Political Science 1 - Introduction To Political Science - Power Point #1

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Political Science 1 - Introduction To Political Science - Spring 2013 - Power Point Presentation #1 - © 2013 Tabakian, Inc.

Transcript of Political Science 1 - Introduction To Political Science - Power Point #1

  • 1. Dr. Tabakians Political Science 1US Government Spring 2013Power Point Presentation #1

2. COURSE LECTURE TOPICS Defining Political Science Theory Defined Rational Choice Elitism & Pluralism Spheres of Influence Manipulation Interdependency Theory Power Theory Transparency 3. WELCOME TO CLASS!New semesters bringvarioushiccups for everyone. This also goesfor your instructor. We are alladjusting to new situations, courseschedule conflictsandotheradjustments. This course utilizesvarious methods todeliverinformation. Many of our materialsare media driven. You will find manyto be humorous, thought provoking ,or even interesting. This first clip ispresented merely for fun. It is titledWelcome To School. 4. POLITICAL MESSAGEAll citizens are allowed toauthor campaign rhetoric inorder to influence public policy.Here is an example fromCampchaos.com. The purposemay be solely comical withoutany political purpose. However,we must remember that allindividual actors are part of thesystem. All actions influenceThe System. 5. WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE? - 1 Political science is a branch of the social sciences Just like Sociology Each branch is interested in individual and group behavior Fundamental difference is the foundational theory Sociologists are biased towards elitism Political scientists are biased towards pluralism Elite theory is still utilized in the political sciences In contrast with pluralism Political scientists examine influences of political behavior Result of competing interests End result of conflict and compromise Sociologists looks at individual behavior According to elite influence in general 6. ROLE OF THEORY - 1 Everyone uses theory Whether they know it or not Many of us devise our own theories Through childhood socializations Up to adulthood Disagreements over basic theories Foundation of social sciences Elitism / Pluralism / Rational ChoiceTheory also helps researches to classifycertain variables. It may be thought of as 7. ROLE OF THEORY - 2 Foundation of political science Pluralism / Rational Choice Theory Think of theory as a pair of sunglasses Filtering unwanted information Helps us see the truth 8. EXAMPLE OF THEORY - REALISM Human nature is the predominant factor In a nation-states foreign policy These policies are focused upon self-interest The inherent motive for man is survival Applied policies are determined according to political determinations Considered to be a synonym for power politics Construed as pragmatic and wrought with simplicity Abrupt philosophy focused on the inherent evils of mankind The following clip is from the movie Failsafe. Walter Matthau plays the role of NationalSecurity Advisor who applies rational choice andrealist theory to explain why striking at theSoviet Union is necessary to survive. 9. FAILSAFE 10. RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY - 1 What is the primary goal of the individual? The answer may be summed up in one word: Survival. The foundation for all action Individual parties make decisions based on rationality Assuming that individuals base all decisions on self-interest Requirements to make a rational choice Perfect information Balancing our emotions Rational choice in one sentence: Decisions are based on self-interestas we define our self-interest to be. 11. RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY - 2 Who Is Acting Rationally In This Example?We have a nun and a real-estate mogul. The nun gives up allher worldly possessions and dedicates herself to helpingthose in poverty. Her justification may be great rewards in theafterlife. The real-estate mogul does not believe in an afterlife,but does believe in making as much money as , spending it allon an overly extravagant and abusive lifestyle. Who is actingrationally? Both individuals are for they are fulfilling their self-interestas they define their self-interest to be. 12. ELITISM Elitism does not promote elite rule The rules of a society obstruct social progress of masses Elites are needed due mass ignorance and apathy Elites have two main goals Preserve and enhance their positions of power Masses open to demagogues When the economy is doing poorly The country is fighting a war that it is losing Demagogues come from the far left or far right The Founding Fathers were against national referenda 13. ELITISM SUMMARIZED - 11. Society is divided between the powerful few and the majority weak.2. Governing few are not typical of the governed masses. Elites are not drawn mostly from the upper class socioeconomic section of society.3. Non-elites have to be given the opportunity to rise up to elite positions. The masses have to believe that the process is continuous or revolution may occur. Barriers prevent finite elite positions from being overtaken by unqualified individuals. This is a rat and cheese scenario. Sufficient CheeseSufficient Cheese Lack Of Cheese 14. ELITISM SUMMARIZED - 21. Elites share a common belief on the basic values of the elite. Any change of public policy will be incrementally slow rather than revolutionary.2. Elites may base their actions either on narrow, self- serving motives and risk undermining mass support, or they may initiate reforms, curb abuse, and undertake public-regarding programs to preserve the system.3. Active elites are not typically influenced from apathetic masses. Elites influence masses more than the masses influence elites. 