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Transcript of ppt on robotics

ROBOTIC SURGERY:-

Prepared by:- Pradarttana Panda Regd.no.-0701210557

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History:1.In 1997 a reconnection of the fallopian tubes operation was performed successfully in Cleveland using ZEUS. 2.In May 1998, Dr. Friedrich-Wilhelm Mohr using the Da Vinci surgical robot performed the first robotically assisted heart bypass at the Leipzig Heart Centre in Germany. 3.On 2 September 1999, Dr. Randall Wolf and Dr. Robert Michler performed the first robotically assisted heart bypass in the USA at The Ohio State University. 4.In October 1999 the world's first surgical robotics beating heart coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) was performed in Canada by Dr. Douglas Boyd and Dr. Reiza Rayman using the ZEUS surgical robot.

THE DA VINCI SURGICAL SYSTEM:-

A product of the company Intuitive Surgical, the da Vinci Surgical System is perhaps the most famous robotic surgery apparatus in the world. It falls under the category of telesurgical devices, meaning a human directs the motions of the robot. The da Vinci uses technology- that allows the human surgeon to get closer to the surgical site than human vision will allow, and work at a smaller scale than conventional surgery permits. The $1.5 million da Vinci system consists of two primary components

DIFFERENT KINDS OF ROBOTIC SURGERY:-

Type-1 supervisory-controlled systems:supervisory-controlled systems follow a specific set of instructions when performing a surgery. The human surgeon must input data into the robot, which then initiates a series of controlled motions and completes the surgery. There's no room for error -- these robots can't make adjustments in real time if something goes wrong. Surgeons must watch over the robot's actions and be ready to intervene if something doesn't go as planned.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF ROBOTIC SURGERY:-

Type-2 Shared-control Robotic Surgery Systems:Shared-control robotic systems aid surgeons during surgery, but the human does most of the work. Unlike the other robotic systems, the surgeons must operate the surgical instruments themselves. The robotic system monitors the surgeon's performance and provides stability and support through active constraint.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF ROBOTIC SURGERY:-

Type-3 Telesurgerical system:The use of a computer console to perform operations from a distance opens up the idea of telesurgery, which would involve a doctor performing delicate surgery miles away from the patient. If the doctor doesn't have to stand over the patient to perform the surgery, and can control the robotic arms from a computer station just a few feet away from the patient.

ADVANTAGES:1. Telesurgery:- The use of a computer console to perform operations from a distance

2. Having fewer personnel:- Having fewer personnel in the operating room and allowing doctors the ability to operate

3.Less pain:- the patient would experience less pain, trauma and bleeding, which means a faster recovery.

ADVANTAGES:1. Telesurgery:- The use of a computer console to perform operations from a distance

2. Having fewer personnel:- Having fewer personnel in the operating room and allowing doctors the ability to operate

3.Less pain:- the patient would experience less pain, trauma and bleeding, which means a faster recovery.

ADVANTAGES:-

4. Enhanced precision:- surgery with the help of robots may help to remove these errors. Robotics help to make the surgery with high precision and high accuracy

5. Decrease the fatigue:- It helps to decrease the fatigue that doctors experience during surgeries that can last several hours.

DISADVANTAGES:1. Time:-Robotic assisted heart surgery can take nearly twice the amount of time that a typical heart surgery takes.

2. Cost:-At this early stage in the technology, the robotic systems are very expensive.

3. Efficiency and Compatibility:-current operating room instruments and equipment are not necessarily compatible with the new robotic systems.thus there is less efficiancy and compatibility

Application:1.Cardiothoracic surgery:- Robot-assisted MIDCA Band endoscope coronary artery bypass (TECAB) surgeries are being performed with the da Vinci system 2. Gynecology:-Robotic surgery in gynecology is one of the fastest growing fields of robotic surgery.

3. Orthopedics:-The Acrobot Company Ltd. sells the "Acrobot Sculptor", a robot that constrains a bone cutting tool to a pre-defined volume.

Application:6. Pediatrics:-Surgical robotics has been used in many types of pediatric surgical procedures including: tracheoesophageal fistula repair

7. Radiosurgery:-The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System uses image-guidance and computer controlled robotics to treat tumors throughout the body 8. Urology;-Removing the prostate gland for cancer, repair obstructed kidneys, repair bladder abnormalities and remove diseased kidneys.

Conclusion:Although still in its infancy, robotic surgery is a cutting-edge development in surgery that will have far-reaching implications. While improving precision and dexterity, this emerging technology allows surgeons to perform operations that were traditionally not amenable to minimal access techniques. As a result, the benefits of minimal access surgery may be applicable to a wider range of procedures. Safety has been well established, and many series of cases have reported favorable outcomes. However, randomized, controlled trials comparing robotic-assisted procedures with laparoscopic or open techniques are generally lacking.