Post Harvest Care and Handling

of 86 /86
Post Harvest Care and Handling 1-800-Flowers.com, Inc. Las Vegas, NV Jay Winnerman Director North American Sales March 12, 2011

Embed Size (px)

description

Smithers-Oasis

Transcript of Post Harvest Care and Handling

  • Post Harvest Care and Handling

    1-800-Flowers.com, Inc.

    Las Vegas, NV

    Jay Winnerman

    Director North American Sales

    March 12, 2011

  • Quality Takes Commitment

    Worldwide research and development Trusted and used by florists throughout the globe Inventor and world leader of floral foam and post harvest products Most requested brand of floral foam Most recognized brand of flower food (Floralife category leader) Most active and experienced R & D and product testing in the floral industry Committed to product and service excellence

  • Things to Remember

    Quiz questions throughout the talk

    Raise your hand to answer - dont blurt out what you think is right

    Feel free to ask questions during the talk

    Practices in post harvest care have changed

    Real vs. Ideal

    If you can eat it, so can bacteria

  • Steps for Proper Post Harvest Care

    Why is Care and Handling Important?

    Inspection and Variety Knowledge

    The 3 Pillars of Cut Flower Care

    1. Temperature

    2. Time

    3. Sanitation

    Cut Flower Processing & Hydration

    Flower Food

    Floral Foam

    Consumer Education

    Ethylene and Botrytis

  • Why is care & handling so important?

  • Why is Care & Handling Important?

    Flowers are a perishable commodity!

    Consumer satisfaction equals repeat customers and sales!

    o Customers expect seven days of vase-life in their home

    Reduce scrap

    o Proper care & handling can add between 2% to 4% of NET profit to your operation

  • Commissioned by Smithers-Oasis from

    Prince & Prince Floral Market Research

    Survey developed in 1996 and implemented four times

    o Historical data from 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2007

    Surveyed more than 5,000 floral buyers

    across the US over a 10 year period

    Why is Care & Handling Important?

  • Influencing Customer Behavior

    Based on a consumer study of 1,200 flower-buying households in the U.S., over 10

    years and three surveys, consumers rated the following positive/negative influencers

  • In the Mind of the Consumer

    What will make or break your customer relationship?

    Three factors:

    1. Value

    2. Over-Priced

    3. Poor Quality

    What keeps customers in your shop?

    Sales Assistance/ Courtesy

    Delivery of Custom Orders

  • Receiver Perceptual Map

    Source: AFE, Dr. Yue July 2010

    In the Mind of the Consumer

  • Inspection and Cultivar Knowledge

  • Name that car!

  • Choosing the Right Cultivar

    A cultivar is the name of the flower

    i.e. Cherry Love is the

    cultivar name for a kind of

    rose

    Many postharvest problems can be solved by choosing

    the correct cultivar

    Order by cultivar name, not by color

    Vase-life study with 4 different

    rose cultivars (in days)

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    'Emblem' 'Osiana' 'Kardinal' 'Sonia'

    Water

    Floralife Clear

  • Inspection

    Inspect your flowers upon arrival.

    Invest in a probe-type thermometer to measure the temperature of the flower heads in the box upon arrival.

    If you have received damaged or unusable flowers, notify your supplier.

    o Have the labels on the end of the box hand as these

    labels have important information pertaining to the

    farm and airway bill that helps identify and correct the

    problem.

    Take notes of which flower varieties work best for you, which varieties last the longest, which varieties open or do

    not open, so you can fine tune your buying.

    Source: Dr. George Staby

  • The 3 Pillars of Cut Flower Care:

    Time Temperature Sanitation

  • What is important when talking about

    proper care & handling?

    The 3 pillars of cut flower care:

    1. Temperature

    2. Time

    3. Sanitationwww.chainoflifenetwork.org

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • Temperature

    Temperature has the most influence on vase-life as it effects the metabolism rate of the

    flower low temperature slows metabolism

    High humidity slows water loss

    Hydrated flowers are healthy flowers

    High temperatures have a negative effect on the vase-life of flowers

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • Temperature

    Cool chain should not be disrupted.

    From the field to the Point-Of-Sale, a working cold chain is very important to assure good quality and maximum vase-life.

    Grower Importer Wholesaler Florist Shop

    Transport Transport Transport

    The optimum storage temperature for most flowers is between 33 38 F.

