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ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE FAR EAST Bangkok, Thailand PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLEUM RESOURCES OF ASIA AND THE FAR EAST Report of the Symposium; documents on review of progress in the petroleum industry, and petroleum geology MINERAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT SERIES No. 41 (Volume I) smfoi^wj ;:_;.-..: ..;.iO!.:" k UB/TIB Hannover 89 122 570 081 UNITED NATIONS New York, 1972
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  • ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR

    ASIA AND THE FAR EAST

    Bangkok, Thailand

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE

    DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLEUM RESOURCES

    OF ASIA AND THE FAR EAST

    Report of the Symposium; documents on review of progress in the

    petroleum industry, and petroleum geology

    MINERAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT SERIES

    No. 41 (Volume I)

    smfoi^wj ;:_;.-..: ..;.iO!.:" k

    UB/TIB Hannover 89

    122 570 081

    UNITED NATIONS

    New York, 1972

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Volume I

    Part 1: REPORT OF THE FOURTH SYMPOSIUM ON THE DEVELOPMENT OFPETROLEUM RESOURCES OF ASIA AND THE FAR EAST

    PageI. Introduction 1

    II. Review of the implementation of the recommendations of the Third Symposium on theDevelopment of Petroleum Resources of Asia and the Far East 4

    III. Assistance by United Nations and ECAFE to member countries of the region in the field ofpetroleum and natural gas development 4

    IV. Review of the progress made in development of petroleum resources since the third symposium 5

    V. Petroleum energy sources in relation to over-all energy and fuel policy, with special referencecountries of the ECAFE region 9

    VI. Economics of petroleum exploration, production and distribution 10

    VII. Petroleum legislation, with special reference to offshore areas 13

    VIII. Pollution of the environment by petroleum raw materials and products 16

    IX. Geology of petroleum and natural gas with special reference to the ECAFE region . . . . 17

    X. Review of modern techniques of exploration for new resources of petroleum 21

    XI. Matters relating to offshore prospecting 24

    XII. Petroleum production methods and techniques, with special reference to the ECAFE region . . 27

    XIII. Utilization of petroleum and natural gas as feedstock for the manufacture of fertilizers, with

    special reference to the ECAFE region 29

    XIV. Utilization of petroleum and natural gas for the production of single-cell protein for human andanimal consumption 30

    XV. Programme of work and priorities in the field of development of petroleum and natural gasresources 30

    XVI. Date and venue of the Fifth Symposium on the Development of Petroleum Resources of Asiaand the Far East 34

    Annexes

    I. Agenda 35

    II. List of documents submitted to the Symposium 36

    III. Report of the Working Group on the revision of the ECAFE oil and natural gas map ofAsia and the Far East 49

    IV. Report of the Second Special Working Group on Stratigraphic Correlation between theSedimentary Basins of the ECAFE region 51

    V. Review of progress in the development of petroleum resources since the Third Petroleum

    Symposium 53

    ix

  • Part 2: DOCUMENTATION

    A. REVIEW OF RECENT PROGRESS IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

    a. In countries of the ECAFE region

    2 Aa —I

    Review of the implementation of recommendations of the Third Symposium

    2 Aa —H

    Summary of progress made by the Afghan Petroleum Exploration Department since the Third

    Symposium

    2 Aa—HI

    Developments in the Australian petroleum industry since the Third Symposium

    Table 1. Expenditure on petroleum exploration, development, and production in Australiaand Papua-New Guinea

    Table 2. Production and sales of natural gas from Roma area, Queensland, 1964-1968

    Table 3. Status of wells at Barrow Island oilfield as of 30 June 1969

    Table 4. Crude oil consumption, production, and imports for Australia, 1964-1975

    Table 5. Expenditure on petroleum exploration, development, and production by governmentsand private enterprise in Australia and Papua-New Guinea to end of 1968

    Table 6. Analysis of over-all cost per unit of work done for petroleum exploration in Australiaand Papua-New Guinea by private enterprise in 1968

    Table 7. Geological and geophysical activity in Australia and Papua-New Guinea by industry,Bureau of Mineral Resources and State Mines Departments, 1959-1968

    Table 8. Analysis of petroleum exploration expenditure in Australia and Papua-New Guineaby private enterprise, 1965-1968

