Poverty and Social Exclusion in Hong Kong

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Maggie Lau, Department of Public Policy, City University of Hong Kong (Email: [email protected]) David Gordon, Townsend Centre for International Poverty Research, University of Bristol (Email: [email protected]) Christina Pantazis, Centre for the Study of Poverty & Social Justice, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol (Email: [email protected]) Eileen Sutton, School of Oral & Dental Sciences, University of Bristol (Email: [email protected]) Lea Lai, Department of Public Policy, City University of Hong Kong (Email: [email protected]) EASP Conference, Beijing (11-12 July 2013) Poverty and Social Exclusion in Hong Kong Poverty and Social Exclusion in Hong Kong

Transcript of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Hong Kong

Page 1: Poverty and Social Exclusion in Hong Kong

Maggie Lau, Department of Public Policy, City University of Hong Kong

(Email: [email protected])

David Gordon, Townsend Centre for International Poverty Research, University of Bristol

(Email: [email protected])

Christina Pantazis, Centre for the Study of Poverty & Social Justice, School for Policy Studies,

University of Bristol (Email: [email protected])

Eileen Sutton, School of Oral & Dental Sciences, University of Bristol

(Email: [email protected])

Lea Lai, Department of Public Policy, City University of Hong Kong

(Email: [email protected])EASP Conference, Beijing (11-12 July 2013)

Poverty and Social Exclusion in Hong KongPoverty and Social Exclusion in Hong Kong

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Outline

• Background of the PSEHK study

• Data and methods

• Preliminary findings of the PSEHK survey

– The suitability of the items (i.e. Items could be appropriate

to reflect a minimum standard of living)

– Reliability analysis

– Which necessities did adults and children lack?

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Background

• The project of “Poverty and Social Exclusion in HK” (PSEHK) funded by

the ESRC/RGC Joint Research Scheme (RES-000-22-4400)

Chow’s 1982 study

Townsend’s 1968 study

The LSHK

The PSEUK 1999 survey

The HKCSS 2011 survey

The DSE survey in Australia

The PSEHK 2012 survey

The PSEUK 2012 survey

The SPPR-PDSE study

PSDE: Poverty, Social Disadvantages and Exclusion

PDCW: Poverty, Disadvantages and Children’s Well-being

PDHI: Poverty, Disadvantages and Health Inequality

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Expert review of previous

surveys

Chow’s 1982 study

The LSHK

The PSEUK surveys

The HKCSS 2011 survey, etc

Focus groups

(FGs)

FG1: Lone parents and couples with children

FG2: Lone parents with dependent children

FG3: Couples with children

FG4: Single adults

FG5: Elderly people

FG6: Couples with and without children

FG7: Elderly people

PSEHK

QuestionnaireAdvisory group

including: academic scholars; NGO practitioners

Data and methods

including: necessities of life for adults and children; social exclusion

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PSEHK Advisory Group

International and local academic scholars:

• Prof Jonathan Bradshaw (University of York, UK)

• Dr Chan Kam Wah (Polytechnic University of

Hong Kong)

• Prof Nelson Chow (University of Hong Kong)

• Dr Roger Chung (Chinese University of Hong

Kong)

• Prof Ray Forrest (City University of Hong Kong)

• Prof Sian Griffiths (Chinese University of Hong

Kong)

• Dr Liou He Chiun Daniel (Asia University, Taiwan)

• Prof Mok Ka Ho (Hong Kong Institute of

Education)

• Prof Peter Saunders (University of New South

Wales, Australia)

• Prof Wang Ya Ping (University of Glasgow, UK)

• Prof Wong Hung (Chinese University of Hong

Kong)

• Prof Samuel Wong (Chinese University of Hong

Kong)

Practitioners from the NGOS:

• Mr Au Yueng Tat Chor (Concerning CSSA

Review Alliance)

• Mr Chua Hoi Wai (HKCSS)

• Mr Beethosum Kung (The Boys’ & Girls’ Clubs

Association of Hong Kong)