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • 0500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    0 C 12 C 18 C

    Respiration rate Heat production

    Temperature

    Cut flowers respire 3 x more at 54F than at 34F

    Increased respiration rate leads to shorter vase-life

    Respiration creates additional heat

    32F 54F 65F

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • 02

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    Influence of temperture on vase life in days

    Temperature and Relative Air Humidity During Storage

    A relative air humidity between 80 - 93% slows down the aging process

    Cut flowers should ALWAYS be stored in a cool environment between 33 and 38F!

    Exception: Tropicals should be stored between 56 and 60F

    39F 45F 68F

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • Pick the proper temperature range for a cooler?

    39-42 degrees F

    33-38 degrees F

    41-45 degrees F

    33-38 degrees F

    Quiz Question

  • Which is not a true

    about a properly maintained cooler?

    It decreases damaging effects of ethylene

    It increases respiration

    It increases flower life

    It increases respiration

    Quiz Question

  • Time

    Keep flowers away from heats as much as possible

    Keep the time outside water / solution as short as possible

    Develop standardized procedures so quality does not become a coincidence plan your time!

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • FACT: Bacteria clogs stems.

    FACT: Clogged stems lead to hydration

    problems and bent neck.

    FACT: Bacteria produce ethylene.

    FACT: Fungi are opportunists.

    FACT: The effectiveness of all post

    harvest products is dependent

    on a clean environment.

    Fungicide, bactericide, cleaner is needed.

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

    Sanitation

  • 1. Cut flowers were stored in vases for two weeks.

    2. Water was discarded.

    3. One vase was not washed. One was washed with water. One was washed

    with DCD.

    4. Flowers were put all three vases with clean water only.

    Not cleaned Cleaned with water Cleaned with DCD

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • Microscopic small organisms (0.1 to 400 Microns)

    with high growth rates

    Growth rate is dependent upon temperature and

    availability of food

    Vase water and flower stems offer a good growth

    environment for bacteria

    Effect of Bacteria

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • Effect of BacteriaBacteria block the Xylem of the Flowers

    Result: The water uptake gets disturbed and the vase-life is shortened.

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • Effect of Bacteria

    The vase water becomes dirty

    The vase water smells rotten

    Vase-life is shortened

    Low Bacterial Growth

    High Bacterial Growth

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • Keep all buckets and cutters clean Research has shown that buckets left dirty for four days can

    reduce rose vase-life 20%.

    D.C.D. keeps buckets disinfected for several days

    Bleach looses its disinfecting ability after only a few hours.

    D.C.D. is less expensive than bleach per use

    D.C.D. will not stain clothing

    Only government approved bucket cleaner

    How can you control bacterial growth?

    Use a Flower Food Solution!

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • Bleach is not you best cleaning agento Sanitizes but does not CLEAN!

    Bleachs shelf life is very short (1 hour to 4 hours) and has noresidual effects

    o It kills bacteria immediately but it does not continue fighting and killing

    bacteria

    Use a cleaning detergent, not bleacho Similar cleaning detergents are used in

    hospitals as disinfectants

    Clean your cooler at least once every quarter (3 months) with a cleaning detergent

    Source: Dr. George Staby

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • At which stages do the three pillars

    have an influence on flower life?

    Grower

    Wholesaler

    Florist

    Consumer

    The Three Pillars of Cut Flower Care

  • Is bleach an effective bacteria killer?

    Yes!

    Quiz Question

  • How long does bleach kill bacteria in a bucket?

    A few hours

    2 to 3 days

    1 week

    A few hours

    Quiz Question

  • Cut Flower Processing and Hydration

  • How should flowers be handled?

    Ensure all containers are clean Use Floralife Cleaner

    Strip only the foliage that will fall below the solution level

    Cut the stems by to 1 with a sharp and clean knife

    Place the flowers in a cold water flower food solution. Use only Clean Buckets. Cold means as cold as your cooler temperature not tap water

    Do not place the flowers in direct sunlight.

    Keep them away from draughts

    Do not place the flowers close to fruits or

    vegetables

    Cut Flower Processing and Hydration

  • Which leaves should be removed and why?

    Usually leaves contain high loads of bacteria

    and increase the bacterial growth in the water.

    Only remove leaves under the water level

    Above the water level only remove damaged leaves.

    Leaves are important for the

    respiration of the flower and as

    energy depot

    Cut Flower Processing and Hydration

  • Always re-cut the stems. But why?

