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Oh no! I can’t see a thing. I think I lost my eye sight!!

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ppt for Light

### Transcript of Phy exppp chap12

Oh no! I can’t see a thing. I think I lost

my eye sight!!

Before we move on,

We have…

Representing the video clips available

Representing the applets available

Representing the websites available

Pupils should be able to

recall and use the terms for reflection, including normal, angle of incidence and angle of reflection.

state that, for reflection, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of

reflection and use this principle in constructions, measurements and

calculations.

Introduction to LightLesson objectives

Teacher demonstration

In these demonstrations, your teacher will use a laser pointer to illustrate some interesting phenomena related to light.

Pls turn to PB page 63 for detail.

Lesson Trigger

What is light?

How do you know this is true?

What evidence do you have to

show this property?

1 Light travels in a straight line.

2 Light travels at a speed of 3 108 m/s.

3 Light can travel through vacuum.

4 Light is a wave that carries energy (light energy) from one place to another.

Properties of Light

Seeing the Light

When light meets any surface, reflection of light occurs.

Reflection always involves two rays – an incoming or incident ray that strikes a surface, and an outgoing or reflected ray that leaves the same surface.

Reflection of Light

incident rayre

flect

ed ra

y

Normal

Laws of Reflection:

This is an imaginary line perpendicular to the surface at the point where the light strikes.

It is drawn to indicate the angle of incidence i and angle of reflection r.

Reflection of Light

normal

i r

incident ray

refle

cted

ray

2 The incident ray, reflected ray and normal at the point of incidence all lie on the same plane.

1 angle of incidence = angle of reflection

ii = = rr

What can you say about the angle of incidence and angle of reflection?

What can you say about the orientation of the incident ray, reflected ray and the normal?

Go to Exp11a.mpg

Reflection is great! The fact that light reflects off objects allow us to see them.

smooth surface

When light reflects from a smooth surface, it maintains its geometry. Incident parallel rays are reflected as parallel reflected rays. This is called specular reflection .

Specular Reflection

When a reflecting surface is rough, diffuse reflection occurs.

The law of reflection still holds, but incident parallel rays do not reflect as parallel rays any more.

In diffuse reflection, the reflected rays leave the surface at so many different directions such that the image is disrupted.

rough surface

Diffuse Reflection

On a mirror or a calm water surface, reflection is specular. The image formed on such surfaces are clear and sharp.

However, if the surface is rough, or the water surface is disturbed, diffuse reflection occurs. The image formed is blur.

Specular and diffuse Reflection

A directed straight line is normally drawn to represent a ray, which is the path taken by light from source to target.

A beam of light is a stream of light rays, and is represented by a number of directed straight lines.

Representing Light

source

target

Reflect on your daily encounters with light,

(a) generate one other possible evidence to support the statement that 'light travels in a straight line', and discuss with your partner how you can demonstrate your statement with a safe, simple activity.

(b) list two examples each for diffuse and specular reflections around you.

Lesson Closure

We look at mirror everyday. What we see on the mirror is called our image. How do you describe your image on a plane mirror?

Mirror mirror on the wall

Characteristics of image on a plane mirror

• Same size as object

• As far behind the mirror as the object is in front.

• Virtual, as it cannot be captured on the screen

• Laterally inverted

Go to Exp11b.mpg

The image of an object is formed on a plane mirror when light ray from the object incidents on the mirror.

object

plane mirror

Light will reflect at a mirror surface such that the angle of incidence and reflection are equal.

i r

Image on a plane mirror

There are many light rays reflected from an object to reach the mirror surface. However, only some light rays will be captured by the eyes.

To view the image of an object in a mirror, the eye should be positioned along the direction where the reflected rays from the mirror can be captured by the eye.

object

plane mirror

Drawing Ray Diagrams

To the eye, the light ray reaching the eye appears to come from the image behind the mirror.

plane mirror

object

This type of image is called a virtual image because it is formed at a place where there is no light from the object. The mirror simply makes the light appear to be coming from behind it.

Drawing Ray Diagrams

Steps involved in drawing ray diagrams

1st - draw the image of the triangle, such that it is of the same size and same shape,

and as far behind the mirror as the object is in front.

