PgMP Standard Exam Study Notes

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 Difference between Project, Program and Portfolio Management (Ch 1, p8)  Parameter Project Program Portfolio Scope y Narrow y Specific deliverables y Wide y May change y Benefit expectations of stakeholder y Business scope y Changes with strategic goals of organization Change y Keep to a minimum y Expect change y Monitor change in broader environment Success Measured By y Budget y Time y Specifications (Scope) y ROI y Capabilities y Benefit Delivery y Aggregate performance of portfolio components Leadership focus y Focus on task delivery y Directive y Focus on managing relationships y Conflict resolution y Addi ng value to portfolio decision- making Managey Technicians y Project Managers y Portfolio Management Staff Role y Team pl ayers who motivate y Leaders providing vision and leadership y Leaders providing insight and synthesis Work y Monitor and control tasks y Monitor projects and ongoing work y Monitor aggregate performance and value indicators Lifecycle y To produce discrete deliverables y To manage outcomes and benefits of integrated projects y Have extended lifecycles
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Transcript of PgMP Standard Exam Study Notes

Difference between Project, Program and Portfolio Management (Ch 1, p8) Parameter Project Program Scope y Narrow y Wide y Specific deliverables y May change y Benefit expectations of stakeholder Change y Keep to a minimum y Expect change Success Measured y By y y Leadership focus y y Manage y Role y Work Lifecycle Budget Time Specifications (Scope) Focus on task delivery Directive Technicians Team players who motivate y Monitor and control tasks y To produce discrete deliverables y y y y y y y ROI Capabilities Benefit Delivery Focus on managing relationships Conflict resolution Project Managers Leaders providing vision and leadership y Monitor projects and ongoing work

Portfolio y Business scope y Changes with strategic goals of organization y Monitor change in broader environment y Aggregate performance of portfolio components y Adding value to portfolio decisionmaking y Portfolio Management Staff y Leaders providing insight and synthesis y Monitor aggregate performance and value indicators

y To manage outcomes and benefits of integrated projects y Have extended lifecycles

Defining the program (21 questions, 14%) 1. Performing a program assessment a. Define program objectives and requirements from the strategic plan b. Establish high-level program map c. Ensure program aligns with enterprise strategic plan / mission d. Understand the strategic value of proposed business change e. Select the relevant communication tools and techniques 2. Supporting business analysis functions a. Identifying the marketplace needs and drivers for the program b. Ensuring program viability by performing market analysis and research c. Completing a high-level cost benefit analysis for the program 3. Developing benefits realization plan a. Estimating costs and benefits (ROI) of the program b. Identifying suitable benefits measurement techniques c. Defining KPIs d. Adapting the benefits realization plan to the organizational environment e. Conducting program feasibility study f. Identifying funding sources and obtaining funding 4. Performing preliminary stakeholder analysis a. Identifying, analyzing and characterizing program stakeholders b. Assessing stakeholder positions relative to the program c. Building stakeholder analysis charts d. Identifying evaluating and consolidating stakeholder requirements e. Creating stakeholder management plan f. Building the approach for stakeholder communications 5. Establishing alliances with other departments and organizations a. Recognizing dependencies with other departments and organizations b. Considering potential impacts of organizational environment and culture c. Aligning program objectives with alliances d. Recognizing and analyzing key program dependencies 6. Evaluating organizational capabilities a. Consulting with groups involved in program delivery b. Validating program priority and alignment to strategic objectives

