Professionalism, professionality and the status of the teaching profession invited seminar paper...

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Transcript of Professionalism, professionality and the status of the teaching profession invited seminar paper...

  • Slide 1
  • Professionalism, professionality and the status of the teaching profession invited seminar paper presented at the University of Ballarat School of Education 7 th July 2008 Dr Linda Evans School of Education, University of Leeds, UK
  • Slide 2
  • The changing face of teacher professionalism in England 1970s practically no centrally imposed curricular regulations religious education daily assembly broadly Christian anything goes autonomous professionalism late 1980s mid 1990s (the market phase) Educational Reform Act (ERA) national curriculum local management of schools (LMS) a new professionalism/re-professionalism? professionalism determined by market forces client-led focus 1997 present (the targets phase: standards & modernisation agenda) pursuit of excellence literacy and numeracy targets managerialism pressured professionalism
  • Slide 3
  • Context and objectives new or modified professionalisms arising from the standards and modernisation agenda how successfully have professionalisms been renovated? what have been the effects on teachers and the status of the teaching profession?
  • Slide 4
  • Key foci new professionalism as an instrument of change the concept of professionalism the substance of professionalism (re)defining professionalism the capacity of reform for achieving professional development the concept of professional development the substance of professional development
  • Slide 5
  • The concept of professionalism Literature review: socially constructed contextually variable service level agreement defined externally defined by the professionals themselves constantly being redefined status homogeneity
  • Slide 6
  • New professionalisms prescriptive descriptive analytical commentaries research reports and analyses key feature reduced autonomy and control re-professionalisation proletarianisation
  • Slide 7
  • Professionality Eric Hoyle: professionalism - status-related the institutional component of professionalisation professionality - knowledge, skills & procedures the service component of professionalisation extended-restricted professionality continuum
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  • Professionality orientation: teachers Restricted professionality Skills derived from experience Perspective limited to the immediate in time and place Introspective with regard to methods Value placed on autonomy Infrequent reading of professional literature Teaching seen as an intuitive activity Extended professionality Skills derived from a mediation between experience & theory Perspective embracing the broader social context of education Methods compared with those of colleagues and reports of practice Value placed on professional collaboration Regular reading of professional literature Teaching seen as a rational activity Eric Hoyle, 1975
  • Slide 9
  • The restricted-extended teacher professionality continuum
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  • Professionality and professionalism Professionality is: an ideologically-, attitudinally-, intellectually-, and epistemologically-based stance on the part of an individual, in relation to the practice of the profession to which s/he belongs, and which influences her/his professional practice. Evans, L. (2002) Reflective Practice in Educational Research (London, Continuum) Hoyle (2008) the service component of professionalism
  • Slide 11
  • Professionality and professionalism Professionalism is: the plural of professionality; professionality writ large; the amalgamation of individuals professionalities. Professionalism is: professionality-influenced practice that is consistent with commonly-held consensual delineations of a specific profession and that both contributes to and reflects perceptions of the professions purpose and status and the specific nature, range and levels of service provided by, and expertise prevalent within, the profession, as well as the general ethical code underpinning this practice. (Evans, L. (2008) Professionalism, professionality and the development of education professionals, British Journal of Educational Studies, 56 (1), 20-38)
  • Slide 12
  • Professionalism and professionality Professionality is: an ideologically-, attitudinally-, intellectually-, and epistemologically-based stance on the part of an individual, in relation to the practice of the profession to which s/he belongs, and which influences her/his professional practice. Professionalism is: the perceived enactment of professionality-influenced practice that is consistent with commonly-held consensual delineations of a specific profession and that both contributes to and reflects perceptions of the professions purpose and status and the specific nature, range and levels of service provided by and expertise prevalent within the profession.
  • Slide 13
  • The impact of government policy on teacher professionalism A closer look at professionalism 2 main perspectives: subjective professionalism objective professionalism 3 reified states of professionalism Professionalism that is demanded or requested specific service level demands or requests Professionalism that is prescribed envisaged or recommended service levels Professionalism that is enacted as observed Only the 3 rd of these is real
  • Slide 14
  • From demanded to enacted professionalism The capacity of reform for achieving professional development A new professionalism isnt a new professionalism unless it is enacted. Reform or policy change is a professional development initiative How may reformers or change agents achieve professional development within a professionality- influenced professionalism?
  • Slide 15
  • Key components of professionalism Subjective professionalism Functional component Intellectual component Attitudinal component procedural dimension productive dimension processual dimension evaluative dimension motivational dimension perceptional dimension epistemological dimension rationalistic dimension comprehensive dimension
  • Slide 16
  • intellectual component epistemological dimension rationalistic dimension comprehensive dimension What is the basis of practitioners knowledge? To what extent do practitioners apply reason to decision making? What do practitioners know and understand? Common sense and experience? Research and/or scholarship? In which disciplines/subjects? What depth? What width? Contextual differences? Is practice underpinned by rationality, intuition, or a mediation of the two? What does the professional knowledge base comprise? Are there specialist areas? Are there minimum (general) practitioner knowledge requirements?
