process, the averagerecall and precision values for these tools are 54% for recall and 48% forprecision whereas this tool proves 87% recall value and 58% for precision.Besides, it is the only tool that offers users a comprehensive hierarchicalclassification of Quran abstract topics or themes using expert knowledgeimported from ‘Mushaf Al Tajweed’ ontology of the Quran. The index of topicscovers nearly 1100 concepts in the Quran. The concepts in this index have anaggregation relationship; the hierarchy of concepts is non-reflexive, nonsymmetric,and transitive.

Transcript of Quran ‘Search for a Concept’ Tool and Website

Quran Search for a Concept Tool and Website Noorhan Hassan Abbas Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of Master of Science by Research The University of Leeds School of Computing June, 2009 The candidate confirms that the work submitted is her own and that appropriate credit has been given where reference has been made to the work of others. ii Acknowledgements ;=-- ;~ ' - ' - ' ~- ' - - Q - - _ ~ ) 39 ( , - ; ~ - ~ ) 40 ( Chapter An-Najm (The Star) YUSEFALI: And that man shall have nothing but what he strives for-And that his striving shall soon be seen- Developing a tool for the Holy Quran that helps people better understand the topics and the themes of this book is one of the best things I have achieved in my life. It was the main source of pleasure and enthusiasm for nearly eighteen months. I have tried hard to accomplish this task in the best possible way. May God accept this work from me. First of all I would like to thank my lovely husband for his continual and kind support. His belief that I can do the job always inspired me to work harder. I would not have been able to carry on without his love and encouragement. I am certainly very lucky to have him in my life! Thank you Ashraf very much for all that you have done for me. My parents, mum and dad, I love you so much. Your phone calls were always very supportive, important and warm. I am very grateful to you for all that you have done for me. I would not have been the person I am today without having such great parents. God bless you. Dr. Eric Atwell, my supervisor, words can not express how much I am grateful to you not only for being helpful and professional but also for your understanding, kindness and support. Our work meetings were always something that I would look forward to and enjoy. I have learnt so much from you. Thank you for helping me always and for being there whenever I needed you. iii I would also like to thank my colleague Majdi Sawalha for his help. You helped me a lot and I am very grateful to you. Many thanks to Dr. Adel El Sayed for all his time, effort and patience with me. Without your help and support, I wouldnt have started this masters program in the first place. You have helped me a lot and I am very grateful to you. I would also like to thank his lovely wife, Amany, for being there for me whenever I needed her. Dr. Hoda Hosny and Dr. Mohy Mahmoud, my lecturers in the American University in Cairo, thank you very much for all your kind support since I was an undergraduate student up till now. I owe you a lot. Thank you again! iv Abstract The Quran is undoubtedly an important book, covering many themes and concepts. To help readers of the Quran to find and understand these concepts, this project developed a bilingual (English/Arabic) comprehensive search tool for the Holy Quran that significantly enhances recall and precision when searching for concrete concepts as well as for abstract concepts. As most of the available tools on the web use one English translation in the search process, the average recall and precision values for these tools are 54% for recall and 48% for precision whereas this tool proves 87% recall value and 58% for precision. Besides, it is the only tool that offers users a comprehensive hierarchical classification of Quran abstract topics or themes using expert knowledge imported from Mushaf Al Tajweed ontology of the Quran. The index of topics covers nearly 1100 concepts in the Quran. The concepts in this index have an aggregation relationship; the hierarchy of concepts is non-reflexive, non-symmetric, and transitive. Version 1 (V1) of the tool discussed in this thesis consists of two modules: the keyword search module that searches for concrete concepts and a comprehensive index of topics module that covers all the abstract concepts. The keyword search tool extends keywords to synonyms and uses eight parallel English translations of the Quran that have been stemmed and tokenized as well as the original Arabic. This proves to enhance the results of the search significantly. Also, extending the search process to look for lemmas and morphemes rather than just the keyword increases the accuracy of the search. The abstract concepts module is a list of all the themes covered in the Quran corpus which consists of fifteen main concepts that subdivide into sub-concepts and sub-sub concepts covering all the themes of the Quran. This tool was published on the WWW (version 2 or