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The early agricultural mechanization in India was greatly influenced by the technological developments in England. Horse drawn and steam-tractor-operated equipments were imported during the later part of the nineteenth century. The horsedrawn equipments imported from England were not suitable for bullocks and buffaloes being used in India. These were suitably modified to suit Indian draught animals. With the production of indigenous tractors and irrigation pumps, the use of mechanical power in agriculture, has been showing an increasing trend.

The productivity of farms depends greatly on the availability and judicious use of farm power by the farmers. Agricultural implements and machines enable the farmers to employ the power judiciously for production purposes The quality and precision of the operations are equally significant for realizing higher yields

As production increases with mechanization of the farm operations, it creates a good scope for commercialization of agricultureIt reduces the weather risk and risk of nonavailability of labour and thus wastage is minimized

Displacement of human labour does take place and demand for semiskilled labour in place of unskilled labour is increased The drudgery for human labour is reduced and unhygienic operations such as handling of farm yard manure can be done with machinery Agricultural machines increase productivity of land and labour by meeting timeliness of farm operations and increase work out-put per unit time

Traditional farming practices have evolved over the years for various processesPROCESSES PROCESSESLand Development, Tillage and Seedbed Preparation

TRADITIONAL Traditional Practices PRACTICESPlough and Blade harrow were used to break soil without inverting or disturbing crop residue Dibblers were used to make hole in soil and seeds were dropped in funnel attached to country plough Hand hoes and animal driven weeding tool were are generally used for removing weeds between plants in a row. Dusters are hand sprayers have been used traditionally for plant protection. It was suitable for low volume spraying.

CURRENT Practices Current PRACTICESTractors, Mould board plough and disc plough are advanced implements for breaking soil. Modern seed drill and planters are used to distribute seeds uniformly at the desired application rates.

Sowing and Planting

Weeding and Inter-cultivation

Tractor operated implements are used presently for inter cultivation and weeding purpose of wider rows.Blower and Power sprayer can regulate volume of pesticides and size of drops to be sprayed.

Plant Protection

Harvesting and Threshing

Harvesting of major crops was done manually using sickle. After harvesting, crops were trampled and beaten for threshing.

Tractor mounted as well as self propelled harvester and thresher are used nowadays for doing these processes efficiently.

Source: Zinnov research, Literature search

These processes involve the use of multiple equipments at each stageFocus of Discussion Land development, Tillage, Seedbed Preparation Objective Weeding , Intercultivation, Plant protection Post harvest and agro processing Sowing and Planting Harvesting and Threshing

Jungle clearance,Soil opening, Making farm roads, Field bundling , Leveling Equipments Involved Tractors

Sowing seedsat desired depth, spacing, seed rate etc.

Weed control,Improving soil condition, reduce run off, improve infiltration of rain, usage of insecticide/pesticide Tiller

To take out grain,straw, tubers etc. without much loss and to separate grains from harvested crop Harvester

Cleaning, grading,separation, drying, storage, milling, food processing, packaging, transport and marketing.

Drill

Seed Extractor Dehusker Huller/Dehuller Cleaner Grader Mill Dryer10

Levelers Ploughs Dozers Scrapers Ditchers Terracers

Seeder Planter Dibbler Transplanter

Harrow

Thresher

Plough Sprayer Duster Weeder Hoe

Digger Reaper Sheller Sickle/Dao

Source: Zinnov research, Literature search

The

Indian tractor industry has 13 national and a few regional participants

With

relaxation of the FDI in agriculture ,to boost productivity ,large international participants such as AGCO Corporation ,CHN Global and John Deere entered the Indian market long time back

Exports contribute about 11% of total tractor sales of country Nepal ,Sri Lanka ,Bangladesh and US are major export destinations ,the expanding footprint of Indian tractor manufactures in African and new South-East Asian markets is expected to drive export growth over medium to long term. Export to neighboring countries such as Thailand ,Malaysia and Indonesia is also supported by Asian Free Trade Agreement ,giving way to falling duty structure among member countries.

