Pros - Cons Water Fluoridation

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Pros - Cons Water Fluoridation Jason Woodforth -Feb 2013
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Pros - Cons Water Fluoridation. Jason Woodforth -Feb 2013. Its Natural !. Fluoride occurs naturally in the world 13 th most common element Found in water naturally Found in some foods, tea, fish The fluoride come from natural rock - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Pros - Cons Water Fluoridation

  • Pros - ConsWater FluoridationJason Woodforth -Feb 2013

  • Its Natural !Fluoride occurs naturally in the world13th most common elementFound in water naturallyFound in some foods, tea, fishThe fluoride come from natural rockNatural level just topped up to optimal level a car radiator is topped up ??

  • Its Natural ?Arsenic, lead, mercury are natural

    Most common chemicals -Hexafluorosilicic acid & Sodium Fluorosilicate do NOT exist in nature they are created from the waste fluoride removed in phosphate fertiliser plants pollution control wet scrubbers (Incitec Pivot, Shanghai Mintchen Development Co Shanghai)

    Fluoride level in Brisbane tap water before fluoridation was

  • Toxicity of Fluoride compared to Lead and Arsenic

    Toxicity based on LD50 Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products 5th edition 1984 Gosselin, Smith and Hodge

  • Fluoride chemicals allowed to contain Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic NSF/ANSI Standard 60: Drinking Water Chemicals Health Effects ( NSF 60 ) the main impurities of concern for fluoride are arsenic, cadmium, copper and lead Page 54

  • Fluoride chemicals allowed to contain Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic

    Most common chemical used Sodium Fluorosilicate allowed to contain.. 420 mg of Arsenic, 120 mg Cadmium, 610 mg Lead and 121,300 mg Copper for every kg fluoride chemical added.

    Water Fluoridation Code of Practice Qld 2010 Page 54

  • Its not a poison !Anyway - its the dose that makes the poison (Paracelcus)

    Its only one drop in a million Concentration is tightly controlled

    (it isnt rocket science to inject fluoride into water yet in April 2009 North Pine Dam Treatment Plant temporarily put out water with 30 ppm )

    There is no control over dose received only thirst ( for a lifetime)

    Fluoride is difficult for kidneys to excrete can only excrete 50% at best rest accumulates in body

    The USA Public Health Service since Jan 2011 has recommended that the concentration be lowered to 0.7 ppm because of fluorosis - Most of Australia fluoridates at 1.0ppm

  • Yes they are Schedule 6 and 7 Poisons

  • SEQ Water fluoride chemicals imported from China SEQWater sources it fluoridechemical from Shanghai Mintchen Development Co Ltd based in Shanghai

    China does not fluoridate

  • Its good for your teethsystemically and topically

    Fluoridated water reduces tooth decay both systemically ( ingested ) and topically ( when it touches your teeth when drinking water

    Qld Health ,miscellaneous Dental Assns

  • Its good for your teeth However ,in 1999 the CDC finally acknowledged... the main action of fluoride is topical

    When water fluoridation started there was no fluoridated toothpastes, fluoridated mouthwashes or fluoride dental treatments for topical application

    Now Dentists are selling toothpastes with five times as much fluoride - massive 5000 ppm for topical effect

    CDC = Centre For Disease Control and Prevention

  • Swallowing fluoride makes a much sense as swallowing sun-block to prevent sunburn

  • Can reduce tooth decay by 65% In Townsville, water supplies have been fluoridated since 1964, resulting in 65% less tooth decay in children than those in Brisbane

    fluoride, which is proven to be safe and effective

    Qld Health newspaper ads Dec 2007


    This 1996 publication was the study that Anna Bligh based mandated fluoridation on.

