Political Science 5 – Western Political Thought - Power Point #1

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Political Science 5 – Western Political Thought - Spring 2013 - Power Point Presentation #1 - © 2013 Tabakian, Inc.

Transcript of Political Science 5 – Western Political Thought - Power Point #1

  • 1. Western Political ThoughtDr. John Paul TabakianPolitical Science 5Fall 2012 Power Point #1

2. WELCOME TO THE FIRST WEEK!New semesters bring various hiccups foreveryone. This also goes for yourinstructor. We are all adjusting to newsituations, course schedule conflicts andother adjustments. This course utilizesvarious methods to deliver information.Many of our materials are media driven.You will find many to be humorous,thought provoking , or even interesting.This first clip is presented merely for fun.It is titled Welcome To School. 3. COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #1Todays Lecture Covers The Following: Introduction To Course Syllabus Review Classical Political Thought Modern Political Thought Organic Roots Of The United States Early Elite Influence In American History American Persona Transparency Minor Paper Assignment #1 Final-Major Paper 4. PLAGIARISM POLICYStudents are advised that plagiarism will not be tolerated. Yourinstructor has adopted the following definition of plagiarism that isfollowed by Cleveland Chiropractic College: Plagiarism is definedas the act of appropriating the literary composition of another, orparts or passages of writings of another, or the ideas or language ofthe same, and passing them off as the product of ones own mind.To be liable for plagiarism it is not necessary to exactly duplicateanothers writing; it is sufficient if unfair use of such work is made bylifting of a substantial portion of the work, including material from theinternet. If plagiarism is detected in the final draft of a studentswork, he/she will be given a final grade of F. My personal advice toall students is the same that one of my graduate professors offeredto my class, When in doubt, cite! 5. CLASSICAL POLITICAL THOUGHTAristotle states that inherent within mans natural state of being,there exist different roles that are designated according to the needof any community. Special virtues are rewarded to those who accepttheir roles without question, beginning with those terms identified byAristotle in the household, where the roles of husbands, wives,children and slaves are defined. Roles are assigned, for no man isable to exercise the same talents while producing exact levels ofquality in their finished work (Politics, Book 1, Chapter 4, 1253b1).As the polis consists of citizens with enough leisure time toparticipate in government functions, it is the citizenry thatdetermines those roles to be filled. Government itself has noemotions, or soul. Rather, it is the political activism of a few elitesaccording to Aristotle that makes all government decisions. 6. MODERN POLITICAL THOUGHTClassical liberalism refers to the beginning in terms of ahistorical rendition of the periods capable of being identified inwhich man existed. John Locke is recognized as being one ofthe first to anticipate the rise of liberal thought in his time.American political thought has been heavily influenced byLockean principle. Simply put, liberalism derived comes fromthe straightforward ideology of capitalism, as one cannot haveone without the other. Locke justifies capitalism by utilizingliberalism to criticize inequality, shaping everything around thepremises of liberty and equality, thus coming to the conclusionthat society cannot have one without the other. 7. ORGANIC ROOTS OF THE UNITED STATES (1)In their quest for designing a viable representativegovernment, the founding fathers dedicated themselves tocareful study of the political philosophy of Europeans.Focusing primarily on British political thinkers from the 16thand 17th century, the founding fathers focused primarily on thenatural rights of man, which in turn varied according to theindividual philosopher studied. Over the course of their study,the founding fathers openly discussed their opinions with oneanother so as to properly bring forth differing views in order toprudently construct a government that would protect individualliberty, as well as determine what was required of governmentto protect civil liberties. 8. ORGANIC ROOTS OF THE UNITED STATES (2)The theory of singular government deeply influenced foundingfathers Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Alexander Hamiltonand even later political leaders like Abraham Lincoln, to presentleaders of today. John Lockes articulation of human nature, inturn relating the law of nature, which is reason, emphasized thata state of inconvenience results in a state of war (SecondTreatise, Locke). The most acceptable alternative to a state ofnature is a civil society or government, as long as theestablished authority protects equality. As the fundamentaldesire of mankind is life itself, governments foremost priority isto protect property. Alexander Hamilton further propounded thisposition in that government is indeed a reflection on humannature (Federalist Paper #51). 9. TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS OF DISTRIBUTIONCulture is influenced through variousmeans that include print, radio andtelevision. We will also examine how thecommon individual may use technologyto distribute ideas in a cost effectivemanner. This video is just one example ofhow technology allows practically anyonethe ability to influence their fellow man.Technological advancementshaveempowered common citizens withcreative minds to produce their ownpropaganda. The War On Terrorsparked a great deal of media distributedvia the Internet. Elites no longer maintaintotal control over distribution. 10. ELITES AND MASSES IN EARLY AMERICATHE LAYERSELITE DOMINATED SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC, & POLITICAL LIFEMIDDLE CLASSSUCCESSFUL BODY OF INDIVDUALS FARMERS GREAT MASS OF WHITE AMERICANS WHO HAD LITTLE INTEREST IN PUBLIC AFFAIRS. 11. ELITE PREFERENCES:INSPIRATION FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION Government Under The Articles Of Confederation Established A Firm League Of Friendship Identified Powers Belonging To The National Government Reassured Each State Of Its Sovereignty Freedom Independence Repayment Of Loans Made To Congress Investors Who Backed The American War Effort Had Difficulty Securing Their Loans Without The Power To Ta, The Future Of The American Government Looked Bleak 12. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATIONThough the American Revolution was that of ideas, it was a fullout war. Victorious, the thirteen colonies established and livedunder the Articles of Confederation until the adoption of theConstitution of 1787. Revolutionary itself, the Articles ofConfederation provided little assistance for a nation absent ofleaders who possessed experience in governing the wholecountry. The Articles of Confederation linked the thirteen coloniesin mainly defensive guarantees. Though a congress with typicalauthority associated with a central government was establishedwith normal duties including the right to declare war, engage intreaties and coin money, there lacked an executive branch toenforce decisions. Congress was state directed, with each statehaving a single vote. Nine out of thirteen states had to agree ifanything were to be passed. 13. ELITE PREFERENCES:INSPIRATION FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION Protection Of Bankers And Creditors State-Issued Paper Money Permitted Debtors To Pay Off Creditors With Money Worth Less Than They Originally Owned Opening Western Land To Speculation Need A Strong Central Government With Enough Military Power To Oust The British From The Northwest To Protect Settlers Against Indian Attacks The Protection And Settlement Cause Land Values To Increase Make Land Speculators Rich 14. ELITE PREFERENCES:INSPIRATION FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION Protection Of Shipping And Manufacturing Strong Navy Important To American CommercialInterests Tariff Barriers Not Adequate Against Foreign Goods Ensuring The Return Of Runaway Slaves Protection Of Human Property Sought In 1787, Slavery Was Lawful Everywhere Except InMassachusetts Nations Founders Prepared To Protect Slavery Southern Economy Highly Dependent On Slaves Exercising Powers In World Affairs Confederation Held In Contempt By Britain AndBarbary States Elite Wanted To Assume Role In The InternationalCommunity And Exercise Power In World Affairs 15. FORMATION OF A NATIONAL ELITE An Annapolis Convention Report That Outlined Defects In The Articles OfConfederation Called Upon States To Send Delegates To NewConvention To Suggest Remedies George Washingtons Prestige 55 Men Chose George Washington In TheSummer Of 1787 Stood At The Apex Of American Elite Structure 16. FORMATION OF A NATIONAL ELITE Founders Governing ExperienceWealthyIndividuals Wealth Assumed A Variety Of Forms: Land, Ships, Business Inventories, Slaves, Credit, Bonds, Paper Money Founders Continental View Cosmopolitanism Distinguished The Men Of Philadelphia From The Masses Continental Point Of View For Political, Economic, & Military Issues Members Of The Elite Extended Their Loyalties Beyond Their States 17. ELITE CONSENSUS IN 1787 Goal Of Government Is To Protect Liberty And Property Origin Of Government Is Implied Contract Among People Elites Believed In A Republican Government Limited Government Could Not Threaten Liberty Or Property A Strong National Government Could Establish Justice, Insure Domestic Tranquility, Provide For The Common Defense, Promote The General Welfare, And Secure The Blessings Of Liberty 18. AN ELITE IN OPERATION:CONCILIATION AND COMPROMISE Representation Compromise Addressed Representation In The National Legislature Slavery Compromise The Three-fifths Compromise For Tax And Representation Purposes: Slaves CountedAs Three-fifths of A Person Export Tax Compromise Between Planters And Merchants Articles Exported From Any State Should Not Bear TaxOr Duty Imports Could Only Be Taxed By The NationalGovernment Voter Qualification Compromise Concerned Qualifications For Voting And Holding Office Electors In States Should Qualify For Electors Of TheMost Numerous Branch Of The State Legislatures Women Could Not Participate In Government 19. THE CONSTITUTION AS ELITIST DOCUMENT Elites