ppt on the great wall of china and temple of heaven(history and culture)

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Transcript of ppt on the great wall of china and temple of heaven(history and culture)

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CHINA

Shobhit SinghSahil YadavAtharva S. K.Amit DograShaurya SethiRaghav SabraAryan SinghPushkar TanwarRitesh MalikAnkit ThakurGROUP-2CLASS:- IX-CCHINA

The Great Wall of China

IntroductionTheGreat Wall of Chinais a series offortifications made of stone, brick,tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect theChinese statesand empiresagainst the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe.The Great Wall of China is one of the seven wonders. It is about 6,400km long and it was built mare than 2000 years ago.It is also called the longest cemetery on Earth.The Great Wall of China started building during 7th century B.C.

HISTORY

Idea of The Great wall of China is taken from The Rectangle Wall.Great Wall is not only one long wall but made up of a number of Interconnecting walls.The Four Periods of The Great Wall:-Qin Dynasty (208 BC).Han Dynasty (1st century BC).Northern and Southern Dynasties (1138-1198).Ming Dynasty (1368-1620).

Qin DynastyThe Great Wall was built when seven powerful states appeared at the same time, to defend themselves. At that time the wall was 3,107 miles and each part of wall belonged to different part of the states.In 221 B.C the Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi ordered to connect the walls (built by all the states) also he added a part of his section because he was afraid from the northerns that were called Xiongnu. Qin wall was formed which started from the east of todays Liaoning Province and ended at Lintao, Gansu Province.

Han DynastyThe ruler of the Han Dynasty was Han Wudi (Martial emperor of Han). He said to design the project of the Great Wall in 127 B.C. The Wall extended to the territories to the present day Mount Yinshan of Inner Mongolia. The main reason for contributing to this project was to be secure from the north- from the Gobi. This was the main reason for all of the efforts from every Dynasty to the making of this wall.

Northern and Southern DynastiesFour dynasties built and added to The Great Wall:-The Northern WeiThe Eastern WeiThe Northern QiNorthern Zhou

Ming Dynasty The ruler of Ming Dynasty was Yong Le. He built large monuments and strengthened the Wall. The Great Wall of China was mostly built during the Ming Dynasty. The Wall started from the Yalu River in Liaoning Province and ended at the eastern bank of the Taolai River in Gansu Province.

PurposeThe main reason why the Chinese built the Great Wall was to prevent troops from the north invading Chinese territory.Another great reason is to defend China from attacking Mongols.It was also built as a defense against ferocious nomadic tribes.The Great Wall also embodies a great deal of protection during a battle.An important purpose of the Great Wall was to house troops.Housing troops was important because, if the Great Wall was under attack, soldiers could just come out and defend China.

ConstructionThe Great Wall was constructed with natural materials.Earlier, the Great Wall was mainly built from earth, stones and wood.Mostly bricks were used due to light weight.Builders always tried to use local sources.Stones from the mountains were used over mountain ranges.It indicates a great achievement in architecture.

SECTIONS OF THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA

Badaling SectionMutianyu SectionSimatai SectionJinshaling SectionGubeikou SectionJiumenkau SectionHuanghua cheng SectionHuangyanguan SectionJiankou SectionJiaoshan Section

CULTURE

Lots of beautiful legends and stories about the Great Wall took place following along the construction, and since that time these stories have spread around the country. Those that happened during construction are abundant, such as Meng Jiangnu's story and the legend of the Jiayuguan Pass.Beautiful stories and legends about the Great Wall help to keep alive Chinese history and culture.

Meng Jiangnu's storyMeng Jiangnu's story is the most famous and widely spread of all the legends. The story happened during the Qin Dynasty (221BC-206BC). It tells of how Meng Jiangnu's bitter weeping made a section of the wall collapse. Meng Jiangnu's husband Fan Qiliang was caught by federal officials and sent to build the wall. Meng Jiangnu heard nothing from him after his departure, so she set out to look for him. Unfortunately, by the time she got there, she discovered that her husband had already died. Hearing the bad news, she cried her heart out. Her howl caused the collapse of a part of the wall. This story indicates that thewall is the production of tens of thousands of Chinese commoners.

