Public health emergencies

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PUBLIC HEALTH IN COMPLEX HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES By: Adam F. Izzeldin; BPEH, MPH, PhD candidate. Department of International Health, TMDU 06/20/2022 Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University 1

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Definitions of public health Mission of public health Functions of public health in emergency

Transcript of Public health emergencies

  • 1. Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental UniversityPUBLIC HEALTH IN COMPLEX HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIESBy: Adam F. Izzeldin; BPEH, MPH, PhD candidate. Department of International Health, TMDU2/6/20141

2. Contents Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental UniversityDefinitions of public health and emergency Mission of public healthTypes of emergency Functions of public health in emergency2/6/20142 3. History of public health Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University The Black death in the 14th century Edward Jenner 1802 John Snow 1854 Alexander Fleming (1881 1955) Robert Koch (1843 1910) Paul-Louis Simond 1898 Sir Ronald Ross, (1857 1932) Etc. 2/6/20143 4. What is Public health? Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental UniversityThe science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community, as by preventive medicine, health education, control of communicable diseases, application of sanitary measures, and monitoring of environmental hazards. Medical dictionary 2/6/20144 5. What is Public health? Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental Universitythe science and art of disease prevention, prolonging life, and promoting health and well-being through organized community effort for the sanitation of the environment, the control of communicable infections, the organization of medical and nursing services for the early diagnosis and prevention of disease, the education of the individual in personal health and the development of the social machinery to assure everyone a standard of living adequate for the maintenance or improvement of health. (Winslow,1920) 2/6/20145 6. What is your own concept for public health? Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University From social perspective? From economic perspective? From political perspective? From cultural perspective? Others ? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= oQkGx6gRGIY&feature=c4overview&list=UUHlzppBTg2w8Nb ZOIWbb5Yg http://www.youtube.com/user/ThisI sPublicHealth 2/6/20146 7. Public health mission Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University The assessment and monitoring of the health of communities and populations at risk to identify health problems and priorities; The formulation of public policies designed to solve identified local and national health problems and priorities; To assure that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective care, including health promotion and disease prevention services, and evaluation of the effectiveness of that care. 2/6/20147 8. Public health system process Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University Public health is always evaluating the health of the community. A continuous cycle of gathering information, deciding on effective solutions, acting, evalu ating interventions Setting partnerships and intersectoral coordination 2/6/20148 9. The Ten Essential Public Health Functions Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University6. Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety 7. Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when unavailable 8. Assure a competent public health and personal health care workforce 9. Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services 10. Research for new insights and Public Health Functions Steering Committee, innovative solutions to health 2/6/2014 9 problems 1994 1. Monitor health status to identify community health problems 2. Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community 3. Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues 4. Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems 5. Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts 10. Ten great public health achievements 2001-2010 Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University1. Reductions in Child Mortality 2. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases 3. Access to Safe Water and Sanitation 4. Malaria Prevention and Control 5. Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS2/6/20146. Tuberculosis Control7. Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases 8. Tobacco Control 9. Increased Awareness and Response for Improving Global Road Safety 10. Improved Preparedness and Response to Global Health ThreatsCDC, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, June 24, 2011.10 11. Who are involved in public health ? Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University Many professional disciplines such as medicine, dentistry, nursing, opt ometry, nutrition, social work, environmental sciences, health education, health services administration, and the behavioral sciences.Its activities focus on entire populations rather than on individual patients.2/6/201411 12. Public health network Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental UniversityHome Health Police/ securityInformation communicationCommunity CentersagricultureHealth DepartmentReligious leaders politicians Social welfareElected Hospitals Schools/ Officials Nursing Mass Transit industries universities Homes Philanthropist Environmental Civic Groups Health CHCs Fire/emerg. Tribal leaders Economic Laboratory Drug Mental Employers Development Facilities Treatment Health 2/6/201412 13. Public health and clinical professions Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University Doctors usually treat individual patients one-on-one for a specific disease or injury. Public health professionals monitor and diagnose the health concerns of entire communities and promote healthy practices and behaviors to assure our populations stay healthy.It has been said that: "Health care is vital to all of us some of the time, but public health is vital to all of us all of the time." 2/6/201413 14. What is emergency? Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University The word disaster implies a sudden overwhelming and unforeseen event. At the household level, a disaster could result in a major illness, death, a substantial economic or social misfortune. At the community level, it could be a flood, a fire, a collapse of buildings in an earthquake, the destruction of livelihoods, an epidemic or displacement through conflict. 2/6/201414 15. Public health challenges in emergency Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University In in emergency settings the mission of public health will be intensified and more complicated where : Resources and infrastructure are destroyed Supply and communication chains are disrupted Populations are massively affected Health personnel are often displaced, assaulted, infected or injured. 2/6/201415 16. Natural Types of Disasters Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University Agricultural diseases & pests Damaging Winds Drought and water shortage Earthquakes Diseases (pandemic influenza) Extreme heat Floods and flash floods Hail 2/6/2014 Hurricanes and tropical storms Landslides & debris flow Thunderstorms and lighting Tornadoes Tsunamis Wildfire Ice storms Sinkholes volcano 16 17. Man-Made and Disasters Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hazardous materials Chemical threat Power service disruption & blackout biological weapons Nuclear power plant and nuclear blast Radiological emergencies2/6/2014 Cyber attacks Explosion Civil unrest war17 18. Cycle of emergency management Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University2/6/201418 19. Public health in emergencies Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University2/6/201419 20. Functions of Public health in Emergency Response Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University1. Assess the situation 2. Contact key health personnel 3. Develop initial health response plan 4. Communication with health agencies 5. Address requests for assistance and information 6. Risk communication activities 7. Apprised of legal issues 2/6/20148. Collect and analyze data through surveillance 9. Address the needs of special populations 10. Organize health-related volunteers and donations 11. Collaborate with state and federal on-site assistance 12. Assess health resource needs. 13. Document all response activities 20 21. Ongoing Public Health Emergency Response Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University1. Environmental hazard identification 2. Hazards consultation 3. Epidemiological services 4. Health and medical needs assessment 5. Identification of affected individuals 6. Contamination control 7. Health surveillance 8. Laboratory specimen collection and analysis 2/6/20149. Infectious disease control 8. Quarantine/isolation 9. Public health information 10. Risk communication 11. Responder safety and health 12. Medical equipment safety and availability 13. Health-related volunteer and donation coordination 14. In-hospital care 15. Evacuation 21 22. Continued-Ongoing Public Health Emergency Response Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University1. Sheltering 2. Special populations needs and assistance 3. Mass trauma 4. Mass fatalities 5. Mortuary services 6. Mental/behavioral health care and social services 7. Potable water 8. Food safety 9. Vector control and pest management 2/6/201410.Wastewater and solidwaste disposal 11. Building/facility assessment 12. Sanitation/hygiene services 13. Continuity of public health programs/ services 14. Veterinary services 15.Animal rescue/control 16. Long-term community recovery 22 23. Conclusion Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University1. Public health is a large field of multi-disciplines that requires collaborations with other sectors and intersectoral coordination across health and medical agencies. 2. Humanitarian emergencies urge the needs for public health interventions in mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases of emergency. 3. Public health emergencies is always evaluating the needs of vulnerable communities, deciding on effective health response, providing recovery for populations and health system 2/6/201423 24. Some references in Public health emergencies Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental University2/6/201424 25. Izzeldin F. Adam; Tokyo Medical and Dental UniversityWish you long life free of emergencies2/6/201425