15. ELITISM SUMMARIZED - 3 16. ELITISM / INFORMATION FLOW - 1 Information flows from opinion elites down to opinionleaders who are looked to the public for information News is first created by opinion elites and then sent toopinion leaders to help disseminate the information Those at the very top of the elite network decide whatinformation is deemed as necessary to offer society These elites may be news makers themselves or in chargeof large media corporations Opinion leaders may be thought of as journalists, newsanchors, expert pundits or even celebrities who possesslegitimacy among those in society. 17. ELITISM INFORMATION FLOW 18. MANIPULATION EXAMPLEGovernmental elites find itnecessary to manipulate themasses if doing so serves avested interest. Here is a greatexample of how a safety videocan serve as a tool formanipulating the masses fromchildhood. Who does themonkey represent? 19. MIRROR MYTH 1 News media outlets decide what willbe decided Bias is exhibited throughout themainstream and nontraditional newssources The news media stress that they arenonbiased since they only reflectreality 20. MIRROR MYTH 2 Their choice of newssubjects proves their bias All news is biased 21. WHAT WE CALL THE NEWS - 1Securing market share is vital,for without it, the major mediawouldloseadvertisingrevenue. It is really our faultthat the major news networkswillfully focus on sex, violenceand various negative pieces.Enjoy this video, What WeCall The News. 22. PLURALISM & SPHERES 1 Pluralism insures that groups are restricted from singlehandedly influencing public policy cross-cutting cleavages would form, as groups seekcompromise with others to build coalitions that wouldsucceed in affecting change Minorities are protected from an overwhelming majority Majority power-holders are essentially checked Cross-cutting cleavages balance against overwhelming forces 23. PLURALISM & SPHERES 2 Pluralism insures that groups are restricted from singlehandedly influencing public policy cross-cutting cleavages would form, as groups seekcompromise with others to build coalitions that wouldsucceed in affecting change Minorities are protected from an overwhelming majority Majority power-holders are essentially checked Cross-cutting cleavages balance against overwhelming forces 24. PLURALISM & SPHERES 3 25. PROPAGANDA CITIZEN BASEDThe War On Terror sparked agreat deal of media distributed viathe Internet. Elites no longermaintain total control overdistribution. These videos aremeant to produce an Us versusThem mindset. 26. PLURALISM SUMMARIZED 11. Society is divided into numerous groups with all making demands on government while none of the participants are able to dominate all decision-making.2. Citizens do not directly participate in decision-making, but they are able to vote for leaders to make decisions through a process of bargaining, accommodation, and compromise. 27. PLURALISM SUMMARIZED 23. Competition among leadership groups helps protect individuals interests. Countervailing centers of power for example, competition among business leaders, labor leaders and government leaders can check one another and keep each interest from abusing its power and oppressing the individual. Each of these individual spheres of influence allies themselves with other spheres that possess similar goals. See Spheres Of Influence.4. Individuals may not participate directly in decision-making, but they can exert influence through active participation in organized groups, political parties and elections. 28. PLURALISM SUMMARIZED 35. Leadership groups are open; new groups can form and gain access to the political system.6. Political influence in society is unequally distributed, but power is widely dispersed. Access to decision making is often determined by how much interest people have in a particular decision. Because leadership is fluid and mobile, power depends on ones interest in public affairs, skills in leadership, information about issues, knowledge of democratic processes, and skill in organization and public relations. 29. PLURALISM SUMMARIZED 47. Multiple leadership groups operate within society. Those who exercise power in one kind of decision do not necessarily exercise power in others. No single elite dominates decision making in all issues.8. Public policy does not necessarily reflect majority preference, but is an equilibrium of interest interaction competing interest group influences are more or less balanced, and the resulting policy is therefore a reasonable approximation of society