Pump & pump piping presentation

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PUMPS&PUMP PIPING By,Sandeep MoreAssociate EngineerPiping DepartmentDate 4thDec 2006Contents Contents Pump Pump -- Introduction to Pumps Introduction to Pumps-- (lassiication o Pump (lassiication o Pump-- Industrv (odes & Standards Industrv (odes & Standards-- Selection (riteria or Pumps Selection (riteria or Pumps-- NPSl & (aitation NPSl & (aitation-- Deinitions Deinitions Pump Piping Pump Piping Suction piping or horizontal pumps Suction piping or horizontal pumps Discharge piping or horizontal pumps Discharge piping or horizontal pumps Arrangements o piping or pump handling hot suctions. Arrangements o piping or pump handling hot suctions. Side suction & side discharge pump Side suction & side discharge pump Vertical In line pumps Vertical In line pumps Vertical pump \et \ell pump, Vertical pump \et \ell pump, Vertical Barrel tvpe or (ane pump Vertical Barrel tvpe or (ane pump Multi Serice pump Multi Serice pump Reciprocating pump Piping Reciprocating pump Piping Metering Pump Metering Pump Pumps in the 1ankage Area Pumps in the 1ankage Area Auxiliarv pump piping arrangement Auxiliarv pump piping arrangement Pipe ent & drain Svstem Pipe ent & drain Svstem Pump Location & Arrangement Pump Location & Arrangement Pump Surrounding Support Pump Surrounding Supportntoduction 1o Pump : ntoduction 1o Pump :Pump is a mechanical deice used to add kinetic and potential energv to a liquid or the purpose o moing it rom one point to another. 1his energv will cause the liquid to do work such as low through a pipe or rise to a higher leel and Pump gies pressure to luid passing through it and discharges the luid to the outside.Deinition :Pumps are classiied on the basis o :- 1he applications thev sere. 1he liquids thev handle. Orientation & (onstruction No. o stages. No. o casings. 1vpe o couplings Rigid . llexible,]) Dyvavic2) Di.ptacevevt Classification Of Pump :namic Pumps :In which energv is continuouslv added to increase the luid elocities within the machine to alues greater than those occurring at the discharge such that subsequent elocitv reduction within or bevond the pump produces a pressure increaseisplacement Pump :In which energv is periodicallv added bv application o orce to one or more moable boundaries o anv desired number o enclosed. luid-containing olumes. resulting in a direct increase in pressure up to the alue required to moe the luid through ales or ports into the discharge line 1, (lassiication bv suction tvpe : - Single suction tvpe - Double suction tvpe or big olume pump,2, (lassiication bv the pump installation method :- Vertical pump tvpe - lorizontal pump tvpeOther Classification :Classification b structure and operation method :Type Classification by structureClassification by operation metbod $pecificslositi\edisplacementpump leciprocating pump- liston pump- llunger pump- Diapbragm pumpTbis type of pump sucks in fluid tbrougb reciprocating mo\ement of piston or plunger. and discbarges fluid by pressing witb required amount of pressure. lt is used wben bigb pressure is required e\en tbougb tbe amount of discbarge is small.lotarypump - Gear pump- $crew pump - \ane pumpTbis type of pump sucks in fluid tbrougb tbe rotation mo\ement of rotor. and bas tbe ad\antage of little pulsation due to tbe special cbaracteristics in operation.inetic pumpCentrifugal pump- ladial flow- \olute pump- Mixed flowpump- Axial flow pumpTbis type of pump transfers energy to fluid tbrougb centrifugal force by impeller rotation or tbrougb tbe cbanges of size and direction of section area of passage. and con\erts \elocity energy pressure energy in \olute cbamber or diffuser. $pecial pump- `et pump - Gas lift pump - Vesco pumpTbis type of pump bas a efficiency and is not used except for a special purpose.evtritvgat Pvvp A centriIugal pump transIorms mechanical energy Irom a rotating impeller into a kinetic and potential energy required by the system.(entriugal Pumplorizontal (entriugal PumpReciprocating pumps :W %hese are commonly used to move viscous liquids, iniect chemicals or additivesinto a system.W #eciprocating pumps are used where a precise amount oI liquid is required to be a delivered, also where the delivery pressure required is higher than can beachieved with other types. Reciprocating Piston 1vpe Pumporizontal & Vertical #eciprocating pump#4tary Pvvp :#otary pumps are used to move heavy or very viscous Iluids such as grease, asphalt, heavy Iuel oil and sometimes heavy crude oils. Gear PumpScrew Pumpmerican Petroleum nstitute (P. 6. (entriugal Pumps or Petroleum. leav Dutv (hemical. and Gas Industrv Serices`.2. 64. Positie Displacement Pumps - Reciprocating`.3. 65. Positie Displacement Pumps - (ontrolled Volume`.4. 66.Positie Displacement Pumps Rotarv,5. 6. General Purpose Gear Units or Reinerv Serice`.6. 68. Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps`. 682. Shat Sealing Svstems or (entriugal and Rotarv Pumps`.merican Societ of Mechanical Lngineers (SML. B3.M. lorizontal Lnd Suction (entriugal Pumps or (hemical Process`.2. B3.2M. Vertical In-Line (entriugal Pumps or (hemical Process` Process ndustr Practices (PP. RLSP3l-9. Speciication or lorizontal Lnd Suction (entriugal Pumps`.2. RLSP3V-9. Speciication or Vertical (entriugal Pumps`.ndustr Codes and Standards : Ref : GLMS P-G-2Selection Criteria Ior Centrifugal, Reciprocating, nd Rotar Pumpsefinitions. (asing. Axiallv Split - Pump case split parallel to pump shat.2. (asing. Radiallv Split - Pump case split transerse to pump shat axis.3. Diuser -Pump design in which the impeller is surrounded bv diuser anes where the graduallv enlarging passages change liquid elocitv head into pressure head.4. Double Acting - Liquid is discharged during both orward and return strokes o the piston.5. Duplex - Pump with two plungers or pistons.6. lead. Acceleration - Pressure change due to changes in elocitv in the piping svstem.8. Impeller - Bladed member o rotating assemblv o a centriugal pump which imparts orce to liquid.9. Net Positie Suction lead NPSl, -1otal suction head in meters eet, o liquid absolute determined at suction nozzle and reerred to datum eleation. minus the apor pressure o liquid in meters eet, absolute. 1he datum eleation is the shat centerline or horizontal pumps. the suction nozzle centerline or ertical in-line pumps. and the top o the oundation or other ertical pumps.. Net Positie Suction lead Aailable NPSlA, -NPSl in meters eet, o liquid determined bv Purchaser or the pumping svstem with the liquid at rated low andnormal pumping temperature.. Net Positie Suction lead Required NPSlR, -NPSl in meters eet, determined bv Supplier testing. usuallv with water. NPSlR is measured at the suction lange and corrected to the datum eleation. NPSlR is the minimum NPSl at rated capacitv required to preent a head drop o more than 3 irst stage head in multistage pumps, due to caitation within pump.2. Recirculation -(ontrolling the quantitv o low through a pump bv bvpassing discharge liquid back to suction.4. Simplex - Pump with one plunger or piston.5. Single Acting - Liquid is discharged onlv during orward stroke o the piston.6. 1hrottling - (ontrolling low rate bv reducing cross-sectional low area. usuallv bv partiallv closing a ale in thedischarge piping.. 1otal Dierential lead 1Dl, - Pressure required in meters eet, o head that the pump must produce. 1hehead at the discharge pump lange minus the head at suction lange.8. 1riplex - Pump with three plungers or pistons.L1 POS1'L SUC1O HL (PSH 1he net positie suction head NPSl, is the absolute pressure iv ece.. 4t tbe tiqvia rap4r pre..vre that is aailable at the pump suction nozzle to moe the liquid into the eveo the impeller. 1he dierence between NPSla and NPSlr is less than .3 .m at the time ochecking endor data sheet | that is. NPSla- NPSlr .3 m,|. decision on NPSl test shall be made according to Lngineering Speciication SLS-GA-2L and API 6. Pumps where dierence between NPSlA and NPSlR is less than .6 meter arenot acceptable. 1he diameter o the pump suction port is usuallv bigger than the discharge or exit diameter in order to minimize the kinetic energv head entering the pump. because this kinetic energv decreases the maximum suction lit and enhances caitation.NPSl Required dNPSlr okl\here. l : Pump dierential heado : (aitation coeicient o 1homaNPSl Aailable d