    Study found that Townsville children aged 6 to 12 years who had consumed fluoridated water all of the lives, had on average 0.23 less decayed tooth surfaces in their permanent teeth ( out of a total of 128 tooth surfaces ) than did children from Brisbane . Data for the study was collected in 1990-1991 Teeth have either 4 surfaces ( incisors) or 5 surfaces ( molars )28 teeth in a childs mouth = 128 tooth surfaces

  • Where did they get the 65%and how many teeth is 65%?This 1996 study measured tooth decay in tooth surfaces (128 tooth surfaces per mouth)There was a difference of 0.17 less decayed tooth surfaces in Townsville kids ( at age 7 )

    0.17 divided by 0.26 X 100 = 65%Taking the small difference between two very small numbers and expressing as a percentagegives a very large percentage - for a tiny fraction of a tooth less decay.

  • Australian Children's Dental SurveysQld unfluoridated children measured at age 12 years old ( WHO International comparison standard) have very similar, or even less decay than 12 years old from Tasmania ( 83% fluoridated and the ACT ( 100 % fluoridated )

    DMFT = 1 means an overall average of only 1 decayed tooth

  • Latest published Australian Childrens Dental Survey 2008 - pub Sept 2012 Tasmanian 6 year olds ( 83% fluoridated ) have exactly the same averageamount of tooth decay as Qld 6 year olds (
  • Latest published Australian Childrens Dental Survey 2008 - pub Sept 2012 Tasmanian 12 year olds ( 83% fluoridated ) have the same averageamount of tooth decay as Qld 12 year olds (
  • Average Tooth decay in 10 year olds by Capital City 1977 and 1987 School Dental Service data ( FOI - Dr Mark Diesendorf, 1990). All cities except Brisbane fluoridated for at least 10 years by 1987

  • Child tooth decay has come down similarly in fluoridated and non- fluoridated countries (WHO data)

  • Jason M. Armfield and A. John Spencer 2004 ( Adelaide University Dental School)

    Consumption of non-public water: implications for childrens caries experience, Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology, 32: 283

    A comparison of children who had always drunk fluoridated tap water to those who had always drunk tank or bottled water.The effect of consumption of nonpublic water on permanent caries experience was not significant.the pro-fluoridation authors claim that their result is being taken out of context!

  • There are no adverse effects

    Fact the only known side effect of known optimal fluoridation is a slight increase in dental fluorosis

    Qld Health document 2007 Common fluoride myths

  • Fluoride and Kidney impairmentThe 2004 and 2011 NHMRC Australian Drinking Water Guidelines states People with kidney impairment have a lower margin of safety for fluoride intake. Limited data indicate that their fluoride retention may be up to three times normal Has the NHMRC investigated cumulative effects of fluoride on people with Kidney impairment ? No even though this was a specific requirement of the Tender to do the 2007 NHMRC fluoride review ( known through FOI )

  • No risk assessments done2009 Freedom of Information on Qld Health no risk assessments were done

    No Environmental Impact Assessments were done either

  • Fluoridated water claimed not to cause harm but fluoride exposure is linked to.....

    Lowering of IQDental fluorosisSkeletal fluorosisBrittle bones possible increase in fracturesFluoride accumulating in Pineal glandDepressed thyroid activityHypersensitivity: adverse reactionsOsteosarcoma (bone cancer) in young menRisk tothe kidney impaired ( Aboriginals / Diabetics)

  • 2004 Letter to the UK House of Lords Professor Trevor Sheldon, BSc, MSc, Sc, Med SciChair of UK govt commissioned 2000 Fluoride Review York UniversityUniversity of York

    2 The review found water fluoridation to be significantly associated with high levels of dental fluorosis which was not characterised as "just a cosmetic issue". 3 The review did not show water fluoridation to be safe. The quality of the research was too poor to establish with confidence whether or not there are potentially important adverse effects in addition to the high levels of fluorosis. The report recommended that more research was needed. 4 There was little evidence to show that water fluoridation has reduced social inequalities in dental health. NOTE The NHMRC 2007 fluoride review was very largely based on the 2000 York University fluoride review which did not find water fluoridation to be safe

  • What is dental fluorosis? One side effect of too much fluoride ingested in early childhood while teeth are forming is dental fluorosis; the enamel covering of teeth fails to crystallise properly, leading to defects ranging from barely discernible tosevere brown stain, surface pitting and brittleness. Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride National Research Council (USA) 1993