• Mr Alex Lam (Caritas Community Centre,

Tsuen Wan)

• Ms Lam Man Wa Kaki (Alliance for Children

Development Rights)

• Mr Tiu Kwong Ho (Windshield Charitable

Foundation

• Ms Yeung Mei (Tonggen)

• Ms Wong Shek Hung (Oxfam Hong Kong)

• Ms Rico Yee, and Mr Wong YT

(Neighbourhood & Worker’s Service Centre)

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Poverty in Hong Kong

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Note: Low -income households refer to households living under a monthly income less than or equal to half of the median income

of all other households of equal size of 1-person, 2-person, 3-person, or 4-person or over

Source: HKCSS, available at: http://www.poverty.org.hk/povertydata?tid=26

39.0

40.0

41.0

42.0

43.0

44.0

45.0

46.0

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

42.242.5

41.4

43.143.5

44.6

45.545.3 45.2 45.1

44.4

Number of low-income households (2001-2011)

7

’0000

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Rate of persons in low-income households (2001-2011)

Source: HKCSS, available at: http://www.poverty.org.hk/povertydata?tid=26

10.0%

15.0%

20.0%

25.0%

30.0%

35.0%

40.0%

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Aged 0 - 5 Aged 6 – 14 Aged 0 – 14

Aged 15 – 24 Aged 25 – 64 Aged 65 or over

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District 2001 2011

1 20.2% 22.3%

2 21.1% 21.0%

3 23.5% 20.0%

4 15.2% 12.2%

5 16.0% 13.9%

6 18.4% 13.8%

7 14.4% 15.2%

8 20.4% 19.5%

9 23.0% 21.1%

10 15.3% 14.3%

11 21.4% 20.4%

12 23.4% 21.4%

13 19.5% 19.7%

14 22.4% 16.9%

15 11.4% 11.3%

16 12.9% 14.1%

17 13.8% 12.0%

18 11.2% 12.1%

Rate of persons in low income households by District (2001 and 2011)

Source: HKCSS, available at: http://www.poverty.org.hk/povertydata?tid=26

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/Map_of_Hong_Kong_18Districts_ZH.svg (地圖)

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Comprehensive Social Security Assistance cases by type (2001/02 -2011/12) (%)

Source: Hong Kong Annual Digest of Statistics 2012, p.394

Old age Unemployment Single

parent

Ill

health

Low

earnings

Mentally ill

/mentally

retarded

Physically

disabled

Others Blind Deaf

2001/02 56.3 12.8 11.9 8.1 3.7 3.7 1.6 1.5 0.1 0.1

2006/07 51.9 12.5 13.0 8.3 6.1 4.2 1.7 2.1 0.1 0.1

2007/08 53.3 11.1 12.8 8.5 5.9 4.3 1.6 2.1 0.1 0.1

2008/09 53.0 11.5 12.7 8.6 5.6 4.4 1.6 2.3 0.1 0.1

2009/10 53.3 11.3 12.5 8.7 5.4 4.5 1.6 2.5 0.1 0.1

2010/11 54.5 10.4 12.1 8.9 5.0 4.8 1.5 2.6 0.1 0.1

2011/12 56.0 9.5 11.8 9.2 4.3 4.9 1.5 2.6 0.1 0.1

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Focus Group Sample Selection Criteria

• Income status

• Non-low income sample

• Low-income sample

• New immigrant from mainland China having resided in HK for

less than 7 years

• Sex

• Age

• Housing tenure

• Whether living with other family members

• Whether having dependent children

• Employment status

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Focus group participants

FGs Target group Participants’ socioeconomic status

FG1Lone parents and couples with

children (11)

� Low-income group

� Living in public rental housing (PRH) in Tin Shui Wai (i.e.

remote area)

� Housewives / Retired people

FG2Lone parents with dependent

children (7)

� Low-income group

� Living in suite room / PRH

� Some of them are the new arrivals

� Unemployed people

FG3 Couples with children (6)

