Presenting And Practising Language


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2. THE SUBJECT MATTER OF ELTLanguage Language Systems Skills Lexis Speaking Writing GrammarProductive skills FunctionReading Listening PhonologyReceptive 3. Mainly skills or mainly systems? a. T writes a grammar exercise on the board which learnerscopy and then do. b. Learners read a newspaper article and then discuss thestory with each other. c. Learners underline all past simple verb forms in anewspaper article. d. Learners chat with their teacher about the weekend. e. Learners write an imaginary postcard to a friend, which the Tthen corrects. f. Learners write a postcard to a friend, which is posteduncorrected. g. T says What tenses do these people use? Learners thenlisten to a recorded conversation. h. T says Where are these people? Learners then listen to arecorded conversation. i. T uses pictures to teach ten words connected with 4. Demonstration Lesson 5. Presentation Mini-phases Set the scene using one of the techniques (real objects orpictures, drawings, situations, mimes, stories, texts, listeningpassages, dialogues etc.) Model the new language, saying it two or three times. Ask students to practice the new language several times, first the whole class, then in groups, then in pairs.] Ask questions to check that students understand the meaning of the new words, structure or function. Write the new language item on the board, marking in the stress and checking the spelling with the students. If necessary, explain the grammar of the new language item. Ask students to copy the information from the board into their notebooks. 6. Features of Presentation Purpose To give Ss the opportunity to realize the usefullness and relevance of a new language item; To present meaning and form; To check understanding. Important features Clear, motivating, natural and relevant context; Model sentence(s); Concept 7. Features of Presentation Typical activities Build-up of appropriate situational and linguistic context for the new language; Listening and initial repetition of model sentence. Role of the T informant Type of interaction T-Ss (group) - T-Std (individual) 8. Features of Presentation Degree of control Highly controlled T provides model(s) Correction Important in order to ensure that Ss have correct grasp of forms Length and pace in the lesson Short, usually at the beginning 9. Presenting new language Two underlying approaches for the differing techniqueswe can use deductive and 10. Checking understanding Do you understand? OK? Any question? Conveying meaning andchecking understanding Realia and visuals Mime and gesture Give examples Explanation or definition Translation Concept questions Time 11. Checking understanding Visuals Pictures to distinguish between similarobjects e.g. cup / mug, lane / road / 12. Checking understanding Visuals Which sentence goes with each picture? A) They started the meeting when she arrived. B) Theyd started the meeting when she arrived. 13. Checking understanding "I am sorry, I dont understanding temporary repeated action, and why you have said Present consequence of a completed event in the past at an unspecified time or a state which commenced at a point of time in the past and continues until the present time and in all likelihood will continue into the future time? I havent understood. Please help me!" Time Lines 14. Checking understanding Time Lines 15. Concept checking Concept checking is checking the understanding of difficultaspects of the target structure in terms of function andmeaning. 16. Concept questions 17. Concept questions 18. Concept questions 19. Concept questions Apart from their classroom value, thinking of good questions also helps inexperienced teachers to understand the complexities of form, function and meaning, and to practise grading their language. Some basic tips for good concept questions are: Make sure the questions are simple and that no difficultlanguage is required to answer the question. Yes/noquestions, either/or questions and simple wh questions areparticularly effective; Dont use the new (target) grammar in your questions; Dont use unfamiliar vocabulary; Bring out basic concepts such as time and tense in yourquestions; Use as many questions as possible to check various aspectsof the language and to cover as many learners as possible. 20. Concept questions 21. Concept questions 22. Concept checking Target sentence: If I won the lottery, Id buy a new car Checking questions Have I won the lottery? No. Am I going to win the lottery? Probably not. Am I going to buy a new car? Probably not. Have I got a lottery ticket? Maybe. Is this real, or imaginary? Imaginary. 23. Concept checking Target item:bedsit Checking questions Is a bedsit a room? Are there other rooms in the house? Can you sleep in it? Is it a room or a building? Is it cheap or expensive? Do you buy it or pay money every week or month? Who lives in it? How many people live in it? Do you only sleep in it? Can you cook a meal in it? Is it the same as a flat? Is there a bedsit in this building? Have you ever lived in a bedsit? Are there bedsits in Goiania/Brazil? 24. Concept checking Questions may be of different types: Yes/no questions. 