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DIRECTIONS: Choose the single best answer. PHYSIOLOGY Module 1 NONE General Concepts I

Module 2 General Concepts II PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2005 Phys P4 Exam (#1-30) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2004 Phys P4 Exam (#1-30) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2003 Phys P1 Exam (#1-30) Module 3 Cardiovascular/Respiratory PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2005 Phys P4 Exam (#31-60 [cardio.]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2004 Phys P4 Exam (#31-60 [cardio.]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2003 Phys P1 Exam (#31-60 [cardio.]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2005 Phys P5 Exam (#1-20, 50 [resp.]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2004 Phys P2 Exam (#1-20 [resp.]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2003 Phys P2 Exam (#1-20 [resp.]) Module 4 Gastrointestinal/Renal PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2005 Phys P5 Exam (#21-49 [renal]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2004 Phys P2 Exam (#21-50 [renal]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2003 Phys P2 Exam (#21-50 [renal]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2005 Phys P6 Exam (#1-20 [GI]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2004 Phys P3 Exam (#21-45 [GI]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2003 Phys P3 Exam (#1-10 [GI]) Module 5 Endocrine/Reproductive PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2005 Phys P6 Exam (#21-45 [endo.]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2004 Phys P3 Exam (#1-20 [endo.]) PHYSIOLOGY > Exams > 2003 Phys P3 Exam (#11-45 [endo. + repro.]) Module 6 NONE Module 7 NONE Musculoskeletal

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Directions: Choose the single best answer. While alternative answers may be partially correct, only one is fully correct._______1. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in prematurely delivered infants is characterized by progressive collapse of alveoli and respiratory failure. The primary deficiency is a lack of surfactant production. This is associated with a. decreased work of breathing. b. increased surface tension forces at he air/liquid interface in alveoli. c. overproduction of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) by Type II epithelial cells of the alveoli. d. increased numbers of Type I cells in alveoli. e. all of the above.

_______2.

An elderly patient has emphysema and his physician decides to characterize his lung volumes and capacities. Spirometry reveals tidal volume = 0.5L; expiratory reserve volume = 1.5L; inspiratory reserve volume = 2L. The patient then quietly breathes gas from a spirometer (volume 3L) which contains helium (He) at an initial concentration of 10%. After 3 minutes of breathing, the concentration of He at the end of quiet expiration was 5%. From these measurements his vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC) in liters are (respectively): a. b. c. d. e. 4.0; 5.5 5.0; 5.5 3.0; 5.0 2.0; 4.0 none of the above.

_______3.

Compare the alveolar ventilation rate of a patient breathing quietly at 10/minute, (tidal volume 0.5L), with that of the same individual breathing rapidly at 20/minute (tidal volume 0.3L). This individual has a physiologic dead space of 0.2L and vital capacity of 3L. The respective alveolar ventilation rates are (quiet breathing; rapid breathing) in L/minute: a. b. c. d. e. 5; 6 1.5; 4 3.5; 6 4; 3 3; 2

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Directions: Choose the single best answer. While alternative answers may be partially correct, only one is fully correct._______4. Intrapleural pressure plays a central role in breathing in a healthy individual. This pressure in such an individual is a. b. c. d. always less than atmospheric pressure (PB). equal to PB at the end of the quiet inspiration. less than PB at the end of quiet expiration. greater than (more positive value) alveolar pressure (PA) at the peak of inspiration. e. greater than PB during all phases of quiet breathing.

_______5.

The figure shows the relation between rate of flow of air and lung volume, with positive flow = exhalation and negative flow = inhalation. Which of the following statements is correct?

a. Point C represents an effort-independent region of the breathing cycle. b. EFGHA is the path of exhalation from maximum lung volume. c. B represents a region in which air flow is limited by airway collapse. d. Maximum rate of flow during exhalation is attained at low lung volumes, rather than high lung volumes. e. Point D represents a region in which rate of airflow is effortindependent.

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Directions: Choose the single best answer. While alternative answers may be partially correct, only one is fully correct._______6. A healthy individual quietly inhales starting at functional residual capacity (FRC). For such a breath a. less of the inhaled gas goes to alveoli at the apex of the lung than to alveoli at the base of the lung b. alveoli at the base of the lung are smaller than those of the apex of the lung. c. alveoli at the base of the lung are more compliant than those at the apex of the lung. d. alveoli having large time constants (X = RC) will fill more slowly than those having small time constants. e. all of the above are correct.

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When a healthy individual inhales 2L of air starting from the FRC, her pleural pressure decreases from 4cm H2O to 14cm H2O. If she has an FRC of 2L, the specific compliance of her lungs is (in CM H2O 1) a. b. c. d. e. 10 1.0 0.1 0.2 0.02

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A healthy individual breathes out forcefully, at the end of quiet inspiration. Which of the following statements is correct? a. b. c. d. e. Internal intercostal muscles are activated. Rectus abdominus muscle is activated. Transverse abdominus muscle is activated. All of the above muscles are activated. No muscles are activated, since expiration is a passive process.

_______9.

In advanced stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease such as emphysema a. b. c. d. e. alveolar and capillary walls are progressively destroyed. lung compliance is increased. the equal pressure point moves along the airways towards the alveoli. total lung capacity is increased. all of the above occur.

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Directions: Choose the single best answer. While alternative answers may be partially correct, only one is fully correct.______10. The flow of air in small airways (respiratory bronchioles) during usual breathing. a. b. c. d. is laminar. is associated with a Reynolds number less than 2000. will not provide any breath sounds on a stethoscope. provides little (less than 20%) of the total resistance to airflow due to frictional forces. e. is accurately described by all of the above.

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A clinician suspects that a patient may have a diffusion problem in the lungs due to fibrosis. She