    Table 9. Summary of drilling and completions on land in Australia and Papua-New Guineato the end of 1968

    Table 10. Summary of offshore drilling and completions in Australia and Papua-New Guineato the end of 1968

    Table 11. Summary of drilling and completions on land and offshore in Australia andPapua-New Guinea to the end of 1968

    Table 12. Location and throughput capacities of refineries in Australia

    Table 13. Statistics of refining in Australia, 1965-1968

    Table 14. Consumption of petroleum products in Australia, 1965-1968

    Table 15. Imports of petroleum into Australia, 1965-1968

    Table 16. Cargo exports of petroleum from Australia, 1965-1968Table 17. Australian petrochemical plants in operation, under construction or planned, 1968

    Figure 1. Australia and Papua-New Guinea—sedimentary areas and location of oil and gasfields, significant discoveries and pipelines

    Figure 2. Roma area, Queensland — oil and gas fields

    Figure 3. Gidgealpa-Moomba-Darlingie area, South Australia — gas gathering and transmission

    Figure 4. The offshore Gippsland Basin, Victoria — natural gas and crude oil transmissionand processing layout

    Figure 5. Barrow Island oilfield facilities, Western Australia

    Figure 6. Australian crude oil consumption, production and import requirements, 1 5

    Figure 7. Australia and Papua-New Guinea — private enterprise expenditure and gc itsubsidy, 1962-1968

    Pc

    x

  • Page

    Figure 8. Australia and Papua-New Guinea— geological and geophysical activity .. .. 90

    Figure 9. Australia and Papua-New Guinea— footage of petroleum exploration and develop¬ment drilling 90

    Figure 10. Australia and Papua-New Guinea —number and footage of onshore wells drilledper year, 1961-1968 91

    Figure 11. Australia and Papua-New Guinea— number and footage of offshore wells drilled

    per year, 1965-1968 92

    Figure 12. Australia and Papua-New Guinea — number and footage of wells drilled per year(onshore and offshore combined), 1965-1968 93

    Figure 13. Australian consumption of primary fuels .. 94

    2 Aa —TV

    Progress of the reconnaissance gravity survey of Australia 100

    Figure 1. Map showing gravity coverage and station density for mainland Australia .. .. 101

    Figure 2. Bouguer anomaly contours for mainland Australia 102

    Figure 3. Bouguer anomaly contours for Tasmina 103

    Figure 4. Bouguer anomaly contours for the Territory of Papua and New Guinea .. .. 103

    Figure 5. Bouguer anomaly features for mainland Australia with province and unit boundaries 104

    2 Aa —V

    The petroleum industry in Burma, 1965-1969 106

    2 Aa —VI

    Review of progress in the development of petroleum resources in Taiwan, China since the Third

    Symposium 107

    2 Aa —VII

    Status of oil exploration in the offshore areas adjoining India 112

    2 Aa — VHI

    Petroleum in Indonesia 114

    Table 1. List of foreign oil companies operating in Indonesia as at July 1969 116

    Table 2. Petroleum exploration expenditure, 1964-1968 117

    Table 3. Petroleum drilling statistics, 1966-1969 117

    Table 4. Indonesian oilfields — details of discovery and production 119

    Table 5. Statistics of petroleum drilling on land, 1965-1968, including exploration drilling .. 120

    Table 6. Wells drilled, 1965-1968 121

    Table 7. Production on crude oil, 1965-1968 121

    Table 8. Oil produced, 1966-1968 121

    Table 9. Status of production wells, 1965-1968 122

    Table 10. Gravity and sulphur content of crude oils 122

    Table 11. Production of crude oil and finished products, 1965-1968 123

    Table 12. Refinery intake and output, 1965-1968 124

    Table 13. Composition of Indonesian controlled domestic tanker fleet, mid 196f . .. 125

    Table 14. Oil product sales, 1960-1968 and estimated for 1969 . .. 126

    Table 15. Natural gas reserves as at January 1969 . •. 126

    Table 16. Estimated average usage of natural gas within the petroleum industry, 1965-1968 126

    XI

  • Page

    Figure 1. Map showing petroleum exploration activities in Indonesia as at July 1969 . . . . 118

