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Sesame Plant

Export Potential of Sesame Seeds

ANIL AGRAWAL, Course- International M.B.A.(1 year) Batch - April 2010. Roll No- UBI/MBA/1/APR10/10046.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 2 Cultivation 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

History Religion

Area of Cultivation Season Soil Rotations Sowing Fertilizer Management Water Management Harvesting Pest Management Harvest and Storage

3 Sesame Producing Countries 3.1 Area, production and productivity of Sesame 3.2 Production of Sesame in India 4 International Markets of Sesame 5 Uses of Sesame 5.1 5.2

Cusine Health benefits of Sesame seeds

6 Economic importance of Sesame Seeds 7 Exports and Export Potential 7.1 Domestic strength for exporting sesame 7.2 Exports 7.3 Export Potential Regionwise 7.4 Measures for enhancing competitiveness 8 Conclusion

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9 Bibliography

1. IntroductionSesame is an East Indian flowering plant that comes from the family of Pedalliaceae and the genus Sesamum. Sesame is commonly known as Till. Its botanical name is Sesamum indicum L .The plant is a tropical annual herb having white and purple flowers. It is renowned for its seeds, which are a source of very useful sesame oil and are also used as a flavoring agent. It is an erect herb that bears tiny, flat, nutty flavored seeds that are oval in shape. Moreover, the seeds come in several colors like red, white, black, yellow etc depending upon the variety of the seeds. As a condiment, the seeds had added a slight crunchy flavor to the preparations since ages, as it was one of the earliest flavoring agents known to man. Due to the presence of potent antioxidant, sesame seeds are known as the seed of immortality. It is an annual plant growing to 50 to 100 cm (1.6 to 3.3 ft) tall, with opposite leaves 4 to 14 cm (1.6 to 5.5 in) long with an entire margin; they are broad lanceolate, to 5 cm (2 in) broad, at the base of the plant, narrowing to just 1 cm (0.4 in) broad on the flowering stem. The flowers are white to purple, tubular, 3 to 5 cm (1.2 to 2.0 in) long, with a four-lobed mouth.

1.1 History Sesame seed is one of the oldest condiments the human race has ever known. The sesame plant had been grown since ages in various tropical areas of the world since prehistoric times and had been used as a flavoring agent. Though the origination of the sesame is a topic that is subject to controversy, some of the historians believe that the plant originated on the lands of Indian subcontinent as the earliest

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references regarding this plant and the flavoring agent are given in the early Hindu legends. Also, some legends also describe the origination of sesame in their own way. One of those legends mentions that when the world was to be created, the gods consumed wine prepared from sesame seeds. Initially sesame seeds were only known for the use of condiments and for oil and wine. Its other uses as medicine or perfumes were discovered much later with time. The sesame travelled to the Middle East from India with the help of ancient traders and wanderers. It still forms a significant part of their culture and cuisine. The earliest use of sesame oil was traced back to around 3000 BC in the Middle East. The Europeans encountered the seed when it was imported from India in the 1st century AD. The use of sesame seeds in baked foods was started by the early Egyptians. It became popular world over even before the beginning of the 16th century and the Africans introduced it into America in the 17th century.

1.2 Religion According to Assyrian legend, when the gods met to create the world, they drank wine made from sesame seeds. In Hindu legends and beliefs, tales are told in which sesame seeds represent a symbol of immortality and the God Maha Vishnu's consort Maha Sri Devi herself representing the properties of the sesame seed, as such it is considered as the most auspicious oil next to Ghee used in Hindu rituals and prayers. In Orissa, Raashi ladu (sweet made of Sesame) is a must as an offering to Lord Ganesha. Black sesame seeds are mixed with grains of rice and offered to the manes. White sesame seeds mixed with rice are offered to the gods and seers of the Veda. Both of these offerings are called tarpanam. Sesame oil is used to pacify the malefic effect of Lord Shani (Saturn).[4]

In Tamil literature and medicine it has been mentioned as the "very good healthy" oil as such it is called Nala + Enney (Good Oil), old Tamil medicinal proverbs such as "ilaythavannakku yellum kohluthavanukkum kohlum"; meaning "prescribe for underweight/unnourished it boost up and also may apply for the overweight /corpulent as well to reduce down, sometimes misinterpreted as "prescribe sesame to underweight and horse gram to overweight" thus the word kohlum is mistaken for Horse Gram. Tamil medicine holds that gargling with sesame oil after brushing one's teeth will reduce gum disease and mouth ulcers while eliminating plaque. Taking a sesame oil bath with a simple self massage are considered mandatory in Tamil tradition at least once in a week on Wednesday & Saturday for male and Fridays for female as per quoted by a Siddha Yogic Tamil medicine philosopher Auvaiyaar as quoted "Sani Neeraadu" means at least take a full shower once a week with oil which will reduce ones body heat on a rest day which is Saturday for those who live in the hot humid tropical regions.