NPSla P - P2, k --- - zP l Sp.Gr\here. P : Pressure at suction liquid leel ,P2 : Vapor pressure at suction temperature ,zP : Pressure drop in suction line ,l : leight between the normal liquid leel and pump centerline m,Pump Dierential lead d

l Po- Ps, k----Sp.Gr\here. l : lead m,Ps : Pump suction pressure ,Po : Pump discharge pressure ,Sp.Gr : Speciic graitv at pumping temperatureC'11O Deinition: Knocking due to ormation and subsequent collapse o apor bubbles. Indication: Noise, (aitation is caused bv the ormation o apor bubbles in a high-elocitv. low-pressureregion and bv the subsequent collapse when the bubbles moe to a higher pressure region. (aitation can cause excessie erosion and ibration. \ith moderate caitation in a centriugal pump. the pump will sound as though it is pumping grael or a slurrv o sand and grael. Seere caitation will cause the discharge pressure to all and become highlv erratic andproduce both low and pressure pulsation. Cavitation occures due to : Pump caitation can result rom insuicient aailable NPSl ligh pump-suction elocities and long piping increase pressure luctuations in thepump. Vacuum svstems seem more prone to unpredictable caitation than pressure svstems.Methods to avoid Cavitaion:NPSla Psuction, - Psaturation, ~ NPSlrIncrease NPSla bv - Increase pressure at suction o pump- Decrease liquid temperature- Reduce head losses- Reduce NPSlr Depen