    Figure 2. Map showing petroleum exploration activities in Indonesia prior to 1966 . . . . 118

    Figure 3. May showing oilfields, crude oil pipelines, refineries, and ports of export . . . . 123

    Figure 4. Map showing distribution routes for finished petroleum products 125

    Figure 5. Organizational chart of the Ministry of Mines 129

    2 Aa—IX

    Progress in the Iranian oil industry, 1964-1968 129

    Table 1. Net Iranian crude oil production, 1964-1968 131

    Table 2. Internal consumption of petroleum products, 1965-1968 131

    Table 3. Gross refinery output and domestic petroleum consumption in Iran, 1964-1968 . . 132

    Table 4. Iranian natural gas production and consumption, 1964-1968 134

    Table 5. Iranian oil exports, 1964-1968 135

    Table 6. Destinations of Iranian crude oil and products, 1964-1968 135

    Table 7. Iran's oil revenues from the consortium, and their allocation 1954-1968 .. .. 136

    Table 8. Iran's projected foreign exchange earnings during the fourth development plan,1968-1972 136

    Table 9. Percentage share of the major economic sectors in the structure of the grossnational product 137

    Table 10. Plan Organization investment under the four development plans 137

    Figure 1. Iranian gas trunkline and spur lines 133

    2 Aa —X

    Recent progress of the petroleum industry in Japan 138

    Table 1. Consumption of crude oil in Japan, 1955-1968 138

    Table 2. Production of domestic crude oil and natural gas, 1955-1968 138

    Table 3. Oil and gas wells drilled, 1965-1968 138

    Table 4. Imports of crude oil and petroleum products, 1955-1968 139

    Table 5. Geographic source of crude oil imports, 1955-1968 139

    Table 6. Average price of imported crude oil, 1965-1968 139Table 7. Petroleum refining capacity, 1955-1968 139Table 8. Crude oil production abroad by Japanese interests, 1960-1968 141Table 9. Overseas activities of petroleum exploration by Japanese interests 141

    2 Aa—XI

    Petroleum exploration in offshore areas adjoining Japan 142

    Table 1. Offshore oil and gas production 142

    Table 2. Offshore drilling done by the "Hakuryu" rig 143

    Table 3. Offshore geophysical activity 145

    Figure 1. Areas of offshore geophysical activity , ..144

    2 Aa—XII

    Review of development of petroleum resources in Malaysia . . , 146

    Table 1. Imports of petroleum and petroleum products into Malaysia, 1965-1968 .. ..148

    xii

  • 2 Aa —XHI PageRecent developments in the petroleum industry of New Zealand 149Table 1. Wells drilled 1965-1968 inclusive 154

    Table 2. Petroleum prospecting licences 154Table 3. Production and value of petroleum and natural gas, 1964-1968 157Table 4. Consumption of petroleum products in New Zealand, 1964-1968 160Table 5. Imports of petroleum products into New Zealand, 1963-1969 161Table 6. Sources of major petroleum imports, 1969 161Table 7. Exports of petroleum products from New Zealand, 1963-1969 162

    Figure 1. Map of New Zealand showing the seven oil-prospective sedimentary basins . . . . 150

    Figure 2. Stratigraphic positions of potential oil formations in New Zealand 151

    Figure 3. Petroleum licence areas, North Island 155

    Figure 4. Petroleum licence areas, South Island 155

    Figure 5. Petroleum licence areas, continental shelf adjoining North Island 156

    Figure 6. Petroleum licence areas, continental shelf adjoining South Island 156

    2 Aa —XIV

    Developments in the petroleum industry in Pakistan — a review of progress since the ThirdSymposium c 162

    Table 1. Petroleum production in Pakistan since 1947 167

    Table 2. Annual production of natural gas in Pakistan since 1955 168Table 3. Analyses and reserves of natural gas in Pakistan 168

    Table 4. Monthly production of oil in Pakistan in 1969 168

    Table 5. Monthly production of natural gas in Pakistan in 1969 169

    Table 6. Annual consumption of gas from Sui field 169Table 7. Annual imports and processing of crude oil 169

    2 Aa—XV

    Developments in the petroleum industry in the Philippines, 1965-1968 171Table 1. Combined crude oil runs and outputs of the four refineries in the Philippines,