  • What Dental Fluorosis looks like

  • Current prevalence of dental fluorosis In 2007 nearly 4 children in every 100 in NSW Fluoridated areas have Moderate or Severe Dental Fluorosis compared to only 2 in a 1000 in non fluoridated NSW areas

    In 2007 nearly 25 % ( one in every four children ) 11 12 year old children in NSW fluoridated areas had Dental Fluorosis of some degree

    Moderate Dental Fluorosis ( clearly visible fluorosis ) has been linked to Psychological harm by Australian researchers ( harm to self-esteem )

  • WHO considers Fluorosis as a water related disease


  • Fluoride and babiesThe issue isnt the infant formula itself, but the water its reconstituted with Stamm and Maas said.

    For their size, babies consume a large percentage of their body weight in fluoridated water when reconstituted formula is their primary source of nutrition

    William Maas, director of CDCs Division of Oral Health and John Stamm, a spokesman for the American Dental AssociationQld Health 2007

  • Fluoride and babiesBreast milk contains an average of only 0.004 ppm F (unfluoridated areas) National Research Council reportFluoride in Drinking Water 2006

    Water fluoridated at 1.0 ppm F used to reconstitute infant formula contains more than 150 times more fluoride than what babies would have got from breast milk

  • Fluoride and babiesSince 2006 the Centre For Disease Control and the American Dental Association have advised that parents can use water low in fluoride to reconstitute infant formula to reduce risk of dental fluorosis

    In Jan 2011 the US Public Health Service lowered their optimal fluoride level down to 0.7 ppm (lower than Australia) because of dental fluorosis concerns

    In mid 2012 the State of New Hampshire passed legislation that all water consumers be warned annually that fluoridated water poses a risk of dental fluorosis for bottle fed babies

  • Fluoride and babies infants of all age groups will receive fluoride that is above the NHMRC Upper Limits of safety from the combination of fluoride in fluoridated water at 1.0 mg/L and any additional fluoride that may be present in formula.

    Aust N Z J Public Health. 2009 Dec;33(6):573-6.Fluoride content of powdered infant formula meets Australian Food Safety Standards. Clifford H, Olsowy H, Young M, Hegarty J, Cross M ( Queensland Health Staff )

  • Fluoride and babiesaccording to the intake model used in by the study that infant formula prepared with water fluoridated at 0.7 mg/L would result in mean fluoride intake for fully formula-fed infants in the first 6 months of life of 0.66 mg/day, with a 30 percent probability of exceeding the UL. At a water fluoride concentration of 1.0 mg/L, there is a near certainty of fully formula fed infants exceeding the UL (UL = NHMRC Upper Limit )

    Cressey P. Dietary fluoride intake from fully formula-fed infants in New Zealand: impact of formula and water fluoride Journal Public Health Dentistry 2010

  • Fluoride and lowering of IQ 2012 Harvard Study Meta- analysis of 27 studies

    Mean difference - 7 IQ pts

    Fluoride concentrations in water mostly only 2, 3 or 4 times that of fluoridated water dose depends on amount of water drunk LITTLE MARGIN OF SAFETY

  • Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A SystematicReview and Meta-Analysis"The children in high fluoride areas had significantly lower IQ than those who lived in low fluoride areas," write Choi et al.

    Fluoride seems to fit in with lead, mercury, and other poisons that cause chemical brain drain, Grandjean says. The effect of each toxicant may seem small, but the combined damage on a population scale can be serious, especially because the brain power of the next generation is crucial to all of us.

    Choi's team writes, "Fluoride readily crosses the placenta. Fluoride exposure to the developing brain, which is much more susceptible to injury caused by toxicants than is the mature brain, may possibly lead to damage of a permanent nature."