� Low-income group

� New arrivals living in sub-divided units / PRH in Sham Shui

Po (SSP)

� Most of them are housewives

FG4 Single adults (6)

� Mixed income group

� Living in sub-divided unit / suite room / PRH

� Two of them are working for part-time / casual jobs

FG5 Elderly people (8)

� Mixed income group

� Living in private permanent housing (PPH) / PRH

� Retired people

FG6Couples with and without

children (5)

� Non low-income group

� Living in PPH / PRH

� One of them is self-employed living in PPH

FG7 Elderly people (6)

� Mixed income group

� Living in Old PRH

� Retired people

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Analytical framework of social exclusion (Levitas, et al 2007)

QUALITY OF LIFE

PARTICIPATIONRESOURCES

Living environment

Health and well-

being

Crime, harm and

criminalisation

Material/economic

resources

Access to public

and private

services

Social

resources

Economic

participation

Social

participation

Culture, education

and skills

Political and civic

participation

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Focus group sessions

• Coverage

– Necessities of life for adults and children

• ‘diet, footwear and clothing’

• ‘social activities’

• ‘accommodation and household items’

– Social exclusion

• ‘service accessibility’

• ‘personal relationships and support’

• ‘social and family life’

• ‘housing and neighbourhood’

• ‘living standards and assets’

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PSEHK Questionnaire: How to compile indicators relevance to

HK and prioritises the lay opinion

• Items are regarded as necessities to fit peer norms

– “a meal out with children at least once a month”

“It is really not good for health…. I thought it’s a kind of social activity….

Children might feel they missed something if they couldn’t have it….[I

thought] children should have a chance to go there but we must tell them

we wouldn’t encourage them to have fast food” [FG6-Male].

– “some new, not all clothes are old ones from siblings”

“Psychologically [he’d think] why do I have to wear old clothes. He’d ask

why he couldn’t always buy new clothes” [FG1-Female].

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PSEHK Questionnaire (Continued….)

• Items related to children’s learning opportunities

– “paying for tutorial lessons after schooling”

– “paying for special lessons”

“This is necessary in such a situation now…. as many children go for

tutorial classes. If you don’t do it, except you’re so smart, and if your

academic performance is average, you will compare with others [and feel

inferior]. Kids won’t be happy” [FG4-Female].

“You cannot lose at the starting point” [FG4-Male]

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PSEHK Questionnaire (Continued….)

• Items were essential, and in many cases, inseparable

– “a computer with internet connection at home”

“Now it becomes a necessity. It is necessary for school students. Now

primary pupils have to do online search for their homework. It is a social

trend and computers become a necessity” [FG6-Male].

“Internet connection for what? We’re the retired elderly people…… [but]

younger generations should have it” [FG5-Male].

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Items / Activities for children

Diet, Footwear and Clothing

1-Three meals a day

2-Fresh fruit or vegetables at least once a day

3-Meat/fish/vegetarian equivalent at least twice a day

4-School lunch box

5-New, properly fitted shoes (e.g. leather shoe and sport shoe)

6-Some new, not all clothes are old ones from siblings

7-Enough warm clothes for cold weather

8-School uniforms of correct size every year

9-New clothes and shoes for all children for Chinese New Year

10-Brand name trainers

School items

11-Educational games (e.g. chess)

12-Outdoor leisure equipment (e.g. racket or football)

13-Mobile phone for children aged 11 or older

14-Books at home suitable for their ages (including reference books and supplementary

exercises)

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Items / Activities for children

Accommodation and Facilities

15-Partitioning for every child over 10 of different sex to have his/her own space

16-A suitable place at home to study or do homework

Children’s own money

17-Pocket money for his/her own

Children’s social and extra-curricular activities

18-A meal out with children at least once a month

19-A family day trip at least four times a year (e.g. going to Lantau Island, Amusement parks)

20-Going on a school trip at least once a term

21-Participation in extra-curricular activities (e.g. sports, music)

