Plunger Device

of 10 /10

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Plunger Device

Page 1: Plunger Device

7/28/2019 Plunger Device 1/10

Page 2: Plunger Device

7/28/2019 Plunger Device 2/10


Some modern tools which are not given in manual 


A plunger is a common device that is used to release stoppagesin plumbing. The tool consists of a rubber cup with an attached

stick "shaft", usually made of wood or bronze. Before use, any

hair etc. in the plug grate should be removed and, if possible the

overflow hole should be sealed with a wet cloth. The cup is

 pushed down against the drain, and either pressed hard into the

drain to force air in, or is pushed down until the rubber cup is

flattened, then pulled out, causing a vacuum. The intent is to

loosen or break up a clog, excessive material, or other blockage

in a sink, toilet, bathtub, shower, etc.

The difference between a sink (kitchen) plunger and a toilet plunger is that the former 

looks like a ball cut in half while the latter looks more like a distorted ball with a large hole on

the bottom.

A plunger is much more effective when there is water in the pipe because water does

not compress and will thus transmit more of the applied force than air.

When a plunger is ineffective, it is often supplemented by a chemical drain opener, or by a

 plumber's snake.

Sink wrench

A sink wrench, also known as a basin wrench, is a plumbing toolused to tighten connections in deeply recessed places.

The fasteners securing faucets and other connections under 

a sink plumber wrench or other tools impossible. A sink wrench has

a self-tightening camming jaw mounted at the end of a long tube

with a handle at the opposite end. The head with the jaw may be

flipped over to loosen connections.

Plumber wrench

A plumber wrench is a tool to rotate pipes usedin plumbing. The diameter of the pipe being

turned is adjusted by rotating the key ring (silver 

in the picture). This tool can close with

significant force (without caution it is possible to

 break the pipe) and thus does not need to engage

a nut. However, the tool can still be used on a

 pipe with a nut or other flat engagement

 points.Being relatively large and unwieldy, this

tool is only used when the ordinary wrenches are

not suitable.

Page 3: Plunger Device

7/28/2019 Plunger Device 3/10


Plumber's Mait

Plumber's Mait is a type of putty used as a sealant in plumbing. Plumber's putty is a pliable

substance used to create watertight seals around faucets and drains. The putty is considered one

of the basic plumber tools and is often used any time plumbing fixtures are replaced. Plumber's

 putty should not be confused with Teflon® tape, which is used to seal pipe joints that arethreaded.

Different brands of plumber's putty often contain different ingredients. Many products

make use of some type of clay as a base ingredient. Linseed oil is also a common additive.

Other formulas include limestone, a blend of fish oils, or talc.

I n the manual there is no in formation about connection of pipes. Now a days plumbing is  an 

in tegral part of industry which uses variety of connections. Some of them are as follows

  Threaded Pipe

A threaded pipe is a pipe with screw-threaded ends for assembly.


A Coupling is a very short length of pipe or tube, with a socket at one or both ends that

allows two pipes or tubes to be welded (steel), brazed or soldered (copper, brass etc.)

together.When the two ends are of a different size it is called a reducing coupling or 



A union is similar to a coupling, except it is designed to allow quick and convenientdisconnection of pipes for maintenance or fixture replacement. While a coupling would

require either solvent welding or being able to rotate all the pipes adjacent as with a

threaded coupling, a union provides a simple nut transition, allowing easy release at any


In addition to a standard union, there exist dielectric unions which are used to

separate dissimilar metals (such as copper and galvanized steel) to avoid the damaging

effects of galvanic corrosion. When two dissimilar metals are placed in an acidic

solution (most tap water is mildly acidic), they will form a battery and generate a

voltage by electrolysis. When the two metals are in contact with each other the currentfrom one metal to the other will cause a movement of ions from one to the other,

dissolving one metal and depositing it on the other. A dielectric union breaks the

electric current with a plastic liner between two halves of the union, thus limiting

galvanic corrosion.

  Solvent Welding

A solvent is applied to PVC piping that dissolves and fuses the adjacent surfaces of 

 piping. This is used with a sleeve-type joint.

Page 4: Plunger Device

7/28/2019 Plunger Device 4/10



Flux is applied to the inner sleeve of a sleeve type joint. The joint is then heated using a

 propane or MAPP gas torch, solder is applied to the heated joint, and the solder is

drawn into the joint as the flux vaporizes.

Common fi ttings for both piping and plumbing apart fr om manual 

Street Elbow

A street elbow is a type of plumbing or piping fitting intended to join a piece of pipe and

another fitting at an angle. The difference between a "street" elbow and a regular elbow is the

nature of the fittings on either end.

A regular elbow has hub or FIP on both ends. A hub is a female ABS, PVC or copper pipe

receiver; FIP denotes "Female Iron Pipe" threads, that is, it receives threaded MIP iron, brass

or plastic pipe on both ends. FIP is also known as FPT, Female Pipe Thread, and MIP denotes

MPT Male Pipe Thread. Generically, these are known as NPT fittings (National Pipe Thread


A street elbow has a female fitting (hub or FIP) on one side and a male pipe or MIP fitting on

the other end. The advantage of the street elbow is that it can be connected directly to another 

fitting without having to use a short connecting piece called a pipe nipple.