  • Slide 17
  • attitudinal component evaluative dimension motivational dimension perceptual dimension How do practitioners evaluate things (issues, situations, people, activity, etc.)? How do they evaluate their profession and its purpose? How motivated are practitioners? What motivates them? How do practitioners perceive things (issues, situations, people, activity, etc.)? How do they perceive their profession and its purpose? What values do practitioners hold? How widespread/consensual are these values? Are there any key/core values? How motivated are practitioners? What motivates them? What perceptions do practitioners hold? What perceptions do they not hold? How widespread/consensual are specific perceptions? Are there any key/core perceptions?
  • Slide 18
  • functional component procedural dimension productive dimension processual dimension What procedures do practitioners apply to their practice? What hierarchical procedures operate within the workforce? What stratification exists within the workforce? What is the nature of practitioners output? How much do practitioners produce? What (if any) productive yardsticks guide them? What processes do practitioners apply to their practice? Mode(s) of communication? Mode(s) of implementing policy? Mode(s) of regulating? Mode(s) of innovating? How is responsibility distributed - for knowledge/role coverage? What layers of practice exist? What do practitioners do their remit and responsibilities? Is their workload determined by the clock set hours? Is workload determined by the task in response to need? Advising? Educating? Regulating? Policy analysis? Knowledge generation? Learning? Inter-institutional collegiality?
  • Slide 19
  • The capacity of reform for achieving professional development The problems Reform or policy change initiators: focus predominantly on achieving functional development; ignore, or neglect, the importance of attitudinal and, in some cases, intellectual development; are unaware of, minimize, or ignore the professionality-influenced heterogeneity of professionalism; manifest simplistic, nave inadequate understanding of human nature.
  • Slide 20
  • The professional development process The process involves enhancing individuals professionality. progression along the professionality continuum What does the professional development process in individuals involve?
  • Slide 21
  • The professional development process in individuals Components: recognition that theres an alternative a better way encountering a specific alternative evaluating the specific alternative recognising the specific alternative as a better way implies recognition of the perceived relative inadequacies of previous practice/views/knowledge etc. adoption of the perceived better way evaluation of the newly adopted practice/views/attitudes etc. as better than what it/they replaced Evans (2008) work-in-progress
  • Slide 22
  • Professional development through reform or policy change Dependent upon: attitudinal development on the part of the developed or developee that is congruent with the reform/change agenda; shared perceptions of deficiencies and imperfections; shared perceptions of what constitutes a better way; change initiators willingness to accommodate this heterogeneity.
  • Slide 23
  • The effect of imposed policy & reform on teacher professionalism Has teacher professionalism been redesigned? on one level, undoubtedly compare 1970s with present day on another level the professionality range remains wide lack of uniformity/homogeneity much irony of presentation manifests itself in the manner in which members of an organization present an image of the organization to the outside world that is not wholly congruent with the reality of its daily practices. (Hoyle, E. and Wallace, M. (2007) Educational reform: an ironic perspective, Educational Management, Administration & Leadership, 35(1) 925 ) the paying lip service approach pernicious differences between the paper and the real (Stronach, I. et al (2002) Towards an uncertain politics of professionalism: teacher and nurse identities in flux, Journal of Education Policy, 17 (1), 109-138)
  • Slide 24
  • Professional status Have teachers lost any of their status as professionals? Is teaching any less of a profession than it previously was? How do we define a profession? How important is it to be a profession? Developmentalism is professionalism re- invented and re-named, for greater applicability to 21 st century working life.
  • Slide 25
  • Developmentalism means a commitment to (self-)develop(ment). is an antidote to complacency. is the mindset that engages practitioners in the business of striving to improve their practice. manifests itself as relatively frequent and regular engagement in ostensible CPD. is a component of the individuals stance in relation to the practice of the profession to which s/he belongs, and which influences her/his professional practice professionality
  • Slide 26
  • Practitioners with a strong developmentalist attitude will typically: be analytical and self-critical in evaluating their own practice; manifest single-minded concern for the quality of their work; continually strive for excellence, according to her/his own definition and measurement of it; perceive each new task as a challenge: an opportunity to perform better, and achieve more, than ever before; be extended professionals.
  • Slide 27
  • From professionalism to developmentalism The calibrations on the profession - semi- profession non-profession yardstick are being increasingly blurred. How may we make qualitatively-based distinctions between occupational groups? Developmentalism autonomous developmentalism compliant developmentalism How developmentalist are teachers, in comparison with other occupational groups?