22-Tutorial lessons after school

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Items / Activities for adults

Diet and Clothing

1 - Three meals a day

2 - Meat or fish (fresh/frozen) or vegetarian equivalent every other day

3 - Fresh fruit or vegetables every day

4 - Eat fresh/frozen poultry for special occasions (e.g. Chinese New Year)

5 - One or two pieces of new clothes in a year

6 - Enough warm clothes for cold weather

7 - One set of decent clothes (e.g. for job interview / Chinese New Year celebration)

Medical, Dental and Optical Care

8 - Able to consult private doctor when you are sick

9 - Able to consult Chinese medicine practitioner when you are sick and purchase prescribed medicines

10 - Regular dental check-up once a year

11 - Regular eye check once a year and able to afford spectacles if needed

Household Facilities and Items

12 - Facilities inside the home and no need to share with other families ( e.g. kitchen, toilet, bathroom, water

heater)

13 - A television

14 - A telephone at home

15 - A mobile phone

16 - A refrigerator

17 - A washing machine

18 - A fan

19 - An air-conditioner

20 - A rice cooker

21 - A computer with internet connection at home

22 - Enough money to replace worn out furniture

23 - Enough money to replace / repair broken electrical goods (e.g. refrigerator or washing machine)

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Items / Activities for adults

Adults’ Own Money

24 - A small amount of money to spend each week on yourself, not on your family

Social and Family Life

25 - Celebrations on special occasions (e.g. Chinese New Year)

26 - A meal out with friends or family at least once a month

27 - A week holiday away from Hong Kong once a year

28 - Go out with friends or family for leisure activities at least once a month (e.g. watching movie, taking

part in sport activities)

29 - Can offer a gift of money on occasion of wedding

30 - Give red pocket money (laisee) during Chinese New Year

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Preliminary findings:

Necessities of life for children and adults

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Suitability of the items in Hong Kong (Measuring material deprivation in the EU, 2012)

• Proportion of people ‘wanting’ an item

– People who want the items are people who have the item

plus people who would like it but cannot afford it

• The suitability threshold set at 70%

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Figure 1: People ‘wanting’ the item (for children) (%)

Items / Activities Wanting

2-Fresh fruit or vegetables at least once a day 100

5-New, properly fitted shoes (e.g. leather shoe and sport shoe) 100

1-Three meals a day 100

7-Enough warm clothes for cold weather 100

3-Meat/fish/vegetarian equivalent at least twice a day 99

4-School lunch box 99

8-School uniforms of correct size every year 99

20-Going on a school trip at least once a term 99

6-Some new, not all clothes are old ones from siblings 98

14-Books at home suitable for their ages (including reference books and supplementary

exercises) 98

9-New clothes and shoes for all children for Chinese New Year 98

15-Partitioning for every child over 10 of different sex to have his/her own space 97

21-Participation in extra-curricular activities (e.g. sports, music) 97

16-A suitable place at home to study or do homework 96

12-Outdoor leisure equipment (e.g. racket or football) 95

18-A meal out with children at least once a month 95

13-Mobile phone for children aged 11 or older 93

17-Pocket money for his/her own 92

11-Educational games (e.g. chess) 91

22-Tutorial lessons after school 91

10-Brand name trainers 85

19-A family day trip at least four times a year (e.g. going to Lantau Island, Amusement parks) 85

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Figure 2: Reliability analysis – Children’s items

Notes: (1) Overall alpha 0.880 (No of items: 22); (2) Items marked with asterisk (*) did not contribute to the overall reliability of the index

Items / Activities Alpha if item

deleted

15-Partitioning for every child over 10 of different sex to have his/her own space 0.886*