Street elbows are available in 90°, 45° and 22.5° bends. They can be used in water supply,

drainage, sewer vents, central vacuum systems, compressed air and gas lines, HVAC, sump

 pump drains, and any location where plumbing fittings would be used to join sections of pipe.

CapA type of pipe fitting, often liquid or gas tight, which covers the end of a pipe. A cap has a

similar function to a plug. In plumbing systems that use threads the cap has female threads.


A plug closes off the end of a pipe. It is similar to a cap but it fits inside the fitting it is mated

to. In a threaded iron pipe plumbing system, plugs have male threads.


A barb is used to connect flexible hoses to pipes. One end had a stub with ridges that is inserted

into the flexible hose to secure it.

Closet flange

In plumbing, a closet flange is a pipe fitting

(specifically, a type of flange) that both mounts a toilet

to the floor and connects the toilet drain to a drain pipe.

The name comes from the term "water closet", the

traditional name for a toilet. A typical closet flange is

composed of an ABS or PVC hub with a round steel

mounting flange attached to the top. Other styles are

made from copper, brass, stainless steel, or pure plastic.

Page 5: Plunger Device

7/28/2019 Plunger Device 5/10


In a typical installation, the closet flange is mounted on top of the floor with the hub fused

around the drain pipe. A wax ring is used to seal the gap between the flange and the bottom of 

the toilet. The toilet is bolted to the flange, not to the floor.

Combo-TeeA combination tee (combo tee) is a tee with a gradually curving center connecting joint. It's

used in drain systems to provide a smooth, gradually curving path to reduce the likelihood of 

clogs and to ease pushing a plumber's snake through a drain system. The "combo" is a

combination of a wye and a 1/8 bend or 45° elbow.

Valves are widely used in industr ies and there is a large variety according to use. In the lab 

manual valves are not discussed. So here is brief information about valve assembly and 

types .


A valve is a device that regulates the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries)

 by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe

fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. Valves are used in a variety of 

contexts, including industrial, military, commercial, residential, and transportation. The

industries in which the majority of valves are used are oil and gas, power generation, mining,

water reticulation, sewerage and chemical manufacturing.

Cutaway of a simple manual ball valve.

1) Body

2) Seat

3) Disc

4) Lever 

5) Stem

Valves can be categori zed into the foll owing basic types: 

  Ball valve, for on/off control without pressure drop, and ideal for quick shut-off since a

90º turn offers complete shut-off angle, compared to multiple turns required on most

manual valves.

 Butterfly valve, for flow regulation in large pipe diameters.

Page 6: Plunger Device

7/28/2019 Plunger Device 6/10


  Choke valve, a valve that raises or lowers a solid cylinder which is placed around or 

inside another cylinder which has holes or slots. Used for high pressure drops found in

oil and gas wellheads.

 Check valve or non-return valve, allows the fluid to pass in one direction only.

  Gate valve, mainly for on/off control, with low pressure drop.

  Globe valve, good for regulating flow.

   Needle valve for accurate flow control.

Some commonl y used valves in industr ies are- :



The seals or packings used to prevent the escape of a gas or fluids from valves.

Page 7: Plunger Device

7/28/2019 Plunger Device 7/10


Body and bonnet

The main parts of a valve are the body and the bonnet. These two parts form the casing that

holds the fluid going through the valve. The bonnet is the casing through which the stem passes

and that forms a guide and seal for the stem.

Valve bodies are usually metallic. Brass, bronze, gunmetal, cast iron, steel, alloy steelsand stainless steels are very common. Plastic bodies are used for relatively low pressures and

temperatures. PVC, PP, PVDF and glass-reinforced nylon are common plastics used for valve



A bonnet acts as a cover on the valve body. It is commonly semi-permanently screwed into the

valve body. During manufacture of the valve, the internal parts are put into the body and then

the bonnet is attached to hold everything together inside. To access internal parts of a valve, a

user would take off the bonnet, usually for maintenance. Many valves do not have bonnets; for 

example, plug valves usually do not have bonnets.


Ports are passages that allow fluid to pass through the valve. Ports are obstructed by the valve

member or disc to control flow. Valves most commonly have 2 ports, but may have as many as

20. The valve is almost always connected at it's ports to pipes or other components. Connection

methods include threadings, compression fittings, glue, cement, flanges, or welding.


A disc or valve member is a movable obstruction inside the stationary body that adjustablyrestricts flow through the valve. Although traditionally disc-shaped, discs come in various

shapes. A ball is a round valve member with one or more paths between ports passing through

it. By rotating the ball flow can be directed between different ports. Ball valves use spherical

rotors with a cylindrical hole drilled as a fluid passage. Plug valves use cylindrical or conically

tapered rotors called plugs.[ambiguous] Other round shapes for rotors are possible as well in

rotor valves, as long as the rotor can be turned inside the valve body. However not all round or 

spherical discs are rotors; for example, a ball check valve uses the ball to block reverse flow,

 but is not a rotor because operating the valve does not involve rotation of the ball.


