Postprandial Hyperglycaemia in Type2 Diabetes

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Postprandial Hyperglycaemia in Type2 Diabetes i h ki li i l i Managing the peaks in Clinical practice By Dr Suleiman Shimjee Dr Suleiman Shimjee

Transcript of Postprandial Hyperglycaemia in Type2 Diabetes

Page 1: Postprandial Hyperglycaemia in Type2 Diabetes

Postprandial Hyperglycaemia in Type2 Diabetes

i h k i li i l iManaging the peaks in Clinical practice

ByDr Suleiman ShimjeeDr Suleiman Shimjee

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Overview

• Pathophysiology of Type2 Diabetes, role of PPH. Why is it relevant?y

• Importance of managing postprandial hyperglycaemia The Evidenceshyperglycaemia. The Evidences.

• Clinical management of postprandial hyperglycaemia the therapeutic agentshyperglycaemia – the therapeutic agents

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Etiology of type 2 diabetes

Genes + environmental factorsGenes + environmental factors

Insulin resistance

at the beginning later

Normal ß-cellfunction

Abnormal (decreased)

ß-cell function

Compensatory hyperinsulinemia

Relative insulin deficiencyhyperinsulinemia

Fasting euglycemia

deficiency

Hyperglycemia

Type 2 diabetes

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Patients With Type 2 Diabetes May Spend More Than12 Hours per Day in the Postprandial State

Postprandial Postabsorptive Fasting

Duration of postprandial state

Breakfast Lunch Dinner Midnight 4 AM Breakfast

8 AM 11 AM 2 PM 5 PM

Adapted from Monnier L. Eur J Clin Invest. 2000;30(suppl 2):3-11.

8 AM 11 AM 2 PM 5 PM

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Pattern of insulin secretion isaltered early in type 2 diabetesy yp

Loss of first phase insulin secretionLoss of first phase insulin secretion

Normal Type 2 diabetic120

ml) 120 20 g gl cose20 g

ml)

100

80

IRI (

µU/m

100

80

20 g glucosegglucose

IRI (

µU/m

60

40

20

Plas

ma 60

40Plas

ma

20

0–30 0 30 60 90 120 –30 0 30 60 90 120

20

0

Ward WK, et al. Diabetes Care 1984;7:491–502.

Time (minutes) Time (minutes)

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Earliest abnormality of type 2 diabetes: postprandial hyperglycemiap p yp g y

300T 2 di b t

250

Type 2 diabetes

ose

(mg/

dl)

200

Glu

co 150

100

I G T

508 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4

Time of day

Normal

Adapted from: Reaven GM, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993; 76: 44–48.

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Postprandial glucose in normal, IGT and diabetic subjects

Diabetes220220

180

200

e (m

g/dl

)e

(mg/

dl)

11.1 mmol/l

IGT

180

160

140

ma

gluc

ose

ma

gluc

ose

7.8 mmol/l

Normoglycemia120

100

Pla

smP

lasm

0 1 2 3Time following meal (hours)Time following meal (hours)

Harris MI Harris MI Diabetes Care Diabetes Care 1993; 1993; 1616: 642: 642--5252

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Early diabetes is aEarly diabetes is a

postprandial disease

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Role of PPG in the progression of Type2 diabetes

• PPG rise before fasting

• High PPG -> down regulate insulin receptors -> increase insulin resistance (Bell 2001)

• Glucotoxicity -> accelerated loss if βcell (Miedler al 2002)

• Lipotoxicity -> obesity -> raised fatty acid -> ↑PPG• Lipotoxicity -> obesity -> raised fatty acid -> ↑PPG

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PPG contribution to HBA1C

• HBA1C - fasting and post-prandial hyperglycaemiag p p yp g y

• DCCT -> ↑HBA1C -> ↑complications

• Early disease -> normal fasting glucose but raised HBA1C

P t l h l l t d t HBA1C (1997 A i )• Post lunch glucose related to HBA1C (1997 Avignon)

• Contribution of PPG to overall control• HBA1C < 7.3% -> PPG 69.&%•HBA1C > 10.2% -> PPG 30.5% (Monnier et al 2003)

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In Individuals with HbA1C <6.5%, Postload Dysglycemia PredominatesDysglycemia Predominates

Woerle HJ et al Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1627-1632.