50/50 chance questions. Information questions. Discrimination questions. Shared experience questions. Life experience/culture questions. Remember that the answers sometimes, it depends and I dont know can tell you as much as yes or 25. Checking understanding Write up concept questions to check the understanding ofthe following: I remembered to post the letter./ I remembered posting the letter. Wellington boots (wellies) I wish you wouldnt smoke in here! Expressing preferences (like, hate, adore, cant stand etc.) A calf Book Concept Questions (p.47, 52) 26. Practice Practice may be defined as any kind of engaging with thelanguage on the part of the learner, usually under theteacher supervision, whose primary objective is toconsolidate learning (UR, 1988, p.11) In order to give students intensive oral or written practiceon specific language points, we can use activitiesdesigned to restrict the language needed and that requirethe use of the target items. Practice usually begins with what is termed mechanicalpractice - open and closed pairwork. Students graduallymove into more communicative practice involvingprocedures such as information gap activities, dialoguecreation and controlled 27. Practice Controlled or Guided Practice It can be teacher-driven, peer-driven or from atape/CD/video. It can be done individually, in open pairs, closed pairs,groups, or as a mingle.) 28. Practice Transformation drills Repetition drills Substitution drills Question-Answer Drills Chain Drills Information gap e.g. Find Someone Who Shadow reading/listening Flowcharts Stds have cards/ a list with the dialogue/responses each andthen use them to respond to each other 29. PracticeT: Hes going to drive the car. - T: Hes going to eat the cake.everybody!Ss: Hes going to eat the cake.Stds chorally: Hes going to driveT: coffee.the car.Ss: Hes going to drink the coffee.T: Bus. Hes going to drive thebus. - everybody!T: Eliane.Stds chorally: Hes going to drive Ss: ...the bus. T: Make.T: Taxi.Ss: ...Stds chorally: Hes going to drivethe taxi.T: Lorry.Stds: 30. PracticeT: You are a stranger. Ask about T: You want to see a film. places in the town. Stds: Is there a cinema near here?T: A hotel. Is there a hotel near T: You are hungry. here? Stds: ...Stds : Is there a hotel near here? T: You want to buy a newspaper.T: a grocers shop T: You want to spend the nightStds: a petrol stationStds: ...T: a jubjubT: a gimbleT: an outgrabe 31. Features of Practice Purpose To provide maximum practice within controlled but realistic and contextualized frameworks; To build confidence in using new language. Important features Framework provides guidance for utterances, reduces scope of errors; Clear and realistic prompts; Students talking time 32. Features of Practice Typical activities Drills; Line dialogues/picture boards Information and opinion gap activities Role of the T Conductor Corrector Type of interaction T-Ss- Std-Std (pair work) 33. Features of Practice Degree of control Very controlled Students have limited choice Correction Teacher, other students or self correction Length and pace in the lesson Depends on students needs and ability Follows presentation, or at beginning for 34. Drills Repetition drills What drilling is Guessing games What drills can beuseful for Disappearing text What we should drill Dialogue building When we should drill Mingle activities Information gaps Drilling 1 Songs, rhymes and chants Drilling 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. Production Freer Practice or Production Fluency-based Speaking Roleplays Debates Discussions e.g. questions to discuss before a text which is used to confirm, to follow on from a topic Games Describing activities with pictures/photos etc. e.g. describe and draw, find differences, story dominoes Problem solving 41. Production Brainstorming whole class, group, (also chaine.g. pass along and then compare/classify) Mini presentations job-based, std talks etc. Decision making activities e.g. court, committee,election Setting up/designing a project e.g. new laws,space colony, robot, product, advertsingcampaign Simulations - carried out over a period of timeCould be preparation for real life e.g. 42. Features of Production Purpose To provide the opportunity for students to use new language in freer, more creative ways; To check how much has really been learnt; To integrate new language with old; To practice dealing with the unpredictable; To motivate the students and give them confidence; Can be used for revision or diagnostic purposes. Important features Purposeful tasks; Students work together at their own pace; Clear instructions; Allowance of possibility of making mistakes 43. Features of Production Typical activities Games Role plays Discourse chains Discussions Information and opinion gaps etc. Role of the T Monitor Adviser/consultant Encourager 44. Features of Production Type of interaction Std-Std (pairs, groups, mingles) Degree of control Greater element of freedom Correction Generally no interference from the 45. References EVANS, D. A review of PPP. University of Birmingham, workingpaper. 1999. GRAHAM W. Concept Questions and Time Lines. ChadburnPublishing, 2006. HARMER, J. The practice of English language teaching. Essex:Longman Group Limited, 1983. ________. How to teach English. Harlow: Longman, 1998. OLIVEIRA, E. C. Reflexes sobre oportunidades de aprendizagemem aulas de lnguas estrangeiras. In: FIGUEIREDO, F. J. Q. (Org.)Formao de professores de lnguas estrangeiras: princpios eprticas. Goinia: Editora da UFG, 2012. SCRIVENER, J. Learning teaching: a guidebook for Englishlanguage teachers. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Heinemann,