process centrifugal compressors
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Klaus H. Ludtke Process Centrifugal Compressors
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH
Engineering ONLINE LIBRARY
Klaus H. Ludtke
Process Centrifugal Compressors Basics, Function, Operation, Design, Application
With 211 Figures
Dipl.-Ing. Klaus H. Ludtke Hedwigstrasse 10 D-13467 Berlin Germany firstname.lastname@example.org
ISBN 978-3-642-07330-4 ISBN 978-3-662-09449-5 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-662-09449-5
Library of Congress Cataloging-in -Publication-Data
A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek. Die Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliographie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the Internet at http://dnb.ddb.de
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitations, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Dupli-cation of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH. Violations are liable for prosecution under the German Copyright Law.
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004 Originally published by Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York in 2004 Softcover reprint of the hardcover I st edition 2004
The use of general descriptive names, registered names trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.
Typesetting: ProtagoTeX-Produktion GmbH, Berlin Cover design: medio Technologies AG, Berlin Printed on acid free paper 62/3020/M - 5 4 3 2 1 0
Dedicated to my wife Marianne
and my children Susanne and Roland
Throughout the last decades, centrifugal compressor research and development have been revolutionized. Computational fluid dynamics have provided a better understanding of the flow and physical phenomena, and the design of new cen-trifugal compressor components has been transformed from an "art" into a "sci-ence". New materials and manufacturing techniques now create new geometries that could only be dreamed of in the past, and new challenging applications have pushed the limits beyond what was considered the state of the art.
This new book presenting a comprehensive look at industrial compressors is therefore very timely.
Readers will find a large amount of information based on extensive experience, a clear and well-founded approach to real-gas handling and solutions to many practical problems. It will provide engineering contractors and users of industrial compressors with a better insight into the "how" and "why" of different design features thus allowing a more profound basis for discussions with manufacturers. It will also cast a light on the day-by-day design practice to academia by revealing the limitations and requirements of practical applications and economics.
This book combines a strict mathematical approach with practical experience and is illustrated with many examples. It fills in the gap between academic text-books and encyclopaedic descriptions of industrial compressors. I have no doubt that this book, based on several decades of experience in the industry, both in the USA and Europe, will be well received by the centrifugal compressor community.
Rene Van den Braembussche Professor Turbomachinery and Propulsion Department of the von Karman Institute Fellow of ASME
This book summarizes the author's experience of forty years work in the centrifu-gal compressor industry: in aerodynamic design, component development, and testing. The experience has resulted from a fruitful dialog with end users, contrac-tors, cooperating manufacturers and research institutes.
The intention is to present information available only to an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and to disseminate knowledge not included in any other book on centrifugal compressors.
This book can be regarded as a practical supplement to other works on cen-trifugal compressors. It offers help on many questions in the daily life of those who deal with centrifugal compressors, either as users, engineering contractors or compressor manufacturers. But it also addresses newly hired engineers in the in-dustry making their first steps in an unaccustomed terrain and students who want to push the ivory tower doors open to the real world of turbo machinery.
Much of the author's experience stems from participating in bid clarification and order kick-off meetings with engineering companies and users, training of customer's representatives and regular lecturing to young engineers in the in-house training programs of well-known companies.
The author has been working with MAN Turbomaschinen AG, who took over the turbomachinery division of former Deutsche Babcock-Borsig AG in Berlin, Germany in 1996. Prior to joining Deutsche Babcock-Borsig he worked with Allis-Chalmers Corporation in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. The author received his Diplom-Ingenieur degree in mechanical engineering from the Technical Uni-versity of Berlin in 1962. He has been a Consulting Senior Engineer since 2000.
During his professional career the author was exposed to more or less the same questions and suggestions of customers, colleagues and his own management so that, after so many years, the wish matured to put the answers down in writing to prevent at least some of this experience from totally dissipating. Consensual (and controversial) dialog outcomes, problem solutions, evolutionary improvements, revolutionary developments and, last, but not least, hard evidence results from de-velopment and performance verification tests thus found their way, in the form of presented papers, into the Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, the American A&M Turbomachinery Symposium, the German VDI Thermal Turbomachinery Meeting, the Polish Symkom Compressor and Turbine Conference, the British IMechE Fluid Machinery Congress and others. The most significant of these pa-pers in turn form part of this book in conjunction with numerous other publica-tions. So, in one way or another, this book constitutes the author's professional memoirs.
The term "process compressor" covers the typical multistage single-shaft cen-trifugal compressor, as it is predominantly used in the oil, gas, chemical and pet-rochemical industries, and in refineries. Exempt are centrifugal compressors in water chilling, plant air, and turbocharger units as well as in gas turbines and jet engines, where stage pressure ratios and Mach numbers are much higher and the numbers of stages per unit are lower, leading to totally different geometric con-figurations.
This book is addressed primarily to rotating-equipment specialists, project en-gineers, process engineers, process-engineering advisors in engineering contrac-tors and compressor user companies, operations managers and operations support engineers in oil and gas field operations, natural gas processing, petroleum refin-ing, petrochemical processing and chemical industries. In other words, all engi-neers are addressed who deal with planning, sizing estimates, writing specifica-tions, sending out enquiries, evaluating bids, assessing new compressor designs and uprates, and appraising technical compressor-related documentation from the OEM.
Intended secondary addressees are educational (e.g., junior staff of compressor users, students of fluid flow machinery) and aerodynamic design engineers in compressor manufacturing companies.
The book will help the reader to understand the terminology and to speak the same language within the turbocompressor community and it will enable the com-pressor user to enter into a meaningful discussion with the manufacturer.
The contents of the book resulted from a four decade-long relationship between the compressor OEM and the user and can help the reader to select the right com-pressor for the particular application (is it middle-of-the-ballpark, borderline or prototype?), because it clearly defines the constraints which influence the com-pressor design to a much greater extent than anything else.
However, the philosophy of designing and assessing compressors presented in this book does not lay claim to exclusiveness, and it should be pointed out that it is not intended to devalue other philosophies that are equally successful. There are probably as many schools of thought as there are compressor manufacturers. There are highly empirical philosophies using huge data bases, and there are oth-ers based on scientific principles supported by computational models; and there are many more in between. Empirical or scientific - both approaches require dec-ade-long experience that could best be defined as the "unconscious integration of all influencing quantities that cannot be ascertained by calculation".
All formulae are presented as "true physical equations" describing the pure physical facts without being intermingled with numerical values solely coming from the system of units used. So-called "unity braces" serve to convert any physical equation into the unit-dependent form that the reader is used to, be it the SI- system or the footlinch- system.
Here are some of this book's features:
the aero-thermodynamics is strictly based on real-gas formul