    1965-1968 173

    Table 2. Imports of oil and refined petroleum products into the Philippines, 1965-1968 .. 175

    Figure 1. Geophysical survey of the Philippines 1965-1968 172

    Figure 2. Petroleum concession map of the Philippines, 1969 174

    2 Aa—XVI

    Progress made in the development of petroleum resources and refining in Thailand 177

    2 Aa —XVII

    Status of offshore exploration for petroleum in the Gulf of Thailand, with an account of themethods used and plans for future investigations 178

    Figure 1. Map of the Gulf of Thailand showing petroleum concessions 179

    b. In countries outside the ECAFE region2 Ab —I

    Outline of the progress of exploration for gas in north-western Germany 180

    Figure 1. Gas provinces of western Germany — location, production and reserves .. ..182

    Figure 2. Regional-geologic setting of the gasfields of north-western Germany 183

    Figure 3. Drilling footage and average depths of gas exploration wells in north-western

    Germany 184

    xiii

  • 2 Ab — II Page

    Oil and natural gas in the Netherlands — a summary 185

    Table 1. Holders of prospecting licences in the North Sea 186

    2 Ab—IH

    Developments in oil and gas production in the USSR, 1965-1968 186

    B. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ECAFE REGION

    a. Regional and general2 Ba —I

    International geological correlation programme — United Kingdom contribution (title only, issuedelsewhere and at symposium) 191

    2 Ba —II

    Oil and natural gas prospects of the marine shelves of eastern Asia (title only, publishedelsewhere) 191

    2 Ba —III

    The origin of oil — recent investigations in the USSR 191

    2 Ba—IV

    Stress fields as indicated by fracture orientations — potential application to petroleum production 195

    Table 1. Correlation of frequency and orientation of micro-defects with point-load-inducedfractures and hydraulically-induced wellbore fractures 199

    Figure 1. Mean orientations of surface and subsurface vertical fractures in the Bradford and

    Allegany oilfields area of New York and Pennsylvania 196

    Figure 2. Composite vertical fracture orientations of the Bradford and Allegany oilfield areaobtained from measurements of aerial photographs, relief maps, and surface surveys 196

    Figure 3. Map of eastern Ohio showing joints mapped by Kantrowitz, ver Steeg, Nickelsenand Hough, and the US Bureau of Mines 197

    Figure 4. Rose diagrams comparing surface joint trends with aerial photograph lineaments andoriented core fractures in Hocking County, Ohio 198

    Figure 5. Three types of strain transducers used in overcoring surface outcrops to determinerelative magnitude and orientation of principal horizontal compressive stress .. .. 200

    Figure 6. Diagram comparing results of various surface and subsurface orientation studiesconducted in Hocking County, Ohio 201

    Figure 7. Map of central and northern Appalachian basin showing inferred orientation of

    principal compressive stress and the direction to which induced hydraulic featuresshould be parallel 202

    2 Ba—V

    Directional characteristics of reservoir sandstone 203

    Figure 1. Test apparatus showing through transmission arrangement of transducers .. .. 205

    Figure 2. Pulse display on oscilloscope screen 206

    Figure 3. Directional flow cell showing specimen and collection tube arrangement 207

    Figure 4. Radiation pattern of ultrasonic pulse at a source diameter-to-wavelength ratio of 2 208

    Figure 5. Test results indicating variations in pulse transit time and fluid flow with direction 208

    Figure 6. Comparison of directional transit times and directional flow results with orientedcore and borehole fractures 209

    Figure 7. Comparison of directional flow results with surface joint measurements and lineamentsfrom aerial photographs 210

    Figure 8. Comparison of permeability contours, surface joints, and borehole fractures in theBradford oilfield 211

    xiv

  • b. Of countries of the ECAFE region2 Bb — I Page

    General geology of Afghanistan 212

    2 Bb —II

    The sedimentary basins of Australia and the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, and thestratigraphic occurrence of hydrocarbons 215

    Figure 1. Sedimentary basins of Australia and the Territory of Papua and New Guinea .. .. 217

    Figure 2. Sedimentary basins and main structural elements of the Territory of Papua andNew Guinea 230

    2 Bb —III

    A marine geophysical survey of the north-west continental shelf of Australia, 1968 .. .. 234

    Figure 1. Traverse locations and two-way seismic reflection times to horizon near base ofthe Tertiary .. ..

