Power Plus - Inside Out Of Power
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- 1. Power Power PowerPLus PLus PLus Special Edition, INDIA ELECTRICITY 2013 www.indianpowersector.com GENERATION Over the years the installed capacity of Power PlantsMinistry of Power(Utilities) has increased to about 210936.72 MW (by Government of India November, 2012) from a meagre 1713 MW in 1950. Fig: All India Installed Capacity (as on 30th November, 2012) New Renewables, 25856, 12%Nuclear,4780, 2%Hydro,39324, 19% Coal,120873, 57% Gas, Diesel, 18903, 9%1200, 1%Source: CEA The electricity generation increased from about 5.1 Billion kwh to 877 Billion kwh in 2011-12. The per capita consumption of electricity in the country also increased from 15 kWh in 1950 to about 814 kWh in 2011 which is only 24% of the worlds per capita consumption. Achievement in MUProgramme in MU 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 State Private CentralStatePrivate Central State Private Central ThermalNuclearHydro Source: CEA @IndianPowerSector.com Power Plus Counsultants 1
2. TransmissionEnergy requirement for 2011-12 (11th Plan End) is 937,199In India transmission business has a monopolisticMU while the energy availability is 857,886 while peak model where transmission sector The Centraldemand is 130,006 MW of which 116,191 MW is met. Transmission Utility (CTU) and State Transmission Utility (STU) have the key responsibility of networkFig: Demand Expected For Generationplanning and development. The private players havePlanning Studies a very negligible presence. It is only during 11 plan period the Inter-state transmission sector was opened 2016-17 2021-22Plan Periodup for private sector participation through joint venture(12th Plan End) (13th Plan End)Energy with Powergrid and through selection of TransmissionRequirement (Gwh) 13548741904861 System Provider through competitive bidding. TorrentPeak Load (MW)199540283470 Powergrid Company Ltd., Jaypee Powergrid Ltd., Parbati Koldam Transmission Co. Ltd., Teesta Valley Power Source: Source: National Electricity Plan @IndianPowerSector.comTransmission Ltd., Reliance Power Transmission Limited and North-East Transmission Co. Ltd. were grantedSeveral initiatives are taken by Government to boost the licenses for purpose of developing specific transmissionpower sector during the 11th plan period:projects. Moreover, open access in transmission has Development of Power Projects on Tariff Based Bidding been introduced to promote competition amongst the Development of Ultra Mega Projectsgenerating companies who can now sell to different Allocation of Captive Coal Blocks distribution licensees across the country. New Hydro Policy National Action Plan for Climate Change At the time of independence, power systems in the Private Sector Participation in Transmission Sector country were essentially isolated systems developed in Restructured Accelerated Power Development andand around urban and industrial areas. The growth of Reform Programme (R-APDRP)transmission system can be summarized as: Augmentation of Indigenous Equipment Manufacturing Capacity Demand Side Management Initiatives by BEE IT Based Project Monitoring Fig: Growth of Transmission System in India The state-sector network grew at voltage level up to 132 kV during the 50s and 60s and then toFormation of State Grids 220 kV during 60s and 70s. During the 3rd Five Year Plan (1961-66), the concept of Regional planning in Power Sector wasIntegration of State Grids introduced. The country was demarcated into five power Regions. Central Sector generation utilities viz. NHPC and NTPC were created. This gave a fillip to the Evolution of Regional Grids formation of Regional Grid Systems (delivery of power to the beneficiary States) and by the end of 1980s, strong regional networks came into existence. In 1989, transmission wings of Central generating companies were separated to set up Power Development of Grid Corporation of India (POWERGRID) to give thrust to implementation of transmission system inter-regional linksassociated with Central generating stations and inter-Regional transmission programme. Considering the operational regime of the various Regional Grids, it was decided around 1990s to Asynchronous Interconnections establish initially asynchronous connection between the Regional Grids to enable them to exchangebetween Regional Grids largeregulated quantum of power. Synchronization ofIn 1992 the Eastern Region and the North-Eastern Region were synchronously interconnected. At Regional Gridspresent except SR the other regions are synchronously interconnected. Evolution of Integrated Generation and transmission system in the country has shifted from the orientation of regional National Grid self-sufficiency to the concept of optimization of utilization of resources on all-India basis. 