The seat is the interior surface of the body which contacts the disc to form a leak-tight seal. In

discs that move linearly or swing on a hinge the disc comes into contact with the seat only

when the valve is shut. In disks that rotate, the seat is always in contact with the disk, but the

area of contact changes as the disc is turned. The seat always remains stationary relative to the


Seats are classified by whether they are cut directly into the body, or if they are made of a

different material:

  Hard seats are integral to the valve body. Nearly all hard seated metal valves have a

small amount of leakage.

Page 8: Plunger Device

7/28/2019 Plunger Device 8/10


  Soft seats are fitted to the valve body and made of softer materials such as PTFE or 

various elastomers such as NBR, EPDM, or FKM depending on the maximum

operating temperature.

A closed soft seated valve is much less liable to leak when shut while hard seated valves aremore durable. Gate, globe, and check valves are usually hard seated while butterfly, ball, plug,

and diaphragm valves are usually soft seated.

Valve balls

A valve ball is also used for severe duty, high-pressure, high-tolerance applications. They are

typically made of stainless steel, titanium, Stellite, Hastelloy, brass, or nickel. They can also be

made of different types of plastic, such as ABS, PVC, PP or PVDF.


Many valves have a spring for spring-loading, to normally shift the disc into some position by

default but allow control to reposition the disc. Relief valves commonly use a spring to keep

the valve shut, but allow excessive pressure to force the valve open against the spring-loading.

Coil springs are normally used. Typical spring materials include zinc plated steel, stainless

steel, and for high temperature applications Inconel X750.

Thread making is very important for connection of pipes or to connect other assembl ies.

Generall y for house hold applications threads are made manual ly wi th the help of Tap and 

Die whi ch are not been discussed in manual 

Tap and die

Taps and dies are cutting tools used when creating screw threads. A tap is used to cut the

female portion of the mating pair. A die is used to cut the male portion of the mating pair. The

 process of cutting the threads in a hole is called "tapping" the hole. The process of cutting with

a die is called "threading" (or sometimes "chasing", although "chasing" is most commonly used

when threads are already present but need to be "cleaned up").


Page 9: Plunger Device

7/28/2019 Plunger Device 9/10


Precautions to be taken whi le tapping 

  The tap should be made of a material that is suitable for machine tapping. The high-

carbon steel used in hand tools is most likely too brittle; high speed steel (HSS) is

 preferable for virtually all work piece materials

  Proper cutting compound or coolant should be used during tapping.

  Spindle or tap is turning in the correct direction.

  Tap is lined up to the hole.


The die cuts a thread on a preformed cylindrical rod, which creates a male threaded piece

which functions like a bolt. The dies shown are

  top left: an older split die, with top adjusting screw

   bottom left: a one piece die with top adjusting


  center: a one piece die with side adjusting screw

(barely visible on the full image)

  right: two dies without adjusting screws

The adjusting screws allow the die to be compressed or expanded to accommodate slight

variations in size, due to material, manufacture, or die sharpness. The two rightmost dies

shown in the image have no adjusting screws. However the die holder can exert pressure and

decrease the size if required.

Pipe Dope

Threaded pipe is often used in plumbing and pneumatic applications. Because pipe joints must

form a seal, the threaded portion is slightly conical rather than cylindrical. As a result, threaded

 pipe requires specialized taps and dies. Conventional pipe threads must be assembled with a

 jointing compound or use PTFE tape in order to achieve a leak proof seal.A modified form of the basic pipe thread shape is the Dry-Seal thread. The Dry-Seal thread is

formed so that during assembly, the tips of the male threads are slightly crushed into the roots

of the female threads, effecting, in theory, a liquid-tight fit. In practice, a small amount of pipe

dope is usually necessary to assure a pressure-tight seal, and to prevent galling of the mating


Page 10: Plunger Device

7/28/2019 Plunger Device 10/10


Modern trend in plumbing 

Electronic Plumbing

In public facilities, the trend is toward sensor operated fixtures that improve hygiene, and

save money. For example, sensor operated

automatic flush urinals have fewer moving

 parts, reduce wear and tend to last longer than

manual flush valves. Also they ensure fixtures

are flushed only once per use. Some contain

intelligence that flushes them at different

amounts of water flow depending on traffic

 patterns, e.g. the fixture can "see" if there is a

lineup of users, and only give a full flush after 

the last person has used the urinal.

Automatic flush compensates for users who do

not bother to flush. Also, since the fixtures are

always flushed, there is no need for a urinal

cake, or other odor reduction. Sensor operated

toilets also have automatic flush. Sensor operated faucets and showers save water. For 

example, while a user is lathering up with soap, the fixture shuts off and then resumes when the

user needs it to. Sensor operated soap and shampoo dispensers reduce waste and spill that

might otherwise represent a slip hazard.