    (

    236

    Figure 2. Water depth contours, structural unit boundaries and deep water seismic reflectionsections 238

    Figure 3. Bouguer anomaly contours and total magnetic intensity contours 240

    2 Bb—IV

    Recent geophysical results, northern Amadeus Basin, Australia 242

    Table 1. Generalized stratigraphic column, northern Amadeus basin 242

    Figure 1. Locality map of Amadeus basin 242

    Figure 2. Generalized aeromagnetic interpretation 245

    Figure 3. Generalized reconnaissance Bouguer anomaly contours 245

    Figure 4. Regional seismic depth contours to top of Cambrian, and structures 245

    Figure 5. Regional Bouguer anomaly contours, and structures 246

    Figure 6. Seismic contours to top of Cambrian, Waterhouse-Orange area 246

    Figure 7. North-south seismic section, Waterhouse Anticline 247

    Figure 8. North-south seismic section, western nose of Waterhouse Anticline 248

    Figure 9. North-south seismic section, Orange Anticline 248

    Figure 10. Seismic depth contours to top of Cambrian, Deering Uplift-Tyler area 249

    Figure II. Airphoto showing geologic interpretation, Goyder Pass diapir 249

    Figure 12. North-south seismic section, Deering Uplift . . . . 250

    2 Bb —V

    Depositional history and tectonics of South Australian sedimentary basins 251

    Figure 1. Map of South Australia showing sedimentary basins and infra-basins and majorcratonic features 253

    Figure 2. Lithofacies map of Lower Cambrian sediments of the Arrowie basin 256

    Figure 3. Geologic cross-section from the Boorthanna trough (eastern Arckaringa basin) toto the Copper basin 258

    Figure 4. Geologic cross-section through the eastern Officer basin 260

    Figure 5. Geologic cross-section through the Cooper basin 261

    Figure 6. Geologic cross-section of the Gambier embayment (Otway basin) 263

    2 Bb —VI

    Petroleum prospects of the Gulf St Vincent region, South Australia 267

    Tabe 1. Drilling logs of three wells 273

    xv

  • Page

    Figure 1. Index and location map 268

    Figure 2. Pre-Quaternary geologic map 269

    Figure 3. Aeromagnetic contour map 271

    Figure 4. Bouguer anomaly contour map 272

    2 Bb —VII

    Geological framework of the Great Australian Bight 275

    Figure 1. Map showing petroleum exploration titles 276

    Figure 2. Map showing aeromagnetic basement depths 277

    Figure 3. Map of Tertiary subcrop 277

    Figure 4. Geologic section of the Duntroon basin 278

    Figure 5. Map showing area of Tertiary deposition 280

    Figure 6. Seismic reflection time contours to Mesozoic phantom horizons 282

    2 Bb —VIII

    The ancestral Great Barrier Reef in the Gulf of Papua 283

    Figure 1. Location of the Great Barrier Reef and platform reefs of the western Coral Sea 284

    Figure 2. Ancestral Great Barrier Reef in the Gulf of Papua 285

    Figure 3. Seismic cross-section across Borabi barrier reef 286

    Figure 4. Seismic cross-section across Pasca platform reef 287

    2 Bb — IX

    Recent investigations into the geology of the Southern Highlands, Papua 288Table I. Stratigraphic table 291

    Figure 1. Map showing areas of recent activity 289

    Figure 2. Location map, Southern Highlands basin 290

    Figure 3. Schematic structural cross-section 293

    2 Bb —X

    Comparative study of the gas reservoirs in the Chinshui and Tiehchenshan gasfields, Miaoli,Taiwan, China 295

    Table 1. Stratigraphic sequences, thicknesses of formations, and stratigraphic positions of gasand oil zones 296

    Table 2. Porosity and permeability of Zone CS-13 and Zone TT-1 299

    Table 3. Analyses of reservoir water from Zone CS-13 and Zone TT-1 301

    Table 4. Absolute open flow potential of natural gas from each well, and its net pay sand

    thickness, in Zone CS-13 and Zone TT-1 303

    Table 5. Analysis of reservoir water from Zone CS-14Z of the CS-60 well in the Chinshui

    gasfield 304

    Table 6. Lithologic character of gas and potential gas zones in the Chuhuangkeng Formation 305