2 Power Plus Counsultants 3. Fig: Growth of Transmission Lines (ckm) at the end of each PlanAt the end of 500 kV HVDC 765 kV 400 kV 220 kV Grand Total6th plan 00602946005 520347th plan 00 1982459631 794558th plan16340 3614279600 1173769th plan473811604937896993 15226910th plan 587221847572211462919840711th Plan 94325250 10681913598025748112th Plan(up to 9432 6218111546 139127266323November 2012)Source: CEA@IndianPowerSector.comAt the end of the 9th Plan that is by year 2001-02,Moreover, unlike the other two sectors generation andthe inter-regional transmission capacity was 5750 MW,transmission, the distribution consumers are varied,During the period, FY 2002-07 of X Plan, 8300 MW ofnumerous and disparate.inter-regional transmission capacity has been added,taking the total inter-regional transmission capacity to In the four years from 2007-08 to 2011-12, the overall14050 MW. During 11th plan period total of 9700 MW unit cost of supply increased by 21%. Maximum increaseof inter-regional transmission capacity has been added was in the interest payments (65%), followed by increasetaking the total inter-regional transmission capacity to in establishment and administration expenses (24%),23150 MW.power purchase (21%) and depreciation (21%).If we see the growth in physical terms at all India levelThough the average tariff has increased in the pastwe can see a continuous growth trend on year on year few years, the rise has not been commensurate withbasis. the increase in the cost of supply. As a result, the gap between the cost of supply and the average tariff has been widening over the years. The gap has increasedDistribution from 76 paise/kWh in 1998-99 to 145 paise/kWh in 2009-10. The aggregate debt of SPUs has beenDistribution provides the crucial last mile connectivity inincreasing by a CAGR of more than 19% in past 3-4the electricity sector. What makes it important is the factyears. The Study on Specific Aspects of the Powerthat it is the revenue generating link of the value chain. Sector for Impact on State Finances for The Thirteenth Finance Commission, Government of India shows theFig: Cost of Power Supply (paise/kWh sold)Cost of PowerSupply (paise/kWh sold)projected Net Losses for the next four years based on the prevailing tariffs. As per these studies, the cumulative500487Net Loss of the States in 2010-11 is projected at462484478450Rs.68643 Cr and further projections for 2014-15 at400 404Rs.116089 Cr. assuming constant nominal tariff (2008) and without considering subsidy.350300In attempts to absorb some of these losses higher tariff 2007-082008-092009-10 2010-112011-12 (AP) are charged from industrial and commercial consumerCost of Power Supply (paise/kWh sold)which is unique to India. The following table indicatesSource: Annual Report on working of state powerthe level of cross subsidy from Industrial consumers to utilities and electricity departments 2011-12 @IndianPowerSector.comAgricultural consumers.Power Plus Counsultants 3 4. Fig: Level of Cross subsidy from Industrial and Agriculture Consumers Agriculture Agriculture IndustrialIndustrial State(% of total Energy (% of total Revenue (% of total Energy (% of total Revenuesold - Mkwh) ` Cr.) *sold - Mkwh)` Cr.) Haryana38%3% 26%31% Karnataka35%10%22%32% Rajasthan39%18%26%39% Punjab 32%-34%57% Andhra Pradesh 31%2% 31%44% Maharashtra22%10%45%51% Gujarat32%14%43%58% Tamil Nadu 22%-35%54% Madhya Pradesh 30%12%31%39% Source: Performance of State Power Utilities PFC @IndianPowerSector.comInitiatives Of Government Rural Electrification: Physical achievement under RGGVYImplementation in countries such as USA, Germany and South till 31-10-2012: Korea have provided an utilitarian example of the kind of impactsmart grid can have on the overall value chain in power sector. 1Total No. of Villages 593732The overseas implementation of smart grid has thus advocated 2No. of villages Electrified 558773far reaching benefits for all stakeholders who are: 3% of Villages Electrified 94.10% 4Potential of Energ. of Pumps (Nos.)19594000 1. Smart Customer 2. Smart Utilities 5No. of Pumpsets Energised18620443 3. Smart Generation & Transmission 6% of Pumpsets Energised 95.00% 4. Smart PoliciesSource: CEA@IndianPowerSector.com tate Schemes: S tates have come out with specific schemes forSSmart Gird Initiatives- OverseasDistribution and Rural Electrification. Some of thesignificant schemes are as follows: Maharashtra - Akshay Prakash Yojana GERMANY Orissa- Biju Gram Jyoti -Energy The Internet of EnergyE Gujarat - Jyotigram Yojana (Rural Lighting Scheme)initiative. 6 pilot projects in 6 regions.Smart electricity: Govt mandated all buildings to beequipped with Smart Meters from 2010efficient power for aand Demand Response program from2011 Smart Grid investment by 2020sustainable world estimated at 40 BThe electrical power system was built up over more than 100years. It is now one of the most effective components of theUSAinfrastructure on which modern society depends. It delivers $ 4.3 Billion allotted for gridelectrical energy to industry, commercial and residential modernization under Americanconsumers, meeting ever-growing demand. Electricity being Recovery and Reinvestment Act.