4-School lunch box 0.884*

5-New, properly fitted shoes (e.g. leather shoe and sport shoe) 0.881*

8-School uniforms of correct size every year 0.881*

9-New clothes and shoes for all children for Chinese New Year 0.879

20-Going on a school trip at least once a term 0.878

13-Mobile phone for children aged 11 or older 0.877

1-Three meals a day 0.876

3-Meat/fish/vegetarian equivalent at least twice a day 0.876

7-Enough warm clothes for cold weather 0.876

16-A suitable place at home to study or do homework 0.876

2-Fresh fruit or vegetables at least once a day 0.875

6-Some new, not all clothes are old ones from siblings 0.874

19-A family day trip at least four times a year (e.g. going to Lantau Island, Amusement parks) 0.874

17-Pocket money for his/her own 0.872

14-Books at home suitable for their ages (including reference books and supplementary

exercises)

0.871

18-A meal out with children at least once a month 0.871

12-Outdoor leisure equipment (e.g. racket or football) 0.869

10-Brand name trainers 0.868

11-Educational games (e.g. chess) 0.868

21-Participation in extra-curricular activities (e.g. sports, music) 0.868

22-Tutorial lessons after school 0.868

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Figure 3: Which necessities did children lack in Hong Kong? (%)

Items / Activities Enforced lack

of necessities

15-Partitioning for every child over 10 of different sex to have his/her own space 25

16-A suitable place at home to study or do homework 18

19-A family day trip at least four times a year (e.g. going to Lantau Island, Amusement parks) 17

10-Brand name trainers 16

22-Tutorial lessons after school 15

11-Educational games (e.g. chess) 10

17-Pocket money for his/her own 9

13-Mobile phone for children aged 11 or older 9

14-Books at home suitable for their ages (including reference books and supplementary

exercises)

9

21-Participation in extra-curricular activities (e.g. sports, music) 9

18-A meal out with children at least once a month 8

12-Outdoor leisure equipment (e.g. racket or football) 7

5-New, properly fitted shoes (e.g. leather shoe and sport shoe) 5

6-Some new, not all clothes are old ones from siblings 4

9-New clothes and shoes for all children for Chinese New Year 4

20-Going on a school trip at least once a term 4

8-School uniforms of correct size every year 2

4-School lunch box 2

1-Three meals a day 1

2-Fresh fruit or vegetables at least once a day 1

7-Enough warm clothes for cold weather 1

3-Meat/fish/vegetarian equivalent at least twice a day 1

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Figure 4: People ‘wanting’ the item (for adults) (%)

Items / Activities Wanting

6 - Enough warm clothes for cold weather 100

13 - A television 100

18 - A fan 100

16 - A refrigerator 100

30 - Give red pocket money (laisee) during Chinese New Year 100

20 - A rice cooker 99

12 - Facilities inside the home and no need to share with other families ( e.g. kitchen, toilet, bathroom, water heater) 99

19 - An air-conditioner 99

1 - Three meals a day 99

3 - Fresh fruit or vegetables every day 99

2 - Meat or fish (fresh/frozen) or vegetarian equivalent every other day 99

4 - Eat fresh/frozen poultry for special occasions (e.g. Chinese New Year) 99

17 - A washing machine 99

29 - Can offer a gift of money on occasion of wedding 99

24 - A small amount of money to spend each week on yourself, not on your family 99

25 - Celebrations on special occasions (e.g. Chinese New Year) 97

15 - A mobile phone 97

7 - One set of decent clothes (e.g. for job interview / Chinese New Year celebration) 96

5 - One or two pieces of new clothes in a year 95

26 - A meal out with friends or family at least once a month 94

23 - Enough money to replace / repair broken electrical goods (e.g. refrigerator or washing machine) 94

14 - A telephone at home 93

22 - Enough money to replace worn out furniture 92

8 - Able to consult private doctor when you are sick 92

21 - A computer with internet connection at home 89

27 - A week holiday away from Hong Kong once a year 87

28 - Go out with friends or family for leisure activities at least once a month (e.g. watching movie, taking part in sport

activities) 85

9 - Able to consult Chinese medicine practitioner when you are sick and purchase prescribed medicines 82

10 - Regular dental check-up once a year 64

11 - Regular eye check once a year and able to afford spectacles if needed 59

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Figure 5: Reliability analysis – Adults’ items