    Table 7. Chemical components and physical properties of the natural gas and oil in the

    Chuhuangkeng Formation 306

    Table 8. Reservoir water analysis of the gas and potential gas zones in the ChuhuangkengFormation 308

    Table 9. Reservoir pressure and temperature in the Chuhuangkeng Formation 308

    Table 10. Absolute open flow potential of natural gas in each well from Zones CS-15 toCS-20

    Table 11. Lithologic character of gas and potential gas zones in the lower Miocene formations 310

    Table 12. Chemical components and physical properties of the natural gas and oil in thelower Miocene formations 311

    Tabic 13. Analyses of reservoir water from Zones TT-5 to TT-10 311

    Table 14. Reservoir pressure and temperature in the lower Miocene formations 312

    xvi

  • PageTable 15. Absolute open flow potential of natural gas in each well from the lower Miocene

    formations 313

    Figure 1. Geologic map of the Chinshui and Tiehchenshan gasfields 295

    Figure 2. Sketch showing the stratigraphic sequence and structural relation between the Tieh¬chenshan and Chinshui gasfields 297

    Figure 3. Map showing the subsurface structure of the protoquartzitic sandstone in the TaluShale 297

    Figure 4. Chart showing porosity-permeability values of Zone CS-13 300

    Figure 5. Chart showing porosity-permeability values of Subzone TT-1A 300

    Figure 6. Reservoir water properties of Zone CS-13 and Subzone TT-1A 302

    Figure 7. Chart showing relation of the pressure and temperature to the depth in the ChinshuiTiehchenshan gasfields 303

    Figure 8. Reservoir water properties of the gas and potential zones in the ChuhuangkengFormation in the Chinshui and Tiehchenshan gasfields 307

    Figure 9. Reservoir water properties of the potential zones in the lower Miocene formationsin the Tiehchenshan gasfields 312

    2 Bb —XI

    Interpretation and seismic co-ordination of the Bouguer gravity anomalies in south-western

    Taiwan, China 313

    Figure 1. Bouguer gravity anomalies of south-western Taiwan 315

    Figure 2. Residual gravity anomalies of south-western Taiwan 317

    Figure 3. Seismic structure contour map of the top of Pliocene formations in south-westernTaiwan 319

    Figure 4. Gravity profile and seismic section from Hsinying to Tainan anticline in south-westernTaiwan 321

    Figure 5. Gravity profile and seismic section across Tainan anticline . . 325

    Figure 6. Gravity profile and seismic section across Chungchou, Panpingshan and Pingtunganticlines 329

    2 Bb —XII

    A stratigraphic and sedimentary analysis of the protoquartzite in the Miocene Talu Shalein northern Taiwan, China 331

    Table 1. Thicknesses of the Talu Shale and of the lenticular protoquartzite with shale (ZoneTT-1) within it in wells and outcrops in northern Taiwan 335

    Table 2. Size analysis of the protoquartzite in the Talu Shale in northern Taiwan .. .. 338

    Table 3. Effective porosity and carbonate content of the protoquartzite in the Talu Shale innorthern Taiwan 339

    Table 4. Mineralogical composition of the protoquartzite in the Talu Shale in northern Taiwan 341

    Table 5. Mineralogical composition of the heavy minerals in the protoquartzite of the TaluShale in northern Taiwan 343

    Table 6. Chemical composition of the protoquartzite in the Talu Shale in northern Taiwan .. 345

    Figure 1. Map showing the geographic distribution and petroleum possibility of the lenticular

    protoquartzite in the Talu Shale in northern Taiwan 332

    Figure 2. Isopach map of the Talu Shale and of the lenticular protoquartzite with shale

    (Zone TT-1) in northern Taiwan 333

    Figure 3. Stratigraphic section in northern Taiwan, based on lithologic and electric logs of

    the Talu Shale and of the lenticular protoquartzite (Zone TT-1) 334

    Figure 4. Distribution map showing sandstone percentage variation of the lenticular proto¬quartzite with shale (Zone TT-1) in the Talu Shale in northern Taiwan .. ..336