Capacity Enhancement Projects Announced by Market participants

Combine harvester is a farm equipment that can do multiple tasks such as harvesting multiple crops, threshing, winnowing, and collection of grains. The market for combine harvesters is still in its nascent stage but it is growing fast. Farmers in Western and Southern states of the country are looking to buy this equipment.

The manufacturing of combine harvesters started around 1970 when Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (PAU) helped locals to manufacture farm machinery. But It was around 9-10 years back when the demand for combine harvesters increased at a fast pace.

There are two main models for combine harvesters based on their working principles: self-propelled and tractor mounted. Tractor mounted combine harvesters are cheaper as compared to self-propelled combines and are often preferred by farmers who have smaller holdings of lands. The demand of tractor mounted combines is estimated at around 3,500 and for self-propelled combines is around 1,500. The growth rate for the demand of combines is expected to be around 12% annually. This is where opportunity lies

Export opportunities are also increasing and lots of countries in Africa like Burkina Faso, Zambia, Madagascar, and in Europe like Germany are opening their market for Indian players. Pakistan is also becoming a considerable importer of these machines.

Harsewinkel-based Classs subsidiary, Claas India Limited, is planning to increase its capacity by setting up a plant in Punjabs Morinda so as to manufacture self-propelled combine harvester. The company has plans to increase its manufacturing capacity from 1,500 to 2,000 units per annum. It has invested over Rs 100 crore in the facility John Deere, based at Moline in Illinois, set up its first combine factory in Punjab. The 1837founded company has earmarked $30 million to be invested in phases in its combine factory .Further depending upon the demand, the optimum capacity of the harvester factory would be 5,000 self-propelled harvesters per annum. This, the company, plans to achieve in phases

Patiala-based Preet Agro Industries Pvt Ltd has a market share of 35 per cent in the countrys selfpropelled combine harvester category. Besides that the company also manufactures tractors and agricultural implements. Initiallyproducing straw reapers, threshers and other agricultural implements. Barnala-based Standard Combines Pvt Ltd, which is also one of the leading manufacturers of self-propelled and tractor-driven combines (combine harvesters). The company produces around 1,000 combines per annum and exports to Srilanka, Nepal, South African countries besides catering to domestic market. The company started operations in 1975 and diversified into other farm equipment and tractors.

Source :Livestock census 1993,2003 ,Zinnov Analysis

The cost of combine harvesting of wheat and paddy is around Rs. 3000-4000/per ha. If done manually, it takes around 20 laborers to harvest one hectare charging around Rs. 150/- per day (this could vary state-wise). Apart from that, there is a cost of Rs. 1000/- per ha for threshing also. The total cost of harvesting comes almost equal in both the cases but the time saved and labor-shortage-issues are solved quite nicely by opting for combine harvesting.

The rate varies between Rs 5 lakh to Rs 22 lakh depending upon the models and functionality. Fragmented land holding, poor rural transport facilities, inaccessible farms and lack of local manufacturers and repairing facilities are some of the factors that have kept this industry mainly focused in North India especially in Punjab. Lack of proper knowledge about farm equipments and shortage of diesel in the country are some of peripheral constraints. Only cereal crops are harvested using these machines Most of the straw is left in the fields and burned which has many environmental issues. Apart from this, farmers are losing valuable animal feed material Punjab is the only state where almost all the manufacturers of combine harvesters are clustered. Manufacturers like Swaraj, Preet Combines, Kartar Combines, Standard Combines, and Deshmesh Combines are all from Punjab.

A power tiller is used to till the land before and after cultivation of crops. According to Wikipedia, Compact, powerful and, most importantly, comparatively inexpensive, power tillers are providing alternatives to four-wheel tractors and in the small farmers' fields in developing countries are more economical than four-wheel tractors. In India, tillers are also used alternatively by owners as Power Generators (for generating electricity), Light Transport and as a Pump. Power Tillers are mainly applicable for small land holdings.

In FY11, the Indian Power Tiller Market was about 53,000 Tillers out of which, VSTTL sold 23,450 units, KAMCO sold 12,000 units and Chinese Imports (10-12 importers) were 17,000