Items / Activities Alpha if item deleted

10 - Regular dental check-up once a year 0.848*

11 - Regular eye check once a year and able to afford spectacles if needed 0.845*

30 - Give red pocket money (laisee) during Chinese New Year 0.837

12 - Facilities inside the home and no need to share with other families ( e.g. kitchen, toilet, bathroom, water heater) 0.840

13 - A television 0.840

16 - A refrigerator 0.840

14 - A telephone at home 0.839

15 - A mobile phone 0.839

18 - A fan 0.839

4 - Eat fresh/frozen poultry for special occasions (e.g. Chinese New Year) 0.838

6 - Enough warm clothes for cold weather 0.838

17 - A washing machine 0.838

2 - Meat or fish (fresh/frozen) or vegetarian equivalent every other day 0.837

7 - One set of decent clothes (e.g. for job interview / Chinese New Year celebration) 0.837

21 - A computer with internet connection at home 0.837

1 - Three meals a day 0.836

3 - Fresh fruit or vegetables every day 0.836

19 - An air-conditioner 0.836

5 - One or two pieces of new clothes in a year 0.834

25 - Celebrations on special occasions (e.g. Chinese New Year) 0.833

24 - A small amount of money to spend each week on yourself, not on your family 0.832

27 - A week holiday away from Hong Kong once a year 0.832

29 - Can offer a gift of money on occasion of wedding 0.832

8 - Able to consult private doctor when you are sick 0.830

9 - Able to consult Chinese medicine practitioner when you are sick and purchase prescribed medicines 0.830

23 - Enough money to replace / repair broken electrical goods (e.g. refrigerator or washing machine) 0.828

26 - A meal out with friends or family at least once a month 0.828

28 - Go out with friends or family for leisure activities at least once a month (e.g. watching movie, taking part in sport

activities) 0.828

22 - Enough money to replace worn out furniture 0.826

Notes: (1) Overall alpha 0.840 (No of items: 29); (2) Items marked with asterisk (*) did not contribute to the overall reliability of the index

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Figure 6: Which necessities did adults lack in Hong Kong? (%)

Items / Activities Enforced lack of

necessities

27 - A week holiday away from Hong Kong once a year 23

10 - Regular dental check-up once a year 22

11 - Regular eye check once a year and able to afford spectacles if needed 18

8 - Able to consult private doctor when you are sick 16

22 - Enough money to replace worn out furniture 13

9 - Able to consult Chinese medicine practitioner when you are sick and purchase prescribed medicines 12

23 - Enough money to replace / repair broken electrical goods (e.g. refrigerator or washing machine) 11

28 - Go out with friends or family for leisure activities at least once a month (e.g. watching movie, taking part in

sport activities) 9

26 - A meal out with friends or family at least once a month 8

24 - A small amount of money to spend each week on yourself, not on your family 5

5 - One or two pieces of new clothes in a year 5

7 - One set of decent clothes (e.g. for job interview / Chinese New Year celebration) 5

29 - Can offer a gift of money on occasion of wedding 5

3 - Fresh fruit or vegetables every day 3

21 - A computer with internet connection at home 3

25 - Celebrations on special occasions (e.g. Chinese New Year) 3

19 - An air-conditioner 3

4 - Eat fresh/frozen poultry for special occasions (e.g. Chinese New Year) 2

1 - Three meals a day 2

2 - Meat or fish (fresh/frozen) or vegetarian equivalent every other day 2

30 - Give red pocket money (laisee) during Chinese New Year 2

17 - A washing machine 1

15 - A mobile phone 1

6 - Enough warm clothes for cold weather 1

12 - Facilities inside the home and no need to share with other families ( e.g. kitchen, toilet, bathroom, water heater) 1

14 - A telephone at home 1

18 - A fan 1

16 - A refrigerator 0

13 - A television 0

20 - A rice cooker 0

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CONCLUDING REMARKS

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- End -

- Thank you -

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