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As Patients Get Closer to A1C Goal, the Need to Successfullythe Need to Successfully

Manage PPG Significantly IncreasesIncreasing Contribution of PPG as A1C Improvesg

60% 55% 50%30%80%

100%

on

70%

60% 55%70%

40%

60%

%

Con

trib

utio

FPGPPG

30% 40% 45% 50%

0%

20%

10 2 10 2 t 9 3 9 2 t 8 5 8 4 t 7 3 7 3

C

< 10.2 10.2 to 9.3 9.2 to 8.5 8.4 to 7.3 < 7.3

A1C Range (%)

Adapted from Monnier L Lapinski H Collette C Contributions of fasting andAdapted from Monnier L, Lapinski H, Collette C. Contributions of fasting and postprandial plasnma glucose increments to the overall diurnal hyper glycemia of Type 2 diabetic patients: variations with increasing levels of HBA(1c).Diabetes Care. 2003;26:881-885.

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PPG, but not FPG distinguishes patients with HbA1C Between 6 0-7 0%HbA1C Between 6.0-7.0%

HbA1C Group (%)

• Characteristics– # of patients

• 6.0-6.5 6.6-7.0– 37 16

– Gender– Age

– 14/23 8/8– 54.6 49.6

– BMI– FPG

2hPPG

– 27.8 27.9– 111 113 (p=0.88)

198 226– 2hPPG– Mean HbA1C

– 198 226 (p=0.03)

– 6.26 6.73

Woerle HJ et al Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1627-1632.

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Effect of pre- vs. postprandial glucose monitoring on HbA1c in gestational diabetes

Preprandialmonitoring (n = 33)

Postprandialmonitoring (n = 33)14 14monitoring (n = 33) monitoring (n 33)

A1c

(%)

A1c

(%)

10

12

10

12

HbA

HbA

8

10

8

10

ange

101

6Initial Final

6Initial Final

cent

age

cha

in H

bA1c

–1–2–3–4

De Veciana et al. New Engl J Med 1995; 333; 1230

Per

c –5–6

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Macro- and microvascular complications

Stroke (22%*)Cerebrovascularcirculation Retinopathy

AnginaMI (34.7%*)

Sudden deathCoronary

arteries

Renal damageRenalarteries

Peripheral vascular disease P i h l

Gangrene and amputation (2.7%)

Peripheralarteries

*Causes of death in diabetic population

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Is postmeal hyperglycaemia harmful?Is postmeal hyperglycaemia harmful?

• Epidemological studies → strong association betweenEpidemological studies strong association between post-meal glycaemia & cardiovascular risks and outcomes

• Growing evidence → relationship between PPH and:– Oxidative stress– Corotid IMT

E d th li l d f ti– Endothelial dysfunctionWhich are all markers of CVD

• PPH →• PPH → • Retinopathy• Cognitive dysfunction in elderly people• Certain cancers

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DECODE & DECODA StudyDECODE & DECODA Study• Diabetes Epidemiology Collaborative Analysis of Diagnostic p gy y g

Criteria in Europe (DECODE) and in Asia (DECODA)• 25000 people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes• 2000 deaths• 2000 deaths• Mean follow up 7.3 years• Suggested the 2 hour post prandial blood glucose was

associated with increased mortality• 2 hour plasma glucose better predictor of cardiovascular and

all cause mortality than fasting glucoseall cause mortality than fasting glucose• European – 6.6% with IGT developed DM• Asian - 18.9 %with IGT developed DM

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Relative risk for death increases with 2-hour blood glucose irrespective of the g p

FPG level

2.5

2 02.0

1.5

rd ra

tio

≥11.17.8–11.0

1.0

0.5

Haz

ar

<6.1 6.1–6.9 ≥7.0<7.8

Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)

0.0

g p g ( )Adjusted for age, center, sexDECODE Study Group. Lancet 1999;354:617–621

