Pp 07 Sopra Solar Photovoltaics

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LEADING THE WAY TO THE FUTUREInnovation for the worlds tomorrows


This presentation is protected by US and International copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display, and use of the presentation without written permission of Soprema Inc. is prohibited.

Copyrighted Materials

Soprema, Inc. 2009

Today's CommitmentApplying the latest technologies in renewable energy and providing the benefits of complete energy-efficient solutions: Financial savings and simple payback, Public stewardship and goodwill, Emissions reductions, Environmental leadership, Energy independence.

MotivationMajor concerns Monthly The The

utility bills?

Nations dependency upon foreign oil? environment? and rising price of


energy? Supply

of natural fuels.

How Photovoltaics Photovoltaic (PV) Work cells are made ofsilicon semiconductors similar to those used in computer chips. When sunlight hits these materials, it knocks electrons loose from their atoms, which flow through the material to produce electricity.

How Photovoltaics Work

The electric current is carried from the PV cells, using wire raceways, into string combiner boxes. The string combiner box does just that; it combines all the wires from the wire raceways into two wires that are run into a unit called the inverter.

How Photovoltaics Work

Combiner Box

The InverterAn inverter takes the DC current (what your car runs on and what is produced by the PV cells) and transforms it into AC current (what is used in your home) This AC current is also synchronized by the inverter with the utility companys AC current. The overall DC-AC conversion efficiency is 75-80%.(Inverters are 94% efficient with additional losses of efficiency from temperature & the wire)

The AC current produced by the inverter is tied into the buildings breaker box and the local utility grid. When the PV system is producing more electricity than the building is using the meter will run backwards. The power company buys the extra power back at an attractive

The DAS (Data Acquisition System) is a monitoring system that provides more in depth information. The DAS has a web-based program that can monitor and report the Inverter status, weather, and kW production for power incentives.

What is a Watt? Watt:

a watt is a standard unit of power. For electrical power, one watt is equal to one joule per second. Watts = Amps x Volts (P = I x E) Amperage or Amps: the speed at which the electric current flows. Volts: A unit of electrical force or electric pressure. It is analogous to water pressure in pounds per square inch. kWh

(kilowatt hour): a unit of energy equal to 1000 watt hours or 3.6 megajoules.

Solar Applications

Thin-Film PV vs. Crystalline Technology

Thin-Film PV Crystalline (glass) Heavy Lightweight Rigid Construction Flexible Design

Advantages of Thin Film PV TechnologyLower Installation Costs than Crystalline Modules

Greater kWh Output per kW than Crystalline Modules over the solar year Approx. 0.7 lbs / ft2

Advantages of Thin Film PV Technology Very Flexible andDurable, No Glass Greater output at Lower Light Intensities when compared to Crystalline Modules Greater Output Under Shading/ Soiling Conditions than Crystalline (approx. 4% loss vs. 50% loss)

Thin Film PV Technology

Thin Film PV Technology

PV Panel MaintenanceQ. Do you need to clean the PV panels? A. In most cases rain water is sufficient to keep the panels clean. However, in areas where rain is rare Uni-Solar recommends that the panels are cleaned twice a year with a nonsolvent soap and water. Q. Will the panels work with snow on them? A. Where there are snow flurries with little accumulation the panels will still generate heat and melt the snow. In cases where there is a substantial amount of snow the PV will not produce power.

Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) SystemsConnected to the local utility grid Export surplus energy to the utility Buildings can net meter the surplus and become banks that deposit surplus solar energy through the use of batteries. The building owner and the utility company benefit by reducing the owners energy cost and providing additional power to the energy grid during peak demand.