According to Bhavishya-uttara-Purana, one who distributes sesame in charity (etc.) on day of Shat-Tila-Ekadashi, in the end of life comes back to home, back to Godhead, to spiritual world, abode of Lord Krishna.. "Open sesame", the phrase from Arabian Nights, reflects the distinguishing feature of the sesame seed pod, which bursts open when it reaches maturity.[2] It is also used in Urdu literature as proverbs "til dharnay ki jagah na hona"; meaning by, a place so crowded that there is no room for a single seed of sesame and "in tilon mein teil nahee" ( ;) referred for a person who is very mean, meaning by there is no oil left in this sesame. In recent times the seeds have become an ingredient in wiccan practices.

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Cunningham's Encyclopedia of Wicca in the Kitchen suggests their use to aid conception, to draw money, or for protection.

2. Cultivation As the seeds of sesame are very small in size, the field must be prepared very well for good germination. The seedbed should be fine, firm and compact. Usually, one ploughing followed by two to three harrowing followed by planking brings the field in good condition for planting.

2.1 Area of Cultivation India, China, Sudan, Mexico, Turkey, Burma and Pakistan are the important sesame producing countries. Sesame is grown mainly in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Karnataka. In the remaining states it is grown only on a small area and hence is a very minor crop there.

2.2 Season Sesame is basically a crop of the warm regions of the tropics and subtropics and grows in the plains and at elevations up to 1,200 m. A temperature of 25-27C encourages rapid germination, initial growth and flower formation. Low temperatures at flowering can result in the production of sterile pollen, or pre-mature flower drop. Sesame is extremely susceptible to water logging and heavy continuous rains. Sesame is susceptible to hail damage at all stages of growth. It can also not stand frost, continued heavy rain or prolonged drought. The proper time for planting of sesame under northern Indian conditions is last week of June to first week of July. A[6]

range of 25-27 Degree Celsius temperature is suitable for its proper germination. In South India sowing time during Kharif season may vary from May to July and for Rabi season from October to November.

2.3 Soil Sesame can be grown on a wide variety of soils provided they are well-drained, but it thrives best on sandy loam with adequate soil moisture. Very sandy, alkaline and acidic soils are not suitable for its cultivation. Soils with a neutral reaction are preferred, but good results have been obtained on both slightly acidic and slightly alkaline soils. The crop will grow well in soils having a pH reaction in the range of 5.5 to 8.0. It can also be grown on loams and heavy clay loams, which are well-drained.

2.4 Rotations Kharif sesame is grown both as pure and mixed crop. In north India Sesame is generally grown mixed with arhar, jowar, bajra, groundnut, cotton and maize crops. A crop of linseed, gram, barley, lentil, etc. follows a pure crop of sesame in rabi season.

2.5 Sowing The sesame crop should be sown in lines. A spacing of 45 cm should be maintained between rows and 15 cm between plants. For planting one hectare, for the uniform distribution, seeds should be mixed with dry soil or sand or powdered farm yard manure. The depth of sowing should not be more than 2-3 cm. There should be enough moisture in the soil at the time of sowing. It is advisable to treat the seed before sowing with Agrosan G.N. or Ceresan at the rate of 2 g per kg of seed.[7]

2.6 Fertilizer Management Sesame is usually grown by small and marginal farmers on relatively poor soils with no manure, and this neglect is reflected in low average yields. A more common practice is to grow Sesame on the residual fertility of the preceding crop and apply whatever additional fertilizer can be spared. Application of 20-25 tonnes of compost or farm yard manure one month prior to sowing has given good results. For obtaining higher yields in addition to organic manure apply to 30 kg nitrogen, 60 kg P2O5 and 30 kg K2O per hectare. Application of nitrogen and phosphorus increases the number of capsules per plant and number of seeds per capsules. Apply the whole quantity of phosphorous and potash at th