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Development of type 2 diabetesFPG 6 1 7 0mmol/L FPG >7 0mmol/LFPG 6.1 - 7.0mmol/L2h ppBG 7.8 - 11.1 mmol/L

FPG >7.0mmol/L2h ppBG >11.1 mmol/L

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) Hyperglycemia

Insulin sensitivity

Insulin secretion

Level of blood glucose

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) Hyperglycemia

blood glucose

Micro-Microvascular

complications

Macro-Macrovascular

complications

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RETINOPATHY & PPH

• Limited evidence PPH and microvascular disease

• JAPAN Study (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 336(1):339-345)Commun 2005; 336(1):339 345)

• PPH better that HBA1C

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RISK OF PANCREATIC CANCER

• Large prospective cohort study- PPH an increase risk of pancreatic cancer (JAMA p (2000)

• Association is stronger in manAssociation is stronger in man

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Impaired Cognitive Dysfunction

• PPH associated with impaired cognitive function in elderly patient with Type2 Diabetes (Abb t l AM Ri N l 2006)(Abbatecola AM, Rizzo, Neurology 2006)

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A i PPGAgents targeting PPG

• Glinides

• Alpha Glucosidase inhibitors• Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors

• Incretins

• Insulin – Rapid-acting analogues

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GlitinidesGlitinidese.g. Novonorm, Prandin

• Stimulate insulin secretion in the presence of glucoseg

• Reduces peak postprandial glucose and HBA1CHBA1C

• Other effects: - hypoglycaemiai h i- weight gain

- no effects on lipids

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Alpha Glucosidase InhibitorsAlpha Glucosidase Inhibitorse.g. Acorbose

• Block enzymes that digest starch in the small intestine• Decreases peak postpandrial glucose (2.2-2.8 mmol/l)

D A1C b 0 5 1%Decreases A1C by 0.5-1%• Other effects -> flatulence & abdominal discomfort

-> no effects on Bp and lipidsp p-> no weight gain-> C/I in IBD and cirrhosis

S O d i k f d h i• STOP-NIDDM -> reduces risk of MI and hypertension

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I tiIncretinsThe new Darling in the treatment of Type2 Diabetes

• GLP1 analogue, liraglitide, Exenatide, Exenatide LAR

• DPP4 inhibitors : SitagliptinVildaglipting p

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Incretin & Glucose MetabolismIncretin & Glucose Metabolism

• Intestinal hormones stimulate post prandial secretionIntestinal hormones stimulate post prandial secretion of insulin, e.g,:

GIP (glucose dependant insulin polypeptide)(g p p yp p )GLP1 (glucagon-like peptide 1)• Low levels of GIP & GLP1 during fastingLow levels of GIP & GLP1 during fasting• Raise level within minutes of eating -> specific

receptors in islet Bcells -> stimulates insulin secretionecep o s s e ce s s u es su sec e o• GIP & GLP1 rapidly degraded by enzyme dipeptidyl

peptidase (DPP4)p p ( )

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Incretin & Glucose MetabolismIncretin & Glucose Metabolism

• Incretin response is impaired in Type2Incretin response is impaired in Type2 Diabetes

• Hence drugs enhancing Incretin activity:• Hence drugs enhancing Incretin activity:- Mimicking GLP1- Inhibiting DPP4• Exedin 4 – longer half lifeg

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Actions of GLP1Actions of GLP1

1 Effects on 1st phase insulin secretion1. Effects on 1 phase insulin secretion2. Slows gastric emptying3 S i3. Suppresses appetite4. Decrease glucagon secretion

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ExenatideExenatide• GLP1 analogueg• License for use with metformin and/or sulphonylurea• Dosage 5mcg and 10 mcg (before meals)

AMIGO t di tid i ifi tl d HBA1C (0 8• AMIGO studies: exenatide significantly reduce HBA1C (0.8-1%) in association with weight loss in patients not at goal

• 2 blinded non-inferiority studiesExenatide v/s GlargineExenatide v/s Bi-phasic insulin

B th t di h d i f i it t i li (HBA1C↓ 0 9Both studies showed non-inferiority to insulin (HBA1C↓ 0.9-1.1%)