Legend of the Jiayuguan PassAnother legend about theJiayuguan Passtells of a workman named Yi Kaizhan in the Ming Dynasty (1368BC-1644BC) who was proficient in arithmetic. He calculated that it would need 99,999 bricks to build the Jiayuguan Pass.The supervisor did not believe him and said if they miscalculated by even one brick, then all the workmen would be punished to do hard work for three years. After the completion of the project, one brick was left behind the Xiwong city gate. The supervisor was happy at the sight of the brick and ready to punish them. However Yi Kaizhan said with deliberation that the brick was put there by a supernatural being to fix the wall. A tiny move would cause the collapse of the wall. Therefore the brick was kept there and never moved. It can still be found there today on the tower of the Jiayuguan Pass.

What significance does The Great Wall of China hold in the world today?Today the Great Wall is the worlds largest heritage structure and Chinas most famous symbol. Millions of local and international tourists visit sections of the restored Ming dynasty walls and wild walls outside Beijing.The Great Wall, one of the greatest wonders of the world, was listed as a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1987. It is still one of the most appealing attractions all around the world owing to its architectural grandeur and historical significance

The Temple of Heaven

TheTemple of Heaven, literally theAltar of Heaven, is a medieval complex of religious buildings situated in the southeastern part of centralBeijing. The complex was visited by theEmperorsof theMingandQingdynasties for annual ceremonies of prayer toHeavenfor good harvest.It has been regarded as aDaoisttemple,although Chineseheaven worship, especially by the reigning monarch of the day, predates Daoism.Introduction

HISTORY

The temple complex was constructed from 1406 to 1420 during the reign of theYongle Emperor, who was also responsible for the construction of theForbidden Cityin Beijing. The complex was extended and renamed Temple of Heaven during the reign of theJiajing Emperorin the 16th century. Jiajing also built three other prominent temples in Beijing, theTemple of Sunin the east, theTemple of Earth in the north, and theTemple of Moon in the west.

Who Made It?The Temple of Heaven, formerly called the Temple of Heaven and Earth, was first built in the 18thyear (1420) of the Yongle reign under Ming (1368-1644) Emperor Chengzu, where the emperors of Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911) offered sacrifices to the Gods of Heaven and Earth.

Purpose In the 9th year (1530) of the Jiajing reign in the Ming Dynasty, a temple was especially built to offer sacrifices to the God of Earth in the northern suburban of Beijing, which was named the Temple of Earth, and therefore the Temple of Heaven and Earth, changed into the present name, was used only to worship the Heaven and pray for grain.

More HistoryThe Temple of Heaven is located in the southeast of Beijing downtown. In the past dynasties of ancient China, the ceremonies of offering sacrifices to ancestors or gods were usually held in the suburbs of the capital, which was called Jiaosi (suburban sacrifice) in the historical records. The Jiaosi was the most magnificent ceremony in ancient China, and especially since the Han and Tang dynasties, it became more and more solemn.

Features The complex covers an area of 2.73 million square metres, stretching in the east-west axis 1,700 metres and in the south-north axis 1,600 metres. Only a small portion of the premises is taken by halls and altars, leaving most of the space for vegetation. The dark green foliage decorates the compound, painting it in noble tinges. Architectures for rituals usually dominated in the capital cities, representing the most advanced architecture and arts. The Temple of Heaven serves as a best example of the ancient ritual institution.

CULTURE

Heaven Worship CultureStarting from Emperor Yongle of theMing Dynasty(1368-1644), every year the emperor would come to the Temple of Heaven to hold ceremonies to worship the Heaven. Especially when encountering a year of draught, the emperor would go to the Circular Mound Altar to pray for rain.

Preparation WorkIn order to safeguard the "divine right of emperor" and show the divine authority, the ancient worshipping ceremony was highly emphasized with extremely strict precepts. Any error would be severely punished. A great deal of preparation work was needed. All the roads and buildings in the Temple of Heaven had to be renewed on a large scale. Five days before the ceremony, princes demanded that all the livestock to be sacrificed during the ceremony be carefully checked; three days before the ceremony, the emperor began to fast; two days before, prayer words should be written; on the last day, livestock should be slaughtered; sacrifices should be made and the ceremonial articles should be established. On the last day, the emperor must read the prayer, give a ritual at the Imperial Vault of Heaven, watch the divine tablets at the Circular Mound Alter, check the ceremonial articles in the Divine Storeroom, see th