Popular struggles and movements

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Class X civics chapter, NCERT

Transcript of Popular struggles and movements

  • 1. Popular Struggle & MovementsEshan Balachandar1

2. Nepal 1) 2) 3) Won democracy in 1990. Formal power was with the King. Real power with elected representatives. 2001 Massacre of Royal Family, Gyanendra took charge. 2005 Dissolution of Parliament. 2006 - Popular control over Govt. headed by the King. 7 Party alliance called for a 4 day strike. Maoists & other organisations joined. 21st April, King conceded to all demands leading to : Restoration of Parliament. Seizure of power from the Ruler. To make Koirala Prime Minister. Maoists & SPA came to an agreement about a new constituent assembly to be elected. Eshan Balachandar2 3. Bolivia Fight against Privatization of Water 1) World Bank pressurised Government to give up control of Municipal Water supply. 2) Sale of rights to a MNC for the City of Cochabamba. 3) Company raised the price of water 4 times. 4) 4 day general strike by Labour and Human Rights and Community leaders. 5) Government agreed to negotiate. 6) Power of the people forced MNC to flee & made Government to concede to all demands. Water supply was restored to municipality at old rates. Eshan Balachandar3 4. SimilaritiesInvolvement of political organisationsInstances of political conflict that led to popular strugglesNepal & BoliviaInvolvement of mass mobilisationPublic demonstration of mass support clinched the dispute Eshan Balachandar4 5. Differences Nepal To establish democracyBolivia Claims on an elected Govt.Foundation of country`s politicsOne specific policySPA had some big parties with MPsFEDECOR composed of Professionals, engineers and environmentalistsMAOISTS did not believe in parliamentary democracy, involved Federation of farmers, confederation of themselves in armed struggle thereby factory worker`s unions, middle class establishing control over large parts. students from University of Cochabamba They were joined by labour unions. and the city`s growing population of Organisation of indigenous people, homeless street children. Socialist Party teachers, lawyers and human rights supported this. groups. Eshan Balachandar5 6. Two way roles of these organisations are Direct participation in competitive politics Creation of parties contesting elections and forming GovernmentsEshan Balachandar6 7. Formation of Organizations Those organisations that undertake activities to promote their interest are called INTEREST GROUPS or PRESSUREGROUPS. PRESSURE GROUPS : Influence Government policies Do not aim at directly controlling or sharing political power. Formed when people with common occupation, interests, aspirations or opinions come together to achieve a common objective. Eshan Balachandar7 8. Pressure Groups Movements : Narmada BachaoAndolan Womens Movement Influence politics rather than directly take part in electoral competition They are loose organisations Make informal decisions and are flexible They depend on spontaneous mass participation Eshan Balachandar8 9. Interest Groups Are united organisations Do not care much for mass participation Promote the interest of a particular section or group of society Example : Trade Unions, Business Associations & Professional BodiesSectional Groups Represent a section of society Example : Workers, Employees, Business Groups, Industrialists, Followers of Religion & Caste Groups Aims : Betterment of their members & not society in general Eshan Balachandar9 10. Groups FEDECOR (FeracionDepartamentalCochabambina de Regantes) Represents some common or general interest that needs to be defended. Members may not benefit from the cause that the organisation represents.Promotional Groups Promote collective good Aim to help groups rather than their own members Group fighting against bonded labour is an example They are also called public interest groups Eshan Balachandar10 11. Groups BAMCEF(Backward & Minorities Community Employees Federation) Made of Govt. employees that campaigns against caste discrimination It addresses problems of its members who suffer discrimination Its concern is with social justice and social equality for the entire societyMovement Groups Issue specific movements and seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame Eshan Balachandar11 12. Single Issue Movements Nepalese Movement Specific objective of reviving the kings orders that led to suspension of democracy Narmada BachaoAndolan Specific issue of people displaced by creation of SardarSarovar Dam Objective To stop the dam Questioned all such big dams and requirement of such dams Has a clear leadership and organisation Active life is short Eshan Balachandar12 13. Long Term & More Than One Issue Movements No single organisation controls /guides such movements. All these have a separate organisation, independent leadership and different views on policy. Example : Environmental movement Womens movement Eshan Balachandar13 14. National Alliance for Peoples Movements(NAPM) Movement groups struggling on specific issues are constituents of this loose organisation which co ordinates the activities of a large number of people`s movementsEshan Balachandar14 15. How do Pressure Groups & Movements exert influence on Politics ? They gain public support and sympathy for their goals by carrying out information campaigns, meetings and petitions. They influence media by giving attention to these issues Protest activities like strikes are done to force the Government to take note of their demand Business groups employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements They participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the Government Sometimes political parties grow out of movements Example DMK and AIADMK Eshan Balachandar15 16. Groups Interest groups and movements do not directly engage in politics but seek to influence on political parties Movement groups take a political stance without being a party They have political ideologies and position on major issues Is their influence healthy? Pressure groups have deepened democracy. Governments can often come under undue pressure from a small group of rich and powerful people Public interest groups and movements perform a useful role of countering this influence and reminding the Government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens Sectional groups prevents the domination of one group over the rest They bring about a rough balance of power and accommodation of conflicting interests Eshan Balachandar 16