Supposing a triangular object is placed in front of a mirror. We can draw a ray diagram to show how the eye sees the image in the mirror.

plane mirrorimageobject

Drawing Ray Diagrams

x cm x cm

2nd – draw two diverging rays from any point on the image towards where the eye is

positioned.

3rd – draw two diverging rays from the corresponding point on the object to the mirror to meet the reflected rays.

object plane mirror image

Drawing Ray Diagrams

Go to E-SimPhy_308.exe

(i) Mark Caroline’s image on the glass window, at appropriate position. (ii) Draw ray diagrams to show how Sarah can see her

friend by reflection on the shop window glass.

(a) Sarah SS went shopping with Caroline CC one Sunday afternoon. Both girls stood in front of a shop admiring the window display.

SS CC

Shop windowwall wall

Ray diagram Practice 1

Where should you mark Caroline’s image on the glass window? Why?

Which direction does the light ray seems to reach Sarah’s eye?

Which direction is the light ray actually coming from?

Shop windowwall wall

C’C’

(b) Caroline moves away from Sarah to a new location C’ to look at the display at the next shop.

(i) Mark Caroline’s new image position (ii) Show by ray diagram, whether Sarah can still see her friend by reflection. (ii) Explain how your ray diagram helps you conclude on whether Caroline

can be seen by reflection.Light rays from Caroline can still be reflected on the glass window, obeying the Laws of Reflection, where

i = r.

Ray diagram Practice 1

Which direction does the light ray seems to reach Sarah’s eye? Which direction is the light ray actually coming from?

Fun with Billiard

Visit the website below to practise your billiard skill! Have fun playing and learning the Physics of billiard, and see how the Laws of Reflection can be applied in playing billiard.

Beyond classroom activity

Enrichment / Extension

Think about the various type of mirror you encounter in your daily life.

(a) Look at the image formed. Can you explain the difference in the images

formed from the one you use everyday in your bathroom?

(b) Compare and contrast the type of surfaces of such mirrors, and explain

why the images formed are different from one another?

Lesson Closure

Pupils should be able to

◙ recall and use the terms for refraction, including normal, angle of incidence and angle of refraction.

◙ recall and apply the relationship, sin i sin r = constant to new situation or to solve related problems.

◙ define refractive index of a medium in terms of the ratio of speed of light in vacuum and in the medium.

Refraction of LightLesson objectives

Behaviour of light

When a beam of light encounters an obstacle in its path, a number of things can happen:

1 Reflection -

2 Refraction -

3 Absorption -

The degree of each effect depends on the nature of the materials the light is incident upon.

Refraction of Light

Using a laser pen, a beam of light is sent from water into air.

laser pointer

When light strikes such transparent boundary, both reflection and refraction occur.

Refraction of Light

water

What do you think will happen to its path of travel as it strikes the air-water boundary?

reflection

refraction

air

glass

reflection

refraction

refraction

reflection

When will refraction occur?

1 Refraction occurs whenever light passes between transparent media of different

optical densities.

Why does refraction occur?

2 Refraction occurs because light travel with different speed when in media of different optical densities.

Refraction of Light

Refraction of Light

air

glass

The more optically dense the material, the slower the speed of light in that material

Air has lower optical density – faster.

Glass has higher optical density – slower.

Air has lower optical density – faster.

The change in speed at the transparent boundary between two media causes light to change direction. Optical density of glass > water > air > vacuum

air

glassair

water

Refraction Terminology

i = angle of incidence

r = angle of refraction

r

i

i

r

incident ray

refracted rayincident ray

refracted ray

Go to E-SimPhy_304.exe

Light bends away from the normal when emerging from water into air, which is from an optically denser medium to an optically less dense medium.

Light bends towards normal when entering into water from air, which is from an optically less dense medium to an optically denser medium.

Optical density of glass > water > air > vacuum

Refraction Rules

bends away from the normal

bends towards the normal

air

glass

air

glass

i

r

from an optically less dense medium to an optically denser medium, i > r

from an optically denser medium to an optically less denser medium, i < r

bends towards the normal

bends away from the normal

i

r

Summary

For each of the diagram below, complete the path of blue light as it emerges from the transparent medium.