  • Fluoride and lowering of IQ 36 human studies have found elevated fluoride exposure associated with reduced IQ

    16 animal studies -fluoride exposure impairs the learning and memory capacity of animals

    References for these 52 studies - see

  • Learning Difficulties in AustraliaApproximately 20 per cent of children experience learning difficulties. ~3.5 per cent are seen as having a specific learning disability characterised by being ongoing persistent (2-3 years) and resistance to interventions

    Diagnosed Learning Disabilities include: ADHD, Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) Department of Education, WA 2013

  • Water fluoridation & Osteosarcomabone cancer Conclusions : Our exploratory analysis found an association between fluoride exposure in drinking water during childhood and the incidence of Osteosarcoma among males but not consistently among females. Further researchis required to confirm or refute this observation. - this finding has not been refuted

  • Water fluoridation & Osteosarcomabone cancer These results suggest a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma.

    South Asian Journal of Cancer Oct Dec 2012 Volume 1 Issue 2

  • Fluoride and Thyroid FunctionUp through the 1950s, doctors in Europe and South America prescribed fluoride to treat hyperthyroidism -just 2 to 5 mg/dayfluoride ion were enough toreduce most patients thyroid activity. Galletti & Joyett 1958.

    The doses used as reported by Galletti & Joyett are currently exceeded by some people living in 1 ppm communities

    In humans, effects on thyroid function were associated with fluoride exposures of 0.05-0.13 mg/kg/day when iodine intake was adequate and 0.01-0.03 mg/kg/day when iodine intake was inadequate. p218 Fluoride in Drinking Water National Research Council Report - 2006

  • Feltman and Kosel,1956, 1961

    One per cent of Patients reacted adversely to 1 milligramFluoride tablets

    Dermatological, Neurological and Gastro-Intestinal symptoms werereversible when fluoride removed

  • Bone fractures

  • Skeletal fluorosis in areas with water contaminated with naturally occurring fluoride ( parts of China and India ) Occurs at F- concentrations as low as 0.7 ppm.F- accumulates in bone, adding mass but destroying structure.X-rays show structural damage to bones, and calcification of joints and ligaments.

    Mild skeletal fluorosis has similar symptoms to arthritis.Prevalence of arthritis increasing in USA and Australia.Could some arthritis actually be early stage of fluorosis?.

  • Examples of severe skeletal fluorosis caused by natural Calcium Fluoride This is crippling skeletal fluorosis early stages could mimic arthritis

  • Have your read this ?

    It is a textbook on the toxicology of fluoride listed many potentialadverse health effects recommended more research needs to be done

    Determined that fluoride at 4ppmcan cause crippling skeletal fluorosis Published 2006

  • It is really black and white ???Or is it fraudulent promotion ? Teeth exposed to fluoridated waterQld Health 2007 Teeth without exposure to fluoridated waterQld Health 2007

  • *Qld Health sent this docto selected MPs in 2007

  • Emotional blackmail Every state has a problem with a small percentage of children with severe decay not fluoride deficient oral hygiene and dietary education is the answer

  • More emotional blackmail from Qld Health ( 2007 )

  • The ethical way to reduce toddler tooth decay Oral health education and support for mothers, including home visits and telephone calls, were found to reduce the rate of decay in children down to 2 per cent

    The research found that prenatal education had a vital role in ensuring children's oral health.

    Ms Plonka * used tooth brushing instruction and general dietary advice six monthly from birth....

    We wanted to find out what kind of preventative measures would help communities the most and the drastic improvements we saw from both home visits and telephone support were exciting,

    * Kathryn Plonka, UQ School of Dentistry PhD candidate and Senior Oral Health Therapist at Logan-Beaudesert Public Oral Health Service

    October 2012 .