    Figure 5. Distribution map showing carbonate content of the protoquartzite in the Talu Shale

    in northern Taiwan 340

    xvii

  • PageFigure 6. Size range of detrital particles of protoquartzite in the Talu Shale in northern

    Taiwan .342

    Figure 7. Diagrammatic east-west section across the Tiehchenshan gasfield, the Chinshuigasfield, and the Chuhuangkeng oilfield in the Miaoli region, showing the combinationtraps of the lenticular protoquartizite in the Talu Shale formed by both stratigraphicand structural causes . . . . 346

    2 Bb —XIII

    Study of the physical and chemical properties of the natural gas, condensate and crude oilproduced in Taiwan, China 348

    Table 1. Geochemical classification of natural gases 349

    Table 2. Paragenesis of the main constituents of natural gas 350

    Table 3. Analyses of natural gas produced from different geological formations in the Chinshuigasfield 351

    Table 4. Analyses of natural gas produced from different geological formations in theTiehchenshan-Tunghsiao gasfield 351

    Table 5. Analyses of natural gas produced from different geological formations in theChuhuangkeng oilfield 353

    Table 6. Analyses of natural gas produced from various geological formations in miscellaneousdistricts in northern Taiwan other than Chinshui, Tiehchenshan-Tunghsiao andChuhuangkeng gas or oil fields 353

    Table 7. Analyses of natural gas produced from various geological formation in southernTaiwan 357

    Table 8. Analyses of liquid petroleum pro.luced from various districts and fields in Taiwan . . 359Table 9. Detailed analysis of liquid petroleum produced from 13th Zone (Talu Shale) in

    Chinshui gasfield 360

    Table 10. Detailed analysis of liquid petroleum produced from TT-1 Zone (Talu Shale) inTiehchenshan-Tunghsiao gasfield 361

    Table 11. Localities and calorific values of gases produced from the geologic formations ofthe last three- Miocene sedimentary cycles in northern Taiwan 362

    Figure 1. Locations of gas producing districts in Taiwan 349Figure 2. Natural gas equicaloric map of the Hopai cycle (Shangfuchi-Tungkeng Formation)

    in northern Taiwan, 363

    Figure 3. Natural gas equicaloric map of the Chuhuankeng cycle (Chuhuangkeng Formation)in northern Taiwan 364

    Figure 4. Natural gas equicaloric map of the Mushan cycle (Mushan Formation) in northernTaiwan 365

    2 Bb—XIV

    Surface stratigraphy, tectonic setting, and petroleum prospects of the Jaisalmer area, Rajasthan,India 366

    Table 1. Subsurface stratigraphy of the Jaisalmer-Mari arch area 369

    Figure 1. Tectonic setting of the Jaisalmer area 368

    Figure 2. Correlation of wells drilled on the Jaisalmer-Mari arch 370

    2 Bb—XV

    The tectonic setting and Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleogeography of the western part of theIndian subscontinent 371

    Figure 1. Tectonic setting and Jurassic-Cretaceous paleoshorelines in the western part of theIndian subcontinent 372

    Figure 2. Generalized stratigraphic columns and their correlation, Zindapir-Pugal-Palana . . 373

    Figure 3. Generalized stratigraphic columns and their correlation, Sui-Mari-Kharatar-Jaisalmer 374

    Figure 4. Generalized stratigraphic columns and their correlation, Quetta-Bugti Hills-Kharatar-Jaisalmer 375

    xviii

  • Page

    Figure 5. Generalized stratigraphic columns and their correlation, Kirthar Range-Kutch-Viramgam-Kalol-Cambay-Anklesvar 376

    Figure 6. Tectonic setting and Paleocene-Oligocene paleoshorelines in the western part of theIndian subcontinent 380

    2 Bb —XVI

    Poorly explored sedimentary basins of India 381

    Figure 1. Map showing poorly explored basins of India 382

    2 Bb —XVII

    Status of basin studies in India 406

    2 Bb —XVIII

    Basement configuration in the South Palembang basinal area, Indonesia-—its significance todepositional conditions and oil trapping 408

