Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003:...

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Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry Bassi SUNY Brockport

Transcript of Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003:...

Page 1: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Prisons and JailsPrisons and Jails

© 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

Chapter 13Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003:

A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool

Slides prepared by:Larry Bassi

SUNY Brockport

Chapter 13Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003:

A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool

Slides prepared by:Larry Bassi

SUNY Brockport

Page 2: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

William PennWilliam Penn

• New, more humane system introduced forbidding torture

• Imprisonment at hard labor & moderate flogging with restitution

• All lands and goods were to be forfeited

• Ordered houses of corrections to be built

• New, more humane system introduced forbidding torture

• Imprisonment at hard labor & moderate flogging with restitution

• All lands and goods were to be forfeited

• Ordered houses of corrections to be built

Page 3: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Pennsylvania Prison System CharacteristicsPennsylvania Prison System Characteristics

• Solitary confinement with in-cell labor• Cells large by existing standards• Modestly appointed:

– bed, table, chair, bucket & bible• A place to reflect on wrong doings and improve

one’s moral character - to get right with God

Page 4: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Eastern State PenitentiaryEastern State Penitentiary

Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia wasconsidered one of the most progressive designs.It was studied and replicated throughout the world.

Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia wasconsidered one of the most progressive designs.It was studied and replicated throughout the world.

Page 5: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

The New York (Auburn System): An Alternative to the Pennsylvania System

The New York (Auburn System): An Alternative to the Pennsylvania System

• Sometimes called the “tier system”

• Based on fear of punishment & silent confinement

• Congregate work conditions

• Separate & silent conditions at night

• Enforced silence was the key to discipline

Page 6: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Reforms & Reformers:The Elmira ReformatoryReforms & Reformers:

The Elmira Reformatory

• End corporal punishment

• Education• Meaningful

industries and vocational training

• Focus on reintegration

• End corporal punishment

• Education• Meaningful

industries and vocational training

• Focus on reintegration

People likeZebulon

Brockway

People likeZebulon

Brockway

Page 7: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

The Inmate Population of the United States

The Inmate Population of the United States

500

2,000 -

1,500 -

1,000 -

| | | | | | | | | | | |1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Year

TotalInmates

InCustody(x 1,000)

Page 8: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Why Have Prison Populations Grown?

Why Have Prison Populations Grown?

Stricter enforcement of drug laws

Increased probability of incarceration

Inmates serve more time for each crime

Revocation of community-based sanctions

Rise in incarceration rates of women

Page 9: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Models of Prison OrganizationModels of Prison Organization

RehabilitativeModel

ReintegrationModel

CustodialModel

Page 10: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

State Prison OrganizationState Prison OrganizationBasic classifications: Gender Age Security

Female

FemaleSuper MaxMaxMedMin

Male Juvenile

Male

StatePrison Dept.

Page 11: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Organization Chart for a Typical Correctional Facility

Organization Chart for a Typical Correctional Facility

Page 12: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Maximum Security Prisons

Maximum Security Prisons

• Fortresses• Cells / Blocks / Wings• Standard uniform & dress codes• Everything based on security (lock

psychosis)

• Fortresses• Cells / Blocks / Wings• Standard uniform & dress codes• Everything based on security (lock

psychosis)

Page 13: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Security Levels in VirginiaSecurity Levels in Virginia

Page 14: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Medium Security PrisonsMedium Security Prisons

• Similar appearance to maximum security

• Security is less intense• More privileges• More treatment effort

Page 15: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Minimum Security Prisons

Minimum Security Prisons

• No armed guards or walls• House most trustworthy

& least violent offenders• Dormitory style housing

or small rooms• Critics complain they

are “country clubs” in a prison setting

• No armed guards or walls• House most trustworthy

& least violent offenders• Dormitory style housing

or small rooms• Critics complain they

are “country clubs” in a prison setting

Page 16: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Prison MissionPrison MissionThe mission of a prison is to keep prisoners - to keep them in, keep them safe, keep them in line, keep them healthy, and keep them busy - and to do it with fairness, without undue suffering and as efficiently as possible.

The mission of a prison is to keep prisoners - to keep them in, keep them safe, keep them in line, keep them healthy, and keep them busy - and to do it with fairness, without undue suffering and as efficiently as possible.

Page 17: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Two Models of Prison Management

Two Models of Prison Management

• CONTROL MODELInmates forced to abide by stringent prison rules - infractions summarily punished.

• CONTROL MODELInmates forced to abide by stringent prison rules - infractions summarily punished.

• PARTICIPATION MODELPrograms established that allowed inmates to govern some aspects of their prison lives

• PARTICIPATION MODELPrograms established that allowed inmates to govern some aspects of their prison lives

Page 18: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Private PrisonsPrivate Prisons

Save money throughSave money through::•Less labor costsLess labor costs•Competitive biddingCompetitive bidding•Less red-tapeLess red-tape

Save money throughSave money through::•Less labor costsLess labor costs•Competitive biddingCompetitive bidding•Less red-tapeLess red-tape

Page 19: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Arguments Against Private Prisons

Arguments Against Private Prisons

Punishment is sanctioned by the government, therefore it should be carried out by the government

“Corner cutting” to save costs Manipulation of inmate behavior to insure

that maximum sentences will be served (thereby creating its own supply and demand relationship.

Punishment is sanctioned by the government, therefore it should be carried out by the government

“Corner cutting” to save costs Manipulation of inmate behavior to insure

that maximum sentences will be served (thereby creating its own supply and demand relationship.

Page 20: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Purpose of Jails in AmericaPurpose of Jails in America

• A branch of local government - county• Pre-trial detention• Detain offenders awaiting sentencing• Confine misdemeanants• Hold probation & parole violators• Relieve prison overcrowding through

contracts with the state

• A branch of local government - county• Pre-trial detention• Detain offenders awaiting sentencing• Confine misdemeanants• Hold probation & parole violators• Relieve prison overcrowding through

contracts with the state

Page 21: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

The Characteristics of America’s Jail Population

The Characteristics of America’s Jail Population

Profile of Jail Inmates 1996

Page 22: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Jail ConditionsJail Conditions

• Operated under concept of custodial convenience

• Understaffed, underpaid

• Lack of basic programs and services

• Suicides common

Page 23: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Jail PopulationsJail Populations

‘84 “00‘84 “00

Jail populations havebeen increasingJail populations havebeen increasing

• Arrests increased• Increase in admissions to jail• Increase in felons sentenced to local jails• Increase in the number of inmates charged or

convicted of drug offenses• More held in jail because of crowded prisons

• Arrests increased• Increase in admissions to jail• Increase in felons sentenced to local jails• Increase in the number of inmates charged or

convicted of drug offenses• More held in jail because of crowded prisons

Page 24: Prisons and Jails © 2002 Wadsworth Publishing Co. Chapter 13 Introduction to Criminal Justice 2003: A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Tool Slides prepared by: Larry.

Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration

Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration

• A significant number of criminal acts are prevented by repeat offenders

• Severe social and psychological consequences for prisoners and their families

• Loss of public dollars for other worthy projects