    A flower always tries to take up

    water and nutrients. When you

    remove a flower from the water,

    the flower sucks air. The air

    bubbles block the Xylem.

    Also bacteria can block the

    stems. Both are main reasons

    for bent neck.

    Always use a sharp and clean

    knife or scissor which cut the

    stems and does not crush

    them.

    Capillars (Xylem)

    Cut Flower Processing and Hydration

  • Movement of water through the plant

    No roots, No leaves, Big problem

    Xylem and Phloem

    Transpiration evaporation of water from plants

    o Light

    o Temperature

    o Humidity

    Vase

    solution

    Cross Section

    Phloem- distributes food made in

    the leaves to all other parts of the

    plant.

    Xylem- distributes water up

    through the plant.

    What is hydration?

    Cut Flower Processing and Hydration

  • Hydration Solutions

    Quick Dip

    Pour into container 1 inch deep Cut flowers Dip stem ends in quick dip solution for 2 seconds Place flowers in flower food

    Hydraflor 100

    Mix 1/2 oz into 1 gallon of waterCut flowersPlace flowers in Hydraflor 100 solution for 1 hourRemove and place in flower food

    Hydration solutions acclimate your flowers to take food.

    Stem Un-pluggersAcidifiers

    Cut Flower Processing and Hydration

  • Which of these isnt recommended when hydrating flowers?

    Re-cut stems underwater

    Use a hydration solution per the manufacturers direction

    Place flowers in warm water to speed hydration

    First and third points above

    All of the above

    None of the above

    First and third points above

    Quiz Question

  • Flower Food

  • 50% of florists dont use flower food!

    25% of florists who do use flower food incorrectly!

    25% of florists use flower food correctly!

    Source: Perishables

    research organization

    Flower Food

  • Flower Food

    Sugar: The food source

    Acidifiers: To lower ph and increase solution uptake

    Stem-unpluggers: To keep the stem free flowing

    Whats in a flower food?

  • Storage Solutions

    Provides Hydration Lower in Sugar

    Acidifier to adjust the pH of water

    Floralife Crystal ClearFloralife Clear 2X Professional

    Vase Solutions

    Provides HydrationHigher in Sugar

    Acidifier to adjust the pH of water

    Aluminum Sulfate opalescent or pearly when mixed (Floralife Original)Citric Acid clear when mixed (Floralife Crystal Clear)

    Flower Food

    Types of Flower Food

  • Effects of

    Flower Food

    Water Flower Food

    Day 7

    Photosynthesis makes sugar

    Very low photosynthesis due to low light levels and

    not enough leaves

    Flower Food

  • 0% 25% 50% 100%

    Important: Correct Dosing!

    Flower Food

  • Whats the better investment?

    A $300.00 investment can pay for itself in a short time through reduced flower losses, increased quality and labor savings

    Every creditable flower shop should have a dispensing system. Its as important as the computer, delivery truck and cooler

    A $300 dispensing system? A $1700 decorative wrap for the van?

    Flower Food

  • Or, make a dip-stick!

    Always measure your flower food!

    Flower Food

  • Works on all bulb cropsStops leaf yellowing in alstroemaria and lilies

    Keeps tulip stems from bendingImproves vase-life on all your bulb crops

    Available in a 10 lb powder and 10 gram packets

    Specialty Flower Foods

    Increased vase-life (20%+) than regular flower food formulas

    Brilliant flower colorSolution stays totally clear until gone

    Can be used on all flowers

    Flower Food

  • True or false:

    7-UP mixed half and half in water

    is better for flowers than plain water?

    True Sugar ( Food)

    Citric Acid (Acidifier)

    Calcium Disodium EDTA ( Stem-unpluggers)

    Quiz Question

  • True or False:

    Flower food is just as effective

    at half, regular, or double strength?

    False

    Quiz Question

  • OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife a post-harvest product!

  • Flowers live longer in a vase of water

    Water in a vase is better than floral foam for flowers

    All floral foams are the same, buy the cheapest

    Arranging flowers in foam takes more time than a vase arrangement

    Certain flowers dont last in floral foam

    Floral foam isnt good for all flower types

    Myths & Perceptions in Our Industry

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • We are about to shatter

    these myths & perceptions!