    2 Bb —XIX

    Geology of the Niigata Plain, Honshu, Japan . . 409

    Table 1. Neogene stratigraphy of the Niigata Plain 411

    Figure 1. Locality and index map , 410

    Figure 2. Aeromagnetic contour map 412

    Figure 3. Geologic cross-sections 413

    Figure 4. Structure contours of the base of the Teradomari Formation 415

    2 Bb —XX

    Geological, geophysical and drilling surveys for oil and natural gas in Korea 416

    Table 1. Stratigraphic table 416

    Table 2. Chemical analysis of methane gas seepage in the Pohang area 433

    Table 3. Chemical analysis of water content of gas seepage in the Pohang area .. .. 433

    Figure 1. Geologic map of the Pohang area 417

    Figure 2. Location map of geophysical prospecting in the Pohang-Hunghae area, Korea .. 421

    Figure 3. Summarized results of geophysical exploration in the Pohang area 423

    Figure 4. Tertiary correlation diagram for drilling in the Pohang area 427

    Figure 5. Geologic and electric logs of drill-hole PY-1 429

    Figure 6. Geologic and electric logs of drill-hole PY-2 .. 430

    Figure 7. Geologic and electric logs of drill-hole PY-3 432

    Figure 8. Traverse plan of offshore geophysical survey, Pohang area 435

    Figure 9. Geologic structure map based on offshore geophysical survey, Pohang area .. .. 436

    Figure 10. Isopach map of Teritiary sediments, based on offshore geophysical survey, Pohangarea 437

    Figure 11. Isopach map of Neogene sediments, based on offshore geophysical survey in theYellow Sea and East China Sea; geophysical survey lines are shown .... .. 438

    Figure 12. Location map of aeromagnetic survey, 1969 440

    2Bb —XXI

    Notes on the general character of the gravity field in the Island of Luzon, Philippines .. . . 441

    Figure 1. Simplified Bouguer anomaly contour map of Luzon Island, Philippines 443

    2 Bb — XXH

    Geology and stratigraphy of some sedimentary basins in the Philippines"

    ..445

    2 Bb—XXHI

    New developments in the petroleum geology of the Fang and Chiang Mai Basins, northern

    Thailand, and of the Gulf of Thailand 452

  • c. Of countries outside the ECAFE region

    2 Be —I Page

    Carbon isotope analyses on natural gases in north-western Germany 454

    Figure 1. Carbon dioxide and methane contents of gases from north-western Germany .. 455

    Figure 2. Methane S-values of gases from north-western Germany 456

    Figure 3. Carbon isotope ratio of methane in relation to C1/2C11 456

    2 Be —H

    New oil and gas regions in the epi-Paleozoic platforms of Central Asia, Kazakhstan andWestern Siberia 457

    2 Bd. Paper concerning stratigraphy of the ECAFE region

    (Published separately as: Stratigraphic correlation between sedimentary basins of theECAFE region (Second Volume). Mineral Resources Development Series No. 36.

    United Nations, New York, 1970.)

    2 Bd —I

    Stratigraphic correlation between sedimentary basins of the ECAFE region

    2 Bd —II

    Contributions towards a stratigraphic scale for the ECAFE region

    2 Bd—HI

    Paleontology in Australia (including the place of micropaleontology)

    2 Bd—IV

    A correlation chart for the Cretaceous System in Australia

    2 Bd—V

    Note on the establishment of principles for standardization of stratigraphic nomenclature in

    Taiwan, China

    2 Bd—VI

    Regional stratigraphic study of the Miocene formations in northern Taiwan, China

    2 Bd —VII

    Stratigraphic correlation of the subsurface formations in north-western Taiwan, China

    2 Bd—VHI

    An outline of the stratigraphy and structure of the sedimentary basins in India

    2 Bd—IX

    A review of recent contributions to the Mesozoic and Cenozoic foraminiferal biostratigraphyof India

    2 Bd—X

    Contributions on Cretaceous and Cenozoic microfauna, paleoecology, stratigraphic classificationand correlation in India

    2 Bd —XI

    Steps towards standardization of stratigraptc classification in Indonesia

    2 Bd —XH

    Neogene Tertiary planktonic foraminiferal zonation in the oil producing provinces of Japan

    2 Bd—XHI

    Some aspects of the stratigraphy and correlation of the Surma Basin wells, East Pakistan

    xx