V2) using Google Appengine SDK and server, in addition to the Yahoo! User Interface Library. Another web tool (version 3 or V3) for the Quran concepts was developed which enables users to search for concepts (concrete and/or abstract) using the powerful google search engine. v Contents Acknowledgements.................................................................................................... ii Abstract..................................................................................................................... iv Contents ..................................................................................................................... v Figures........................................................................................................................ x Chapter 1: Introduction ........................................................................................... 2 1.1. An Overview of the Quran........................................................................ 2 1.2. An Overview of the Arabic Language......................................................... 2 1.2.1. Morphological Analysis Systems Developed for the Arabic Language .......................................................................................... 3 1.3. Understanding the Concepts of the Quran ................................................. 4 1.3.1. Defining the meaning of a Concept.............................................. 4 1.3.2. Concepts/Themes of the Quran...................................................... 4 1.3.2.1. Concrete Concepts ............................................................. 5 1.3.2.2. Abstract Concepts ............................................................... 6 1.3.2.2.1. The Need for Expert Knowledge6 1.3.2.2.2. Existing (Expert) Theme Classifications for the Quran..7 1.3.2.2.3. Developing a Conceptual Ontology Using OWL/ Protg.8 1.3.2.2.3.1. OWL/Protg as an Ontology Tool............................. 8 1.4. Summary ................................................................................................... 10 1.5. Goals ....................................................................................................... 10 Chapter 2: Literatature Review............................................................................. 12 2.1. Computational Research Performed on the Quran.................................... 12 2.1.1. Morphological Analysis and Annotation of the Quran ................. 12 2.1.2. Understanding the Thematic Structure of the Quran .................... 13 2.1.3. Developing a Chatbot for the Quran ............................................. 14 2.1.4. A Statistical Classifier for the Quran (two chapters only) ............ 14 2.1.5. Quran Search Tools Available on the Web.................................. 14 2.1.5.1. The Search Truth tool....................................................... 15 2.1.5.2. The Guided Ways tool...................................................... 16 vi 2.1.5.3. The IslamiCity tool............................................................ 16 2.1.5.4. The MSA tool.................................................................... 19 2.1.5.5.The Quran Iman tool .......................................................... 19 2.1.6. Summary Key Ideas from Quran Search Tools.......................... 20 2.2. Computational Research Performed on Other Religious Books............... 21 2.2.1. Latent Semantic Analysis of Religious Text................................ 21 2.2.2. The Bible....................................................................................... 22 2.2.2.1. Evaluation of the Bible as a Resource for Cross-Language Information Retrieval............................................ 22 2.2.2.2. A Project to Annotate the Bible Text Creating an Aligned Multilingual Bible Corpus....................................... 23 2.2.2.3. A System for Automatic Segmentation, Annotation and Image Retrieval for the Bible ......................................... 23 2.2.3. The Greek New Testament............................................................ 24 2.2.3.1. A Computational Model for Text Reuse for the Greek New Testament........................................................... 24 2.2.3.2. A Morphological Analysis System for the Greek New Testament...................................................................... 24 2.2.4. Search Tools for the Bible and the New Testament.............. 25 2.2.4.1 Bible Gateway.com Search Tool ..................................... 25 2.2.4.2. CrossWalk.com Search Tool .......................................... 26 2.2.4.3. Blue Letter Bible Search Tool ....................................... 28 2.2.4.4. Olive Tree Search Tool.................................................. 30 2.2.4.5. The Bible Search Tool................................................... 30 2.2.5. Summary Key Ideas from other Search Tools............................ 31 Chapter 3: (V1): Qurany Search for a Concept Tool Design.......................... 34 3.1.The Keyword Search Module..