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • Improves flower life by up to 50% compared to other design mechanics Beats every competitive floral foam on flower life proven in the lab Maximizes flower life for nearly EVERY type of flower (even the problematic ones) Roses last as long or longer than in a vase Prevents stem burn, petal drop, browning and bent-neck

    Introducing OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • Keeps flowers living longer even when consumers dont water

    For the first time, meets or beats flower life in a vase of water

    Lasts longer even if you forget to water

    Color stable, so no more brown foam

    Mold spores; no more!

    Introducing OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • DAY 10

    Seeing is Believing!

    OASIS Floral Foam MaxlifeADVANTAGE Plus Floral Foam

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • Day 7 Results Susan Clarke

    Seeing is Believing!

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • Day 11

    Seeing is Believing!

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

    ADVANTAGE Plus Floral Foam OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • Advantage Plus on Day 7 Advantage Plus on Day 15

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife on Day 7 OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife on Day 15

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife Day 7 OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife on Day 15

    Syndicate Aquafoam on Day 7 Syndicate Aquafoam on Day 15

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • See Maxlife work at Youtube.com/OASISFloral

    http://www.youtube.com/OASISFloral#p/u/0/rKJ8wBQmykU

    Provides longer life for flowers up to 50 percent longer than any previous floral foam

    .

    For the first time, the only floral foam in the industry proven to meet or beat flower life in a vase

    This singular benefit, maximizing flower life, addresses the number-one desire of consumers who purchase flowers

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife is on YouTube!

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • Seeing is Believing No More Browning!

    OASIS Floral Foam MaxlifeOther floral foam

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • Current Floral Foam - Mold OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife - No Mold

    Seeing is Believing No More Mold Spores!

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • More than just bricks!

    All OASIS Designer Shapes and Articles

    are made with OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife!

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife Packaging

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • Method Key Messaging to the Florist

    Retails for $49.99

    Lasted 10 days

    Customer pays

    $4.99 a day!

    Retails for $49.99

    Lasted 6 days

    Customer pays

    $8.33 a day!

    For only 10 more, your arrangement will last 50% longer!

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • No brown, no burn, no bend.

    NO KIDDING.

    Flowers live longer in OASIS Floral FoamMaxlife than in any previous floral foam upto 50% longer

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife is the first andonly floral foam proven to provide as long,

    or longer, flower life than flowers in a vase

    of water

    Prevents premature petal burn, wilting,browning and petal drop

    Stops premature bent neck in flowers withsoft stems

    Stops leaves from premature yellowing,browning and falling off stems

    Prevents stem burn

    Day 1 MaxLife

    Day 8 MaxLife Day 8 Water

    Day 1 Water

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

    Method Key Messaging to the Florist

  • Floral Foam Basics

    Hydrate all flowers before arranging in foam

    Soak foam in flower food

    Never forcibly submerge foam

    Change soaking solution regularly

    All foams are not the same - remember that foam is a post harvest product like

    flower foods

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • Presentation Method Under 35 35 - 44 45 - 54 55 - 64 65 & Older

    Flowers arranged in a

    ceramic or other non-

    glass container. 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.0

    Flowers arranged in a

    basket. 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9

    Flowers in a glass vase.* 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.5

    Flowers sent in a box for

    recipient to arrange.* 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.9

    Values are mean ratings with scale of 1= dislike to 5 = like.

    * indicates statistically significant differences across groups.

    Prince and Prince Consumer Survey:

    OASIS Floral Foam Maxlife

  • Consumer Education

  • Educate your staff to educate customers on how to take care of their flowers

    Inform them as to what to expect from individual varieties

    Give your customers at least 10-grams of flower food and explain the importance of

    properly mixing

    o 10-grams makes only 1-quart of solution

    o 5-grams makes only 1-pint of solution

    Sell flowers by variety or cultivar names

    Educate Your Customers

    Consumer Education

  • Ethylene and Botrytis

  • Ethylene has been reported to contribute 30% of all post harvest dump

    in horticulture crops.

    Ethylene damage can come from ethylene produced internally or from

    external sources.

    Ethylene is the death hormone.

    Fruit ripening

    Abscission (petal drop)

    Increases respiration

    Growth promotion

    Flower Initiation

    What is ethylene and why do I care?

    What does ethylene do?

    Ethylene and Botrytis

  • Ethylene Sources

    Internal

    Plants, fruits and vegetables produce

    ethylene

    External

    From other flowers

    Plants and vegetables

    Bacteria

    Burning organic material

    Cigarette smoke

    Exhaust

    Ethylene and Botrytis

  • Major Cut Flowers that are Ethylene Sensitive

    Many cultivars of Roses!

