Philosophies Regarding Quality – Juran and Crosby

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Philosophies Regarding Quality – Juran and Crosby. Prepared by: Bhakti Joshi Date : December 12, 2012. Brief Characteristics of Deming’s Quality Principles. Introduced Statistical Process Control (SPC) to measure quality Introduced “Plan, Do, Study/Check, Act” (Quality Circle) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Philosophies Regarding Quality Juran and CrosbyPrepared by: Bhakti JoshiDate: December 12, 2012

Brief Characteristics of Demings Quality PrinciplesIntroduced Statistical Process Control (SPC) to measure qualityIntroduced Plan, Do, Study/Check, Act (Quality Circle)Design the productMake it; test it Put it on the marketTest consumption behaviour and underlying reasonsOrigins of Jurans PhilosophyJurans father was a shoemaker during the pre-industrialisation eraJurans father presided over the entire production processJuran considered his father to be a producer and his own customerFather had an assembly line following the concept of division of labourEach artisan controlled every step and understood every error that was madeThis process changed after industrialisation across industries

Jurans TrilogyQuality PlanningIdentify CustomersDetermine Customer needsDevelop product featuresEstablish quality goalsDevelop a process to produce needed product featuresProve process capabilities that can meet quality goals Quality ControlChoose control subjectsChoose units of measurementEstablish measurementEstablish standards of performanceMeasure actual performanceInterpret the difference (Actual vs standard)Take action on difference

Quality ImprovementProve the need for improvementIdentify specific projects for improvementOrganise to guide the projectsOrganize for diagnoses for discovery of causesProvide remediesProve that remedies are effective under current conditionsProvide for control to hold gainsBrief Characteristics of Jurans TrilogyProduct features that met customer needsQuality is always plannedIntroduced the concept of calculating costs of poor qualityEncouraged alterations in processes without adding additional conditions or parametersQuestioned or debated the need for Customer Care Services, WarrantiesIntroduced Quality by Design (QdB), (Example, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA))Introduced the Pareto Principle (80% consequences stem from 20% of the causes)Differences in Demings and Jurans PhilosophiesDemings philosophy on quality was a comprehensive theory whereas Jurans philosophy was an analytical and practical approach Deming focused on description (use of SPC) and systematic view of a business whereas Juran focused on managing quality and quality functionsDeming was a philosopher who provided a different view or perspective, whereas Juran was a practitioner who desired to teach business practicesSimilarities in Demings and Jurans PhilosophiesDemings argument on variations and Jurans argument on quality planning, both focus on improvement in processes. Both philosophies are related to Quality CircleDeming and Juran observed that for a business to succeed, quality management efforts need the long-term commitment and involvement of top managementRejected reliance on slogans to motivate workers mainly because the performance depended upon the business systems and not the operatorsBoth have concerns regarding current practices like incentive pay that are based on faulty or outmoded premisesPlaced great importance on planning as decisions made upstream or at top management effect the final resultsBoth focused on customer-needs and rely heavily on market research though Jurans approach is engineering-driven that translated customers vision of quality into what can be producedQuality CircleDr. Ishikawa of Mushashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo added a dimension to qualityDerived from the concept of Plan-Do-Check-Act developed by DemingAlso inspired by Jurans Trilogy especially quality controlBasic elements A group of volunteers trained to identify, analyse and solve work-related problems and present solutions to the management to improve performance of the organisation