    The answer to early childhood tooth decaycould be just a phone call away .

    in Brisbanes south where 23% of Toddlers suffer from substantial tooth decay Researchers have found preventative strategies that could be the solution

  • Mass medication

    Fluoride chemicals are added to drinking water in an attempt to prevent tooth decay and repair decay

    Fluoridated water is a constant repair kit for life Qld Chief Health Officer Jeannette Young

    Fluoridation is done for a therapeutic purpose or medicinal purpose to treat people Chlorination is done to treat water to make water safe to drink. No one can live without water

  • Mass medicationWould a doctor prescribe a medication for

    An unseen patientMedical history unknownDose controlled only by thirstWith no follow upFor a lifetime

  • Qld Government Position Statement 2003 ( Qld Health website in 2006)......mass involuntary medication ..... unethical without express consent of community

  • Fluoridation Survey polls PUSH POLLS most have a leading preamble, and leading questions - 60 % support for fluoridation

    Local Govt Assn of Qld 2005 poll majority of people wanted a Referendum first

    If 30 % of people dont want it , I wont force it on them 2005 Lord Mayor Campbell Newman

  • How forced fluoridation began in Qld

    Gordon Nuttall and a senior Qld Health Dentist (Labor Party member ) got it to be official Labor Party Policy at 2004 Labor Conference. Anna Bligh did it to make an impact (same Qld Health senior Dentist 2011 )

  • Protect the ones we loveDont put fluoride in their drinking water

  • Fluoride and Aluminium

    Alum ( Aluminium ) is added to water to flocculate dirt and bacteria at water treatment plants. Fluoride is added at the last stage.

    Alumino -fluoride complexes (AlFx) form spontaneously in aqueous solutions containing fluoride and traces of aluminium ions and appear to act as phosphate analogsFluoride anions have long been known to influence the activity of various enzymes and guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins).

  • Fluoride and AluminiumUnderstanding the role of phosphate and G-proteins in cell signalling makes it possible to suggest a hypothesis that the synergistic action of fluoride and aluminum in the environment, water and food chains can evoke various and multiple pathological symptoms.The long-term synergistic effects of these ions in living environment and their hidden danger for human health are not yet fully recognized.

  • Do you have photos that support your arguments? The media like photos because they will be remembered long after statistics and facts in your interview have been forgotten

    Senior Qld Health Dentist (who helped instigate mandated fluoridation) giving a presentation in Japan in 2011

  • Dont just measure caries levels in permanent teeth for 12 year olds. These tend to be very low, since most permanent teeth have only recently erupted, and anti-fluoride groups know that the caries difference between fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas is often small for 12 year olds. Also use the figures for 5-6 year olds, since the caries experience is usually greater, and public sympathy for small children with dental caries is usually greater

  • For acute toxicity comparisons - Fluoride is slightly more toxic than Lead, slightly less toxic than Arsenic*Speaking of lead, cadmium and arsenic water fluoridation chemicals do contain small amounts of lead, cadmium and arsenic *This is how much heavy metal contamination is allowed in water fluoridation chemicals 420 mg Arsenic, 120 mg Cadmium, 610 mg Lead for every kilogram of fluoride that is added to drinking water. Why all that copper? *Sodium Fluoride and Sodium Fluorosilicate Schedule 6 poisons, Hydrofluorosilicic acid, VERY corrosive liquid is Schedule 7 *Sodium Fluoride Poison Schedule 6 - USES as insecticide, particularly for roaches and ants .... Electroplating , fluoridation of drinking water, disinfection, preserving wood*Teeth have either 4 surfaces ( incisors) or 5 surfaces ( molars )28 teeth = 128 tooth surfaces

    *Without fluoridation , tooth decay in Brisbane children decreased to one third of what it had been 10 years earlier . Note without fluoridation.*This is average amount of teeth with decay experience for adults aged 15 to 99 years*While adults from ACT Canberra have slightly less tooth decay, adults from the heavily and long time fluoridated states has just the same amount of tooth decay in every age group as do adults from un- fluoridated Qld drink it for a long time doesnt seem to make much difference in reducing decay**UNICEF ( United Nations International Childrens Education Fund ) does not support water fluoridation. UNICEF acknowledges Australia and New Zealand as having endemic fluorosis due to water fluoridation *Really ???????? Qld Health Document 2007 *Fluoridation promoters know there is decay crisis in a small percent of young children ( mostly deprived areas ) in every state regardless of fluoridation status. **