Photovoltaics & Solar Panels
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Photovoltaic & Solar Panels
Photovoltaics& Solar PanelsPresented to you by:Chin Ming Fwu (2i303)Gaw Ban Siang (2i306)Kyle Foo (2i309)AgendaWhat is photovoltaics?Video =DScientific explanationExamplesSo why it this a better choice?Statistics & BenefitsWhat are photovoltaic cells? How do they actually generate electricity?IntroductionSolar EnergyGreen source of energyUsing the suns energy to convert into electricity for our own usage.Photovoltaics? What?Converting light directly into electricityDone at the atomic level
The resulting electric current is then used as electricity.The Solar PanelMany photovoltaic cells are arranged together to form an array, or a solar panel.Can be used to generate electricity.
The Solar Panel
The Solar CellsN-type and P-type silicon come into contact.Free electrons in N-type silicon attracted to the positive ions in the P-type silicon.At the junction between the free electrons and the positive ions, an electric barrier is formed.Acts as a diode, allowing electrons to travel from the P-type silicon to the N-type silicon but not N-type to P-type.The Solar CellsElectric BarrierThe Solar CellsWhen photons hit the solar cell, electrons will be dislodged and sent from the N-type to the P-type silicon, causing a disruption of electrical neutrality.If there is an external current path such as a wire, the electron will flow from the N-type to the P-type and as such a current is created.
The Solar CellsCurrentElectronDislodged by photonLet us watch a short video to learn more!Video!! (:The VideoCLICK HERE (:How is solar energy utilised in our daily lives?Examples of UsageWorksheet Activity!Can you think of some examples of the usage of solar energy in our society? ^^
Cars & VehiclesSolar-Powered CarsTechnology has allowed us to use solar energy to power up our cars.
No need to rely on toxic petrol and natural gases.
No carbon emissions, no global warming.
Toys & PlaythingsSolar-Powered ToysSolar Panels have also been installed in our toys.
Able to move by itself once put under bright sunlight.Better as compared to the traditional toys
Safe for environment.
BackpacksVoltaic BackpackEven our backs can absorb energy from the sun.
Can be used to charge mobile phones and iPads when they are put into the backpack.
Schools and BuildingsSolar-Powered SchoolSchools & buildings usually need the most electricity.
Lights, air conditioners and fans are turned on for almost the whole day.
Redding, CA Elementary School and Even Traffic Lights.Solar-Powered Traffic LightTurned on the entire day (everyday) to coordinate traffic.
Portland started using such lights, and:
Before (installation)After (installation)Kilowatt hoursper year6.1 million1.2 millionElectric costper year$420,000$85,000Energy savingsper year$335,000Yes. Even we are using solar energy to our advantage.Hwa Chong InstitutionHere in HCIHwa Chong has a long-lasting traditionUsing lights to brighten up the clock tower every night, throughout the night.HoweverConventional Electricity does not work outPollutes the environmentCostly
Here in HCI
Why should we bother to choose solar energy over conventional forms?Benefits and AdvantagesCost-WiseReduces utility bill by up to 70%.Money used to buy the system can be recouped in only about 10 years.Do not require much maintenance.Can last up to 40 yearsWarranty of about 25 years (on avg).Unlimited supply of solar energyHedge against price instability and fluctuationCost-WiseCost of solar energy usage will reach grid parity by Year 2014 (Inglin, 2010)Cost if solar panel installation going downCost of conventional electricity steady increase2010 $5 per watt peak2014 $3 per watt peak(equal to utility bills of conventional electric use)Price has decreased sevenfold in only 20 years.Environmentally-WiseRenewable, clean & abundant in SingaporeProduction of solar energyZERO carbon emissionsZERO pollutionSuns energy is (theoretically) unlimitedCan be harnessed foreverUnlike fossil fuels, which we are depleting too fastSpace-WiseOnly a thin sheet of silicon and other photovoltaic materials.Put on rooftops like a coverNot bulky at all.Unlike the traditionally huge power stations to burn the fossil fuels.(Only applies to small-scale domestic use)DisadvantageThe cost price takes about $20,000 to get a photovoltaic cell system.HoweverThe price is decreasing steadily due to rapid advancements in technology.Even now, it can be earned back within 10 years.ConclusionSolar Power helps us in many ways:Cost - EfficientSpace SavingEnvironmentally FriendlyUse Solar energy! (:Please, please, please visit!Our Website LOOK HEREOur Website (20112i3photovoltaics.wiki.hci.edu.sg)Contains more in-depth information and examples of solar-energy usageJapan Domestic UsageGoogleplex