Ray diagram Practice 2

Refractive Index, n

airglass

vair

vglass

vair

For example, the refractive index of glass at the air-glass boundary is given as:

v air v

glassn =

The refractive index of a medium is the ratio of the speed of light in one medium relative to the speed of light in the other medium.

where v air and v glass are the speed of light in air and glass respectively.

air

glass

2

1

1

2The ratio of the two sin s gives the same refractive index , and this relationship is called Snell’s Law.

sin 1

sin 2

n =

Then:

if 1 represents the angle of incidence in the less dense medium, and 2 represents

the angle of refraction in the denser medium;

Refractive Index, n

Go to Exp11c.mpg

A ray of light approaches a glass-air boundary at an angle of incidence i = 30. What is the refractive index of the glass if the angle of refraction r = 49 ?

air

glass

30

49

sin 1

sin 2

n =

sin 49

sin 30 =

= 1.5

Sample Problem 1

angle in less dense medium

angle in less dense medium

Go to E-SimPhy_306.exe

water

35

air

A ray of light approaches a water-air boundary at an angle of incident i = 35.

(i) Complete the path of the light as it crosses the water-air boundary.

(ii) What is the angle of refraction if the refractive index of water n = 1.3?

sin 1

sin 2

n =

sin 35

sin r = 1.3

= 26 r

Sample Problem 2

r

Prism disperses white light into its 7 component colours as the refractive index of each colour light is different in the glass prism.

Analyse the diagram of dispersion, and infer the colour light thathas the greatest refractive index.

Refraction of Light

Lesson closureLesson closure - Think about it - Think about it

Pupils should be able to:

• explain the terms critical angle and total internal reflection.

• describe the action of a thin lens on a beam of light.

• define the focal length for a converging lens.

• draw ray diagrams to illustrate the formation of real and virtual

images of an object by a thin converging lens.

Total Internal ReflectionLesson objectives

Refraction occurs as light passes across the boundary between two transparent media.

Think – Pair share (5 min)

Review previous lesson on refraction. Take turn to share with your partner facts about refraction. Jot done your discussion in your Physics notebook.

Lesson Review

air

glass

reflection

refraction

refraction

reflection

But why does light refract? What is the cause of such behaviour?

The picture below be easily reproduced with a laser pointer and a transparent semi-circle glass block in a darkened room. As light enters the glass block, it bends at the surface instead of traveling its original path.

What do you think will happen if the angle of incidence in the glass block is increased gradually?

Total Internal Reflection

A light ray from water is incident on the water - air boundary. The angle of incidence is gradually increased.

(i) Calculate the angle of refraction if the refractive index of water is 1.3. (ii) What do you observe about the angle of refraction as the angle of incidence is gradually increased?

57o

air

glass

40o

air

glass

30o

41o

20o

air

glass

26o

What is the maximum angle of refraction that can be produced?

Total Internal Reflection

As the angle of incidence increases, angle of refraction increases as well.

At a certain critical angle c, a maximum angle of refraction = 90 is produced.

A weak reflected ray is also produced.If the next incident angle is greater than c, no more refraction will occur.

The reflected ray becomes very strong and intense.

90air

glass

c

airglass

i> c r

if incident angle > critical angle:

no light ray from the optically denser medium will be refracted.

all light rays will be totally internally reflected into the optically denser medium.

cweak reflection

strong reflection

Total Internal Reflection

Go to Exp11d.mpg

Critical angle and Total Internal Reflection

Total internal reflection only occurs when:

a light ray is travelling from an optically denser medium to an optically less dense medium.

Critical angle c is defined as the angle of incidence from a denser medium which produces an angle of refraction of 90.

90air

glass

c cweak reflection

airglass

i> c rstrong reflection

the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle.

Sample Practice 1

For each combination of media, which light ray (A or B) will undergo total internal reflection if the incident angle is gradually increased? Explain your choice.

air

glass

A

B

airwater

A

Bwater

glass

A

B

In both cases, light is approaching the boundary from an optically denser medium to an optically less dense medium.