Quality circle Case StudyName of the organisation Workshop at University Polytechnic, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU)Section where the circle is operating Machine and fitting shopNumber of meetings held 10Problems:Material wastesLosses in savings and financesConstrained relationship between workers and managersQuality circle Case Study (contd)Issues related to individuals, machines, material and methodsMaterial consumption Iron & Steel productsProblem solving techniques:Team work or brainstormingData collectionPareto principle (80/20 rule: 20% of defects caused 80% of the problems or 80% of stock comes from 20% of your suppliers or 20% of the staff will cause 80% of problems or 20% of workers will generate 80% of your production to focus on the 20%)Ishikawa diagram (Fishbone diagram) causal diagramsCumulative line diagramQuality circle Case Study (contd)Causes related to individuals - lack of knowledge about materials; no proper instructions; materials cut more than required; lack of knowledge on operations or handling toolsCauses related to machines machines not operating at optimum conditions; frictional wear of machine parts; problems with misalignment of machine components; no implementation of new and automatic machinesCauses related to methods no inspection of shop after materials used; no proper storage of materials; lack of knowledge for improving existing methods of productionCauses related to material no proper inspection of material dimension before cutting; materials did not have required compositionQuality circle Case Study (contd)Results:Improvement in inter-personal relationshipSelf-confidence was developed in solving more complex problems related to productionBuilding teamworkMaterial wastes were reduced with regular inspections Overall decrease in wastes and increase in finances and savingsAbout Philip CrosbyEmployed as a quality control engineer at Martin Companys (now Lockheed Martin) missile production plantFunction was to determine whether intensified inspection would result in ability to ship missiles completely free of defectsCoined the concept of Zero-Defects (Z-D)Current system allowed less defects to reach customers with huge amount of inspection company wished NO defectsCrosby persuaded workers in his department to sign no defects pledges.Resulted into delivery of a Pershing missile two weeks ahead of schedule with no detectable defects among its 25,000 partsCrosbys name became synonymous with the term zero defectsPhilip B. Crosbys Principles of QualityCrosby worked for Martin Company which became currently Lockheed Martin, representing the aerospace industryDIRFT do it right first time Coined the concept of Zero Defects based on 4 underlying principlesQuality is conformance to requirementsDefect prevention is preferable to quality inspection and correctionZero defects is the quality standardQuality is measured as the Price of Nonconformance (PONC)Argued that mistakes are caused by two things lack of knowledge or lack of attention

Philip B. Crosbys 14 Step Quality Improvement Program1. Management CommitmentCommunication instead of motivation to management regarding quality2. Quality Improvement TeamEach departments representative forms a team and appoint one of them to head the team3. Quality MeasurementStandardized measurements that reflect possibility of defects4. Cost of Quality Evaluation (COQ)Indication of corrective action towards reducing costs leading to profitsPhilip B. Crosbys 14 Step Quality Improvement Program5. Quality AwarenessCommunication about quality to workforce6. Corrective ActionEncourage everyone to highlight any issues, problems, concerns, etc that can be rectified immediately7. Establish an Ad hoc committee for the Zero Defects ProgramEveryone understands and practices zero defects8. Supervisor TrainingConducting orientation with all levels of managementPhilip B. Crosbys 14 Step Quality Improvement Program9. Zero Defects DayEmphasis on the commitment11. Error Cause RemovalProviding inputs on errors12. RecognitionEstablish award programs for individuals meeting goals or performing acts ensuring quality10. Goal SettingDetermining tasks for the team for a 30, 60 or 90 day time periodPhilip B. Crosbys 14 Step Quality Improvement Program13. Quality councilsBring quality professionals and team together to regularly communicate, determine actions and improve quality program14. Do it Over AgainSet up a new team after 18 months and repeat the program all overCosts of Quality (COQ)Prevention costs costs incurred in preventing poor quality or defects from occurring; Related to quality controlAppraisal costs Costs incurred in the process of uncovering defects; related to costs of inspections, testing, audits etc.Internal failure costs costs associated with discovering poor product quality before reaching the customer. For e.g. rework, wastes, machine downtime, etcExternal failure costs Costs associated with quality problems that occur at the customer site that damages customer faith and loyaltyCrosbys measurement in non-manufacturing unitsAccountingPercentage of late reportsComputer input incorrectErrors in specific reports as auditedEngineeringChange orders due to errorsDrafting errors found by checkersLate releasesFinanceBilling errors (check accounts receivables overdues)Payroll errorsAccount payable deduction missedHotel front deskGuests taken to unmade roomsReservations not honouredMarketingContract errorsOrder description errorsPurchasingPurchase order changes due to errorLate receipt of materialRejections due to incomplete descriptionQuality AssuranceTwo Principles:Jurans principle of Fit for purposeCrosbys principle of Do it Right First TimeSystematic monitoring and evaluation of various aspects of a project, service or facility to maximise probability that standards of quality are being attained by the production processQuality Assurance and Total Quality ManagementAn integrated organizational effort designed to improve quality at every levelValue for price paid assumes quality is price sensitive. For example, a personal finance seminar conducted in two different schools but at different