Policies: Land Consolidation and Fragmentation

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CRP Dryland Systems Béni Khédache site CRP Dryland Systems North Africa and West Asia Annual Coordination and Planning Meeting Béni Khédache-Sidi Bouzid site Hotel Alhambra, Yasmine Hammamet, 17-18 November, 2014 Fetoui M., Abdeladhim M., Sghaier M., Licheheb N., Ouessar M. POLICIES LAND CONSOLIDATION AND FRAGMENTATION IN BENI KHEDACHE SITE

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  • CRP Dryland Systems Bni Khdache site

    CRP Dryland Systems North Africa and West Asia

    Annual Coordination and Planning Meeting

    Bni Khdache-Sidi Bouzid site

    Hotel Alhambra, Yasmine Hammamet, 17-18 November, 2014

    Fetoui M., Abdeladhim M., Sghaier M., Licheheb N., Ouessar M.

    POLICIES LAND CONSOLIDATION AND FRAGMENTATION

    IN BENI KHEDACHE SITE

  • This research is based on the following facts:

    1) The land use policies in Tunisia were accompanied, especially in

    the dry lands, by profound changes which affected the social and

    economic dynamics of local populations (sedentarization, privatization and fragmentation of land, decline of pastoral activities and rangelands, agricultural

    development, extension of irrigated perimeters and changes in uses of natural

    resources).

    2) The fragmentation of land, as consequence of land privatization

    and land heritage, is considered as a brake on development

    3) The decision of the Tunisian government to embark into a land

    consolidation strategy, as a way to improve efficiency, equity, rural

    development, food security and conservation of natural resources, is

    not yet assessed.

    1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES

  • Related to these conditions and in the framework of CRP1.1 project,

    this work attempts to assess and understand how land

    fragmentation and consolidation contribute to agricultural

    productivity, sustainability of natural resources, rural heritage

    and livelihoods.

    Specific objectives of the work are:

    - Study the history and the evolution of land use policies and

    especially the land privatization in the south-east of Tunisia

    -Assess the impacts of land privatization on actual production

    systems in BK site

    - Analyze the problems of land fragmentation and the differences in

    significant benefits between small and big farms

    - Assess and monitor the land consolidation experience in the study

    zone and its impact on land productivity, livelihoods and the

    sustainability of the production system in general

    1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES

  • The methodological approach is based on :

    Valorization of the previous research programs and projects

    to analyse the land use policies and the major agro-pastoral dynamics and the changes in production systems

    WAHIA, JEFFARA, DESURVEY, LUPIS, AFROMAISON, etc.

    Information taken directly from the study field

    Basic survey : to characterize the production systems and the differences between small and big farms in BK site : 127 households

    Thematic survey: to assess the experience of land consolidation in the south east : targeted group

    2. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH AND TOOLS

  • Meetings and workshops with local and development actors

    to have information about the land status and evolution in the study zone, management of the rangelands and private lands

    Cartographic treatments and modeling

    to build a cartographic support that enrich the analyzes of production systems in the study area.

    Local, regional and national statistics

    Such as the national census of population

    2. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH AND TOOLS

  • ACTIVITIES 2014

    B. Analyzing the evolution of land status in BK site

    This study is carried out according to three time periods corresponding to the major changes in land status (1901-1964,

    1964-1974 and 1974-2014).

    (meetings with key actors DAF, mapping)

    History, lows, governance, etc., especially the land privatization (documentation, previous research projects)

    A. Presentation of land use policies on Tunisia

  • C. Assessment of the impacts of land status changes : major trends of evolution and characterization of the production systems

    Socio-demographic characterization (population density, age, scolarisation rate, activity rate)

    Structure and stratification of the land property (land property, heritage, average area by farm, number of plots by farm, etc.)

    Land and farm management (agriculture strategies, crop choices, practices)

    Land productivity and crop production (by type of farms: 1 plot, 2 plots, etc.)

    Income generation possibilities (diversification of economic activities, contributions,)

    (field investigation, 127 surveys)

  • in term of :

    land and farm management, labor

    land productivity

    opportunities and income generation possibilities

    D- Analyzing the problem of land fragmentation and differences in significant benefits between small and big farms

  • In the small farms: The major part of the farm is allowed to agriculture (87% of the

    area)

    Great parts of big farms (43 %) : pastoral vocation

    In term of land and farm management

    In the small farms: The agricultural strategies and activities are less pronounced

    (priority), farmers are less motivated to

    practice agriculture

    Despite of the area allowed to agriculture (50% in big farms), farmers in this case are

    much more motivated to practice agriculture

    (because of facilities, material, access to

    credits, etc.) so that they have agriculture as

    principal activity

    BUT :

    87 80

    50

    67

    58

    43

    12 18

    43

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    < 2 ha 2-5 ha > 5 ha

    Fruit trees (%)

    cereals (%)

    Rangelands (%)

    45

    55

    100

    59 49 58

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    < 2 ha 2-5 ha > 5 ha

    % of households (principal activity = agriculture)

    % of time allowed toagriculture

  • In term of land productivity and crop production

    Small and big farms produce less of olive oil (respectively 23 and 53 l/ha) than the medium

    farms (67 l/ha),

    The same constatation that the meduim farms are more productive in cereals

    Question : if medium farms are more efficient in term of productivity (taking on

    account the conditions and opportunities) ?

    Important constatation which can help decision in the land consolidation projects !

    53,3 L/ha

    67,2 L/ha

    23,3 L/ha

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    < 2 ha 2-5 ha > 5 ha

    Olive oil productivity (liters/ha)

    0,7 qx/ha

    1 qx/ha

    0,4 qx/ha

    0

    0,2

    0,4

    0,6

    0,8

    1

    1,2

    < 2 ha 2-5 ha > 5 ha

    Cereal productivity (qx/ha)

  • In term of income generation possibilities

    The same constatation concerning the income and this may be related to

    non-farm activities and their

    contribution in the income generation

    in the case of medium farms

    640

    41

    1267

    780

    47

    1100

    550

    63

    2100

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    Farm income (TND/ha)

    Livestock income (TND/head)

    Non-farm income (TND/ha)

    < 2 ha

    2-5 ha

    > 5 ha

  • WORK PLAN

    Action I: Assessing impact of land

    fragmentation and differences in benefits with

    big farms

    -Finalization of data analysis

    -Reporting

    -Dissemination :publications, conferences, open days,

    etc.

  • Action II: land consolidation plan in Tunisia

    and Medenine and its impacts on agropastoral

    systems in jeffara

    Objective: understand how land consolidation experience in

    Tunisia contributes to agricultural productivity, sustainability of

    natural resources, rural heritage and livelihoods

    Actions :

    -Presentation of land consolidation project in Tunisia,

    -Meeting with key actors,

    -Field surveys

    -Data analysis and modeling

    - Reporting,

    -Dissemination

    WORK PLAN

  • THANK YOU