A gradual increase in the incident angle will produce an increasingly larger angle of refraction.

A ray of light approaches a water-air boundary at a angle of incidence c, which causes it to undergo total internal reflection. Calculate the critical angle c if the refractive index of water n = 1.3

sin 1

sin 2

n =

sin 90

sin c = 1.3

= 50 c

air

water

c

90

Sample Practice 2

A laparoscope is a medical equipment inside a hollow, thin tube. It is connected to a camera and a high intensity light for doctor to see the structure inside our body.

Perform an internet search to find out how total internal reflection plays a part in different fields.

Be prepared to share with your classmates what you have learnt from your research next week.

Total Internal ReflectionEnrichment

A ray of light that is incident at an angle on a transparent boundary will undergo refraction.

Converging lens is a piece of glass which is thicker at the centre and thinner at the 2 ends. What do you think will happen to a light ray incident on its surface?

Thin converging lens

air

glass

A converging lens

A converging lens is simply a piece of glass which is thicker at the centre and thinner at the edge.

Optical centre

- geometric centre of the lens

Principal axis

- This imaginary line divides the lens into equal upper and lower halves.

Another imaginary line used to mark the mid-point of the lens

Parallel rays from distant object will all converge at a plane called focal plane.

focal plane

principal focus

focal length

Quick Check 1Quick Check 1What are the names of the various parts of a thin converging lens? Are you able to name each and every one of them?

12

4

3

5

Quick Check 2Quick Check 2What happens to each of the light rays as they pass through the converging lens? Can you complete the path they will take?

F

A beam of light parallel to the principle axis will bend at the principle focus F.

A parallel beam of light not parallel to the principle axis will bend at some point on the focal plane.

focal plane

For simplicity, a thin converging lens is represented by a double arrowed line.

F

F

F

F

2 Ray passing through optical centre will emerge unbent.

1 (a) Rays parallel to principal axis will meet at the principal focus.

F

F

(b) Rays passing though principal focus will emerge from converging lens as parallel rays.

An object O is placed in front of a converging lens L. (i) Draw ray diagram to show how its image is formed. Label the image as I. (ii) Describe the image formed.

F

OThe image formed is:

inverted, diminished, real

I

Sample Practice 3

L

Think – Pair share (5 min)

Review previous lesson. Take turn to share with your partner facts about converging lens. Jot down your discussion in your Physics notebook.

Lesson Review

A converging lens is simply a piece of glass which is thicker at the centre and thinner at the edge.

What do I know? What have I learnt?

Magnifying glass

Same size photocopier

Camera

Slide projector

Spot light

Trends and patterns on the images formedTrends and patterns on the images formed The type of the image produced by a converging lens are

determined by the distance an object is placed away from the lens.

Go to E-SimPhy_309.exe

Challenge yourself 1Challenge yourself 1

The positions of an object and its image are as shown. (i) How do you determine the position of the lens? (ii) Where is the principle focus of the lens?

F

L

Challenge yourself 2Challenge yourself 2

Object O

A thin converging lens casts an image a distance away from the centre of the lens. Given the position of the principle focus as shown below, where should the object be positioned?

Challenge yourself 2Challenge yourself 2

Object O

Complete the path of the rays to show how an image can be formed by the converging lens.

L

F F

Since both blue coloured rays originate from the tip of the object arrow, both rays should end at the tip of the image arrow.

Summary

By the end of this lesson pupils should be able to:

Use the terms normal, angle of incidence and angle of reflection (for reflection).

State the laws of reflection and use it in calculations and measurements.

Use the terms normal, angle of incidence and angle of refraction (for refraction).

Solve problems using sin i ÷ sin r.

Define refractive index of a medium in terms of the ratio of speed of light in vacuum and in the medium.

Explain the terms critical angle and total internal reflection.

Summary

Describe the action of a thin converging lens on a beam of light.

Define the term focal length for a thin converging lens.

Draw ray diagrams to illustrate the formation of real and virtual images of an object by a thin converging lens.