    Alstroemeria

    Carnations

    Delphinium/Larkspur

    Snapdragon

    Lily

    Stock

    Many more!

    Ethylene ExposureNo Ethylene

    Ethylene and Botrytis

  • 1. Air FiltersPositive: Very Inexpensive Negative: Not effective

    2. TemperaturePositive: Slows effects internal & External ethylene Negative : Only effective while exposed

    3. Ethylene Action Inhibitors - STS / MCP-EthylblocPositive: Inhibits ethylene action Negative: MCP requires containment field to be effective.

    S.T.S. requires reclaiming units to remove heavy metals

    Tools to Prevent Ethylene

    Do not store produce or food with your flowers!

    Ethylene and Botrytis

  • Botrytis

    Look for free water inside sleeves. This would likely indicate a temperature problem.

    Free water promotes botrytis infection.

    Look for legions where the flowers contact the sleeve.

    Ethylene and Botrytis

  • Which of these is not true about ethylene?

    Its a gas

    It increases respiration of the flower

    Ethylene does not affect roses

    Ethylene has negative effects on some plants

    Ethylene does not affect roses

    Quiz Question

  • Floral Accounting 101:

    Doing the Business Math

  • Arrangement #1:

    OASIS Floral Foam flower design in woven basket container with Floralife flower food

    Retail price point: $37.50

    Material Cost to the Florist:

    2 Stems Lilies @ $1.29 per stem = $2.58

    3 stem Mini-carnations @ $0.40 per stem = $1.20

    3 Stems Hypericum @ $0.80 per stem = $2.40

    3 stems leather leaf fern @ $0.72 per stem = $2.16

    1 woven basket container @ $2.00

    Ribbon (not pictured) @ $0.50

    1/3 brick OASIS floral foam @ $0.21

    1 quart/liter Floralife Crystal Clear flower food solution soaked in foam and in container @ $.06

    All Occasion Flower Arrangement

    Total cost of flowers = $8.34

    Total woven basket cost = $2.00

    Ribbon = $0.50

    Total OASIS Floral Foam cost = $0.21

    Total Floralife Flower Food cost = $0.06

    Grand total material costs = $11.11

  • Do the business math!

    Design Materials Cost % of Design Arrangement Cost

    Flowers $8.34 75.07%

    Basket $2.00 18.00%

    Ribbon $0.50 4.50%

    OASIS Floral Foam $0.21 1.89%

    Floralife Flower Food $0.06 0.54%

    Grand Total $11.11 100%

    Money saved by using a lower priced foam at 20% less,

    for example, would be only $0.042, or 0.38% of total material costs!

    The difference in using a quality floral foam is insignificant for the benefits gained.

    All Occasion Flower Arrangement

  • Arrangement #2:

    Fresh flower design in glass vase

    with Floralife Flower Food

    Retail Price Point: $37.50

    Material Cost to the Florist:

    Premade bouquet of mixed flowers @ $7.99 a bunch

    Ribbon @ $0.50

    Glass vase @ $2.50

    3 pints(1.5 liter) Floralife Crystal Clear flower food @ $0.09

    Grand Total Cost: $11.08

    Glass Floral Arrangements

  • Do the business math!

    Design Materials Cost

    % of Design

    Arrangement Cost

    Flowers $7.99 72.12%

    Glass Vase $2.50 22.56%

    Ribbon $0.50 4.51%

    Floralife Flower Food $0.09 0.81%

    Grand Total $11.08 100%

    Not using flower food in an arrangement can reduce flower life by more than half and

    saves you less than 1% of the cost of the materials.

    Wouldnt your customer enjoy their arrangement for an additional 3-5 days or more? Think of the repeat sales opportunities!

    Glass Floral Arrangements

  • Care and Handling is important because consumers want and expect QUALITY from a florist!

    The 3 Pillars of Cut Flower Care1. Temperature / Cold Chain

    2. Time

    3. Sanitation

    Know your cultivars and inspect for quality. Proper flower processing and proper use of flower food aids in customer satisfaction!

    Floral foam is now a post-harvest product and can equal or exceed the vase-life of flowers in water

    Ethylene and botrytis have a negative influence on vase-life Dont forget to educate the consumer!

    Summary

  • Questions?