Presentation 3 Emission calculations and greenhouse gas ... … · Emission Calculations and...

of 13/13
1 Emission Calculations and Greenhouse Gas Inventories Meredydd Evans Senior Staff Scientist Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Seminar – Analysis for Energy Code Development in Vietnam Hanoi, January 12, 2016
  • date post

    27-May-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    2
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Presentation 3 Emission calculations and greenhouse gas ... … · Emission Calculations and...

  • 1

    Emission Calculations and Greenhouse Gas Inventories

    Meredydd Evans Senior Staff ScientistPacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Seminar – Analysis for Energy Code Development in Vietnam

    Hanoi, January 12, 2016

  • Why Should We Work on GHG Inventories?

    Establish base year emissionsLocate the largest sources of emissions Prioritize the sources with the greatest potential for emission reductionsSet targets and develop action plans to reduce emissionsAssess the effect of mitigation measures Track progress in total emission reductions

  • Accounting and Reporting Principles

    RelevanceThe reported GHG emissions should appropriately reflect emissions occurring as a result of activities and consumption patterns of the city

    CompletenessCities should account for all required emissions sources within the inventory boundary

    ConsistencyEmissions calculations shall be consistent in approach, boundary, and methodology

    Transparency Activity data, emission sources, emission factors, and emission methodologies require adequate documentation and disclosure to enable verification

    Accuracy The calculation of GHG emissions should not systematically overstate or understate actual GHG emissions.

  • Inventory Boundary

    Geographic boundary All buildingsResidential Commercial Local government

    Time periodYear, month

    Greenhouse gases (GHG inventory reporting under the Kyoto Protocol)Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Also hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3)

    Greenhouse gases should be converted to CO2 equivalent (CO2e)

  • GHG Emissions from Buildings

    Scope 1 GHG emissions: Direct emissions from on-site fossil fuel combustion or fugitive emissions (cooking, heating)

    Scope 2 GHG emissions: Indirect emissions from electricity generated in one location, but used in an other (lighting, air conditioning, appliances)

  • Calculating GHG Emissions from Buildings

    Buildings are the largest source of emissions in citiesType of buildings

    Residential buildings - high-rise buildings and landed buildingsCommercial buildings - different sizes and/or types of activities such as retail, office, etc.Institutional /Municipal building - schools, hospitals, and government offices

    If data for all city buildings are limited, it is better to start with municipal/ city buildings

  • Calculation Methodology

    The methodologies are based on: Purpose of inventoryAvailability of dataConsistency with country’s national inventory programs

    The general equation for emission estimation is:

    GHG emissions = Activity data x Emission factors

  • Activity Data

    EnergyKilowatt hours (kWh) of electricityTons of coalTons of oil productsCubic meters of natural gas

  • Emission Factors

    Emission factors should be Relevant to the inventory boundary Specific to the activity being measured Sourced from credible government, industry, or academic sources

    If no local, regional, or country-specific sources are available, IPCC default factors should be used

    (2014 IPCC report is available at http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/)

    For example: Indirect emissions from electricity used in a building

  • Example 1: Emissions from Purchased ElectricityElectricitypurchased

    Transmissionand

    distributionlosses

    Purchasedelectricityenergycontent

    FuelMix

    Sourceenergyoutput

    Sourcegenerationefficiency

    Sourceenergyinput

    TotalkWh 9% TotalkWhXMMBtu/kWh

    % %oftotalfuelmixXPurchasedelectricity

    content=MMBtu

    % Energyoutput/Generationefficiency=MMBtu

    Vietnamfuelmixforelectricityproduction:Hydro– 45%Naturalgas– 34%Coal– 20%Oilproducts– 2%

    Hydro34%Naturalgas40%Coal33%Oilproducts32%WoodBiomass23%

    Cont.

  • Example 1: Emissions from Purchased Electricity (cont.)SourceCO2emissionsfactor

    Scope2CO2emissions

    SourceCH4emissionsfactor

    Scope2CH4emissions

    SourceN2Oemissionsfactor

    Scope2N2Oemissions

    TotalScope2emissions

    kgCO2 /MMBtu

    kgCO2 kg/MMBtu SourceenergyinputxSourceCH4emissionsfactor=kgCO2e

    kg/MMBtu SourceenergyinputxSourceN20emissionsfactor=kgCO2e

    kgCO2 +kgCO2e forCH4 xGWP+kgCO2e forN2OxGWP=CO2e

    Hydro– 0.00Naturalgas– 52.76Coal– 93.45Oil - 72.37WoodBiomass0.00

    Hydro– 0.00Naturalgas– 0.00106Coal– 0.00106Oil- 0.00317WoodBiomass0.00

    Hydro– 0.00Naturalgas– 0.00011Coal– 0.00158Oil- 0.00148WoodBiomass0.00

    Globalwarmingpotential:ForCH4 - 28ForN2O- 265 WP

    GWPvaluesdescribetheradiativeforcingimpactofoneunitofagivenGHGrelativetooneunitofCO2

  • Policy Measures and Evaluation

    Measures to reduce GHG emissions from buildings High-efficiency lighting and appliancesHighly efficient ventilation and cooling systemsSolar water heaters Insulation materials and techniquesHigh-reflectivity building materials Passive solar design

    The Policy and Action Standard Provides a standardized approach for estimating GHG effect of policies and actions. Available at http://www.ghgprotocol.org/policy-and-action-standard

  • Resources

    Guidance Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories (GPC) http://www.ghgprotocol.org/city-accountingLocal Government Operations Protocol http://www.theclimateregistry.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/2010-05-06-LGO-1.1.pdfThe Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standardhttp://www.ghgprotocol.org/standards/corporate-standardUS Public Sector GNG Protocol http://www.ghgprotocol.org/files/ghgp/us-public-sector-protocol_final_oct13.pdf

    Examples (each report has a section on GHG emissions from buildings)New York City http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc/downloads/pdf/NYC_GHG_Inventory_2014.pdfWashington DC http://doee.dc.gov/service/greenhouse-gas-inventoriesHong Konghttp://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/sites/default/files/epd/english/climate_change/files/Guidelines_English_2010.pdf