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Werner & DeSimone (2006) 1
Coaching and Performance ManagementChapter 10
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Learning objectives Define coaching and performance management, and explain the need for such activities in organizations. Explain how to analyze employee performance to set the stage for coaching discussion. Describe the steps involved in coaching to improve poor performance. Identify the skills necessary for effective coaching.Describe the evidence supporting the effectiveness of coaching.
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Thoughts for DiscussionMost employees already know what they should do and how to do it.Performance management is simply a matter of expecting tasks to be done correctly and on time.If the problem does not go away, the employee must be stupid, lazy, or have a “bad attitude.” Therefore, punishment is called for.
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The Need for CoachingToo many managers use a negative approach to managing behaviorAlternative: conflict avoidance – and overload the good workersSometimes the only time the supervisor talks to a worker is when there is a problem
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Coaching – A Positive Approach
An active and positive management approachEmployees should know: What to do How to do it Problem solvingParticipative Management Workers have a voice in their work
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Coaching and Performance Management
Performance appraisal The first stepPerformance management Employee goal setting Coaching Rewards Individual development
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Definitions of CoachingNo single accepted definitionA mutual discussion leading to improved performance and positive relationshipsA process to encourage employees to: Accept responsibility for their actions Achieve and sustain superior performance Work as partners in achieving
organizational goals and effectiveness
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Supervisor’s Role in CoachingA supervisor:
Should be motivated to see the work group succeed Can use all information on handHas opportunity to coach and counselHas authority to carry out coachingIs responsible for unit’s effectiveness
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HRD Professional’s Coaching Role
Provides training for coachesProvides training to correct performance problemsProvides organizational development supportCoaching is an HRD intervention
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Coaching to Improve Poor Performance
Defining poor performanceResponding to poor performanceConducting a coaching analysisUsing the coaching discussion
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Defining Poor PerformanceDefinition: “Specific, agreed upon deviations from expected behavior.”Performance must be evaluated against some standard or expected level of performanceStandards and expected levels of performance must be known by the supervisor and the worker
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Deviant Workplace Behavior
Production deviance Working slowly, leaving earlyProperty deviance Sabotage, lying about hours workedPolitical deviance Showing favoritism, gossipingPersonal aggression Harassment, abuse, stealing, etc.
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Responding to Poor Performance
Causal Attribution Theory People assign causes to behavior Different actions are likely based on
internal versus external attributionsFundamental Attribution Error Assumes or attributes behavior comes
from a cause within a person Supervisor may overlook other causes
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Coaching AnalysisThe process of analyzing the factors that contribute to unsatisfactory performanceDeciding on the appropriate response to improve performance
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Steps in Conducting Coaching Analysis
Identify the unsatisfactory employee performance.2.
Is it worth your time and effort to address?3.
Do subordinates know that their performance is not satisfactory?4
.Do subordinates know what is supposed to be done?
Are there obstacles beyond the employee’s control?6.
Does the subordinate know how to do what must be done?7
.Does a negative consequence follow effective performance?8
.Does a positive consequence follow nonperformance?
Could the subordinate do it if he or she wanted to?SOURCE: Fournies, F. F. (1978). Coaching for improved work performance. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
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Steps to Follow in Conducting a Coaching Analysis
Identify the unsatisfactory performanceDecide if it’s worth YOUR time and effortFind out if the worker knows that their work is not satisfactoryDoes the worker know what is to be done?
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Steps to Follow in Conducting a Coaching Analysis – 2
Are there obstacles beyond the worker’s control?Does worker know HOW to do the job?Does a negative consequence follow effective performance?
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Steps to Follow in Conducting a Coaching Analysis – 3
Does a positive consequence follow nonperformance?Can the worker do the job if he/she wants to?Can the job or task be modified?What if the problem persists?
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The Coaching DiscussionKinlaw’s Approach: Confronting or presenting Using reactions to develop
information Resolving or resolution
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The Coaching Discussion – 2
The Fournies Approach: Get agreement with worker that a
problem exists Mutually discuss alternative solutions to
the problem Mutually agree on actions to be taken Follow-up to measure results Recognize achievement when it
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Critical Points for Both
You need specific objectives or goalsGoals must be mutually understood and agreed upon
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What if Coaching Fails?Transfer the employee to work that the employee can doTerminate for substandard performanceHave adequate documentation of coaching efforts to support termination!
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Maintaining Effective Performance and Encouraging Superior Performance
Must reward good performanceUse: Goal Setting Job redesign Worker participation Job ownership
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Provide evaluation Self-evaluation can be difficult People often focus on their weaknessesManager-coach can: see the big picture make suggestions for improvement reinforce company values
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Skills Needed for Effective Coaching
Communication skillsInterpersonal skills
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Communication SkillsWritingSpeakingActive listening
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Writing SkillsAcceptable grammar and spellingClear and concise styleExample: Facts, Discussion, Recommendation (FDR)
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Speaking SkillsSpecific and descriptiveFocused on the issue at handPolite and respectfulFocused on the problem, not the personObjective, not based on feelings
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Active ListeningMore than, “I hear you”Must listen for what the other person is trying to saySpecific techniques are neededIt is NOT easy!
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Interpersonal SkillsShow respect for the individualFocus on the present and future Not on the past!Be objectivePlan ahead
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Interpersonal Skills – 2Affirm the efforts of othersBe consistentBuild trustDemonstrate commitment to and respect for othersIntegrity, Integrity, Integrity!!!
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Effectiveness of CoachingHard to measure objectivelyCan be measured in many waysSome coaches ARE better than othersOthers need to keep working to improve their coaching skills; good coaching skills can be learned
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Performance Appraisal Interview
Major source of employee feedbackGives employee the chance for feedback and participation in the processAllows the coach to affirm his/her supportProvides opportunity for constructive criticism – both ways Focus on the problem, not the “personality”
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Performance Appraisal Interview – 2
Time to mutually set next period’s goals and objectivesProvides mutually understood basis for improvement
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Training the Supervisor/AppraiserEffective training:
Helps the appraiser to be crediblePromotes acceptance of appraisalHelps provide accurate feedbackAssists the supervisor in demonstrating support for the employee
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Organizational Support Organization needs to support their coaching and performance management effortsTakes time, training, and moneyNeeds to be part of the corporate cultureNeeds to be linked to compensation, rewards, and promotion systems
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Coaching in a NutshellWorker participates in discussionsWorker helps set goals for improvementFeedback is specific and behavioralCoaches are supportive and helpfulSupervisor needs to know the worker’s jobCoaches need support and training
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SummaryManagers must ensure effective employee performancePositive coaching provides a great opportunity for individual improvementAllows worker to: accept responsibility achieve superior performance work towards organizational goals
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Summary – 2Good coaches needs: Effective communication skills Effective interpersonal skills Integrity Effective performance appraisal skillsIs it any wonder that good coaches can be hard to find?