Performance EstimateUni-Solar PVL-136 gets 5.67 watts per Sq ft. On average we can cover 65-70% of the roof with PV

So, if a roof is 100,000 Sq ft around 70,000 Sq ft of it can be covered with PV 100,000 x .70 = 70,000 70,000 x 5.67(watts per Sq ft) = 396,900 (Total Watts of the system) 396,900/1000 (there are 1,000 watts in a kW) = 397 kW (round to 400 kW system) *kW hours produced is based on your location and sun exposure *

Government Rebate/Incentive ProgramFederal Incentives: Commercial and Industrial For equipment placed in service from Jan 2006Dec 31st 2016, there is a 30% installed tax credit which also includes the roof as the carrier. This is for all equipment associated with a photovoltaic or concentrating solar power system is eligible property for the credit. This includes the roofing system in BIPV systems. State Incentives: Commercial and Industrial Incentives vary from state to state and within the state itself. Each power company has a different incentive rate per kW hours produced. CA, AZ, OR, NY, NJ, and CT are the state with the best incentives right now.

Government Rebate/Incentive Programs Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS)Under the federal Modified Accelerated CostRecovery System (MACRS), businesses may recover investments in certain property through depreciation deductions. The MACRS establishes a set of class lives for various types of property, ranging from three to 50 years, over which the property may be depreciated. For solar, wind and geothermal property placed in service after 1986, the current MACRS property class is five years. www.dsireusa.org

Government Rebate/Incentive Programs Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs)An allocation of $800 million for new CREBs was made by The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008.

Clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) can be used by certain entities -- primarily in the public sector -- to finance renewable energy projects. The advantage of CREBs is that they are issued -- theoretically -- with a 0% interest rate.* The borrower pays back only the principal of the bond, and the bondholder receives federal tax credits in lieu of the traditional bond interest.

LEED Points

Calculate the project performance by expressing the energy produced by the renewable systems as a percentage of the buildings annual energy cost and using the table below to determine the number of point achieved. What does this mean? Points are based on the percentage of the buildings energy usage that is derived from Solar. If 12.5% of the buildings energy is Solar it will achieve 3 LEED points. % Renewable Energy 2.5% 7.5% 12.5% Points 1 2 3

*This program is in the process of being changed and will be different for 2009*

Solar EnergyThe Best Deal Under theSun Flexible, thin-film technologies Building-integrated solar systems So How do You Select a Solar Energy System???Selection Criteria Building Structure Type of Roof Condition of Roof Budget Simple Payback Calculation Type of Technology Building Orientation Landscaping

The Roof SystemThe preferred application is a true building-integrated system that is fully compatible with the PV system. A durable roofing system that will match the life expectancy of the photovoltaics (20 + years) is imperative.

The Roof SystemA two-ply, polyester reinforced, SBS modified bitumen waterproofing system is one of the strongest and most durable roofing systems on the market today, with a life expectancy guaranteed to equal that of the PV system. Single-ply systems are not redundant, easy to damage and may cause adhesive failure over time allowing the PV to separate from the membrane and water to accumulate under the PV film.

With a 20 Year Single-Source WarrantyInsulation: Per code with polyisocyanurate insulation meeting maximum slope requirements. Uni-Solar PVL-136 or PVL-68 panels installed using Sopremas PV Adhesive (PV panel size: width 15 for both, length 136 -18 ft., 68 - 9 ft.) Sopralene Flam 250 FR GR Sopralene Flam 180 Sopraboard 1/8

Solar Integrated Roofing

Engineered Roof Layout of PV Panels (sample)

20 Year Single Source WarrantyBecause of the superior quality of the roofing system we are able to warrant the water tightness of the roof as well as the performance of the photovoltaics in one warranty. The PV is warranted for 20 years at 80% efficiency. What does this mean? Over time the PV losses power output (less than 1% per year) At 20 years the PV power production will reduce around 20% compared to the power it was producing in year one. If you have a 100kW system at the end of the 20 years you will most likely be producing around 80kW.

Sample ProjectProject Type: Solar Energy Site: Wayne, NJ Solar Manufacture r: Uni-Solar Project Size: 50 kW

Sample Project

Sample ProjectProject Type: Solar Energy Site: Groton, CT Solar Manufacture r: Uni-Solar Project Size: 50 kW

Questions and Comments

Thank You!