Weight reduction 4.1kg (in Glargine 5.4kg in bi-phasic insulin)

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ExenatideExenatide

• Unwanted effect of nausea and vomiting Mild h l i• Mild hypo glycaemia

• Reports of acute pancreatitis with exenatide ->FDA WARNING

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Exenatide LARExenatide LAR

• Phase 3 clinical trial 50% had A1C < 6 5% andPhase 3 clinical trial 50% had A1C < 6.5% and 75% had A1C < 7.0%

• LANCET > i f i it t d h d• LANCET -> non inferiority study showedshowed greater reduction in A1C and

fewer side effectsfewer side effects

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LIRAGLUTIDE

• Long acting GLP1 analogue• Derivative of human GLP1 (97% homology)Derivative of human GLP1 (97% homology)• Once daily preparation: 0.6mg, 1.2mg, 1.8mg

(LEAD IV) l TG & li bl d• (LEAD IV) – lower TG & systolic blood pressure, more weight loss

• Care! Medullary Ca of thyroid in animal subject

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DPP4 inhibitorsDPP4 inhibitors

• Sitagliptin – license in dual or triple therapySitagliptin license in dual or triple therapy• 100mg once daily dose

l i h d A1C• Meta analysis: as monotherapy reduce HBA1C (0.77% v/s placebo)

• Less effective as monotherapy v/s other oral agents

• Weight neutral

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DPP4 inhibitorsDPP4 inhibitors

• Vildagliptin – dose 50mg bd with metformindose 50mg od with sulphonylurea- dose 50mg od with sulphonylurea

• Further reduction in A1C

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Role of GLP1 i h lif d d h f i llin the life and death of pancreatic cells

• Stimulates insulin secretion• Induces replication of islet cellsInduces replication of islet cells• Promotes islet cells neogenesis of pancreatic

ductal cellsductal cells• Inhibits apoptosis

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Case Presentations

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Case 1

• Mrs X:– 53 yrs old. Type 2 DM 17yrs– BMI 31 kg/m2g– Lifestyle OK, sees dietician– Medication: Lantus

• 90 units bedtime• Pioglitazone 30mg OD

M df i 1 BD• Medformin 1g BD• Glimepiride 6mg OD

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HBA1C 8 5%• HBA1C 8.5%• Fasting glucose 6.5 mmol/l• Premeal glucose 9-13 mmol/l• Postmeal glucose greater than 16mmol/lPostmeal glucose greater than 16mmol/l

WHAT WOULD YOU DO NEXT ?WHAT WOULD YOU DO NEXT ?

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• Started on Basal bolus regimeD tit ti• Dose titration

• 60 units lantus, 20-25 units of postprandial insulin

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3 Months later

• HBA1C 7.2%• No increase in weight

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Clinical Pearls

• A pattern of rising blood glucose during the day, with partial or complete correction overnight, suggests insufficient prandial insulin effect.

• Basal bolus regime allows greater freedom for patients to eat as they would like while

ki h lth f d h imaking healthy food choices.• This was also clearly a case of β-cells

f ilfailure

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Case #2

• 45 yr old man with Type2 Diabetes• Referred with 6 weeks history of osmoticReferred with 6 weeks history of osmotic

symptoms• Was started on metformin 500mg bd by GP• Was started on metformin 500mg bd by GP,

3 months ago, HBA1C 9.4%, BMI=32.4N HBA1C 8 4% b BMI 31 8• Now HBA1C 8.4% but now BMI=31.8

• Has made big efforts re diet & exercise

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What is the most appropriate treatment?

1. Insulin2 Pioglitazone2. Pioglitazone3. Increase metformin4 Add l h4. Add sulphonyrea5. GLP16. DDP4 inhibitors

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CONCLUSION

E li t b lit f T 2 di b t i t di l• Earliest abnormality of Type2 diabetes is postpandial hyperglycaemia

• Good evidence to support beneficial effect of targeting PPG excursions

• Emerging therapies -> aiming at PPG-> will benefit people with Type2 Diabetes

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THANK YOU !!!THANK YOU !!!