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  • This project is co-funded by the

    Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological

    Development of the European Union

    EU Grant Agreement number: 290529

    Project acronym: ANTICORRP

    Project title: Anti-Corruption Policies Revisited

    Work Package: WP3, Corruption and governance improvement in global and continental perspectives

    Title of deliverable: D3.2.9. Background paper on

    Poland

    Due date of deliverable: 28 February 2014 Actual submission date: 28 February 2014

    Author: Grzegorz Makowski Editor: Alina Mungiu-Pippidi

    Organization name of lead beneficiary for this deliverable: Hertie School of Governance

    Project co-funded by the European Commission within the Seventh Framework Programme

    Dissemination Level

    PU Public X PP Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services) RE Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission

    Services)

    Co

    Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the Commission Services)

  • Grzegorz Makowski Stefan Batory Foundation Hertie School of Governance 13 February 2014

    ABSTRACT There are many grounds for believing that Poland is close to the threshold of good governance. Accession to the European Union required many changes to be made to the organization of the state and this provided an important drive for modernization. After EU accession, modernization processes clearly lost impetus, for political elites seemed to lack incentives to engage in broader reforms that could significantly improve quality of governance. Local government is over-politicized and the citizenry shows considerable passivity and tolerance towards corruption. While the model of governance in Poland has become more rationalistic and universalistic during transition, recent slowdown of reforms should be a matter of public concern.

    KEYWORDS Corruption, Anti-Corruption, Poland, Transformation, Governance

    Grzegorz Makowski Stefan Batory Foundation Hertie School of Governance gmakowski@batory.org.pl

    \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 2014 Hertie School of Governance. All rights reserved. This document has been published thanks to the support of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for Research - Socio-economic Sciences and Humanities theme (EU Grant Agreement number: 290529). The information and views set out in this publication are those of the author(s) only and do not reflect any collective opinion of the ANTICORRP consortium, nor do they reflect the official opinion of the European Commission. Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the European Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information.

    Diagnosis of Governing Regime in Poland

    2

  • Figures Figure 1. Control of corruption indicator ................................................................................. 6

    Figure 2. General perception of corruption respondents believe, corruption is a very big

    problem ................................................................................................................................ 6

    Tables Table 1. General perception of corruption.............................................................................. 4

    Table 2. Experience of bribery .............................................................................................. 4

    Table 3. Corruption within socio-professional groups ........................................................... 5

    Table 4. Use of procurement procedures .............................................................................10

    Table 5. Fraud crimes related to EU funds spending ............................................................12

    Table 6. Corruption crimes related to EU funds spending .....................................................13

    Table 7. Perception of corruption in the public administration ...............................................17

    Table 8. Tolerance of corrupt behaviors ...............................................................................24

    Table 9. General trust and faith in main public institutions ....................................................25

    Table 10. Sense of influence on situation in the country and local community ......................25

    Table 11. Turnout in national elections .................................................................................25

    Table 12. Membership in civic organizations ........................................................................26

    Appendix 1. Particularism diagnosis.38

    3

  • I. Introduction

    Corruption was not a salient issue in Polish public opinion by 2013, although it was regularly

    raised in the media in relation to bribery, misuse of power, favoritism or other corrupt

    behavior. In 2013 a multimillion-euro fraud in the tenders for IT services for public

    administration (MAiC 2012) made headlines. Another earlier case that raised much concern

    was related to public procurement for highway construction projects (EurActiv 2012). In both

    cases, as a result of the bribery of high-ranking officials, not only was the realization of

    important public investments at stake, but also the possibility of losing large sums in

    European funds. Both cases were widely covered in the media, and one consequence was

    the suspension of EU subsidies - in the first case the European Commission froze more than

    700 million EUR, in the second more than a billion EUR. It is also impossible not to mention

    one of the largest corruption scandals of recent years, which has affected the Polish Football

    Association. Between 2004 and 2011 several hundred football fans, officials and players

    were detained or arrested. Up to the time of completion of this text the courts had overseen

    nearly a hundred convictions. This summary conveys only a partial image, however.

    Nevertheless, since the early 1990s most Poles have believed that they live in a deeply

    corrupt country. Citizens see corruption as a permanent feature of daily life, even when they

    do not encounter it directly. Few have been asked to paid a bribe, however (see Table 2), at

    least in comparison with the far larger numbers perceiving corruption (see Table 1).

    Table 1. General perception of corruption

    Do you believe corruption is a significant or very significant problem in

    Dates

    VII 91 II 92 VII 00 VIII

    II 03 XII 03 V 04 XII 05 II 06 IV 09 IV 10 VI 13

    %

    Very significant 33 49 46 68 68 65 75 71 67 40 44 40

    Significant 38 37 40 25 23 25 20 22 26 49 43 43

    Source: Public Opinion Research Center (CBOS), http://cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2013/K_105_13.PDF [last access: 10.10.2013]

    Table 2. Experience of bribery

    In the last 3-4 years, did you find yourself obliged to bribe someone?

    Dates

    X 93 IV 97 VII

    XI 00 VI 02 VI 03 VI 04 V 05 VII

    XII

    IV 09 VI 13

    %

    Yes 16 20 19 14 16 17 15 15 9 9 9 9

    No 77 74 73 85 82 80 83 83 90 89 89 89

    Hard to say 7 6 8 1 3 4 2 2 1 2 2 2

    Source: Public Opinion Research Center (CBOS), http://cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2013/K_109_13.PDF [last access: 10.10.2013]

    4

    http://cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2013/K_105_13.PDFhttp://cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2013/K_109_13.PDF

  • Invariably, for many years, Poles have also believed that the main sources of corruption are

    the same socio-professional groups especially politicians and senior officials, health care

    employees and local government officials.

    Table 3. Corruption within socio-professional groups

    From time to time we hear about corruption in various areas of public life. In which of the listed areas do you believe corruption is most common?

    Dates

    X 01 VI 02 VI 03 VI 04 V 05 VII 06 XII 07 IV 09 IV 10 VI 13

    %

    Among politicians party members, local councilors, MPs

    54 52 60 64 61 35 44 55 60 62

    In healthcare 47 42 43 37 50 53 58 54 58 53

    In courts and prosecutors

    37 33 33 42 37 32 30 29 29 31

    In local government offices 29 25 29 30 21 28 25 28 31 27

    In the police 31 23 25 21 34 31 28 16 15 21

    In central government institutions and ministries

    38 29 37 39 34 22 32 27 26 18

    In state-owned companies 13 12 11 11 11 9 15 14 13 13

    In private firms 13 9 11 9 12 8 9 10 8 9

    In education and science 7 8 4 5 4 8 3 3 3 3

    In banks 6 3 5 4 4 3 2 4 3 2

    In the military - - - - - - - - 1 1

    Elsewhere 1 0 1 1 1 2 0 4 1 2

    Hard to say 1 12 8 7 6 15 10 8 7 8

    Source: Public Opinion Research Center (CBOS), http://cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2013/K_105_13.PDF [last access: 10.10.2013]

    The results of public opinion surveys about corruption in Poland corroborate the WB control

    of corruption (CoC) indicator commonly used by the World Bank and other institutions to

    describe the quality of governance in individual countries. CoC has a value of -2.5 to 2.5

    points a higher value means the country has a greater ability to combat corruption. In the

    case of Poland, that indicator did not change particularly quickly. Since the first measurement

    in 1996 until 2012 it fluctuated close to zero, reaching its lowest value of 0.11 point in 2004

    and its highest (so far) in 2012 0.59 points - not a large variation, suggesting that Poland