c. Aligning program capabilities with strategic stakeholder needs d. Conducing a gap analysis of program deliverables and benefits against strategic plans and program requirements e. Evaluating program deliverables and benefits by applying lessons learned and financial management principles. 7. Requesting authorization to proceed a. Presenting the program assessment for approval to the governance authorities in order to initiate the program b. Recognizing and understanding the organization and program governance structures c. Selling the programs vision and expected business benefits d. Presenting the program assessment for approval e. Requesting authorization to proceed from the governance authorities f. Formally initiating the program Program Management Process Groups Process Groups Initiating (18 questions, 12%) y Defining and authorizing the program(s) and/or project(s) within the program. 1. Initiate Program y Program Benefits y Stakeholder Analysis a. Define the scope and benefit expectations of Statement and Management Plan the program y Benefits Realization b. Ensure authorization and program initiation Plan are linked to organization s ongoing work y (Program Business and strategic priorities. Case and c. Formal acceptance of scope by stakeholders Investment d. Order of magnitude estimates of scope, Analysis) effort and cost (i.e., feasibility studies, concept development) Benefits Management Stakeholder Management Program Governance

y Program Charter y Program Manager Identification y Program Sponsor Identification y Program Scope Statement

Process Groups 2. Authorize Projects a. Initiate components within the program. b. Timing usually controlled by Program Management Plan

Benefits Management y Project Business Case

Stakeholder Management y Program Reporting Requirements y Communicate Project Related Info to Stakeholders

Program Governance y Project Charters y Project Manager Assigned y Project Sponsor Identified y Project Funding Approved y Core Program Team Assignments y Program Manager Assignment y Program Team Directory

3. Initiate Team a. Formalize appointment of program manager b. Obtain and organize key personnel (core program team)

Planning (30 questions, 20%) y Planning the best alternative courses of action to deliver the benefits and scope that the program was undertaken to address. y Planning processes are iterative and depending on information generated at the project level. 1. Develop Program Management Plan y Program Benefits y Expectations y Program Management a. Develop set of plans to be used to guide Statement Updates management Plan (and all subsidiary both program execution and program plans) control (Same subsidiary plans as for projects.) b. Each planning process results in development of a subsidiary plan 2. Interface Planning y Program Schedule y Interface y Program Interfaces a. Process of identifying and mapping Update Management Plan interrelationships that exist within a y Requirements for program Program b. Describe characteristics of interfaces Communications Plan c. Create plan to ensure interfaces are established and maintained

Process Groups 3. Transition Planning a. Process of identifying and planning for transitions from program team to recipients of on-going activities that result from the program b. Purpose: Ensure program benefits are sustained once they are transferred to the organization c. Formal handoff d. May be multiple transition events 4. Resource Planning a. Determine people, equipment, materials b. Optimize resources across the programs c. Determine how common program resources will be allocated 5. Scope Definition a. Develop detailed scope statement b. Define approach for developing PWBS c. Develop scope management plan 6. Create Program Work Breakdown Structure a. Decomposition stop at level of control of Program Manager b. Captures all non-project work 7. Schedule Development a. Project managers build detail b. Detail rolled up at the management control points into program work packages 8. Cost Estimating and Budgeting a. Aggregate cost estimates b. Develop budgets for all components

Benefits Management y Transition Plan

Stakeholder Management y Receiving Organization Plan

Program Governance y Transition Agreement

y Resource Management Plan

y Detailed scope statement

y Scope Management Plan

y PWBS y PWBS Dictionary

y Program Mgt Plan Updates

y Program Schedule

y Program Budget

y Resource Requirement Updates y Schedule Management Plan y Cost Management Plan

Process Groups 9. Quality Planning a. Identify standards relevant to program b. Specifying how standards will be satisfied

Benefits Management y Operational Definitions y Quality Checklists y Quality Improvement Objectives and Plans

Stakeholder Management y Quality Management

Program Governance y Program Cost of Quality y Quality Management Plan

10. Human Resource Planning a. Identifying, documenting, and assigning program roles, responsibilities and reporting relationships 11. Communications Planning a. Determining the information and communication needs of program stakeholders b. Identifying who needs what information, when they need, how it will be given and by whom. 12. Risk Management Plan and Analysis a. Identification of program risks b. Qualitative risk analysis c. Quantitative risk analysis d. Risk response planning 13. Plan Program Purchases and Acquisitions a. Determining what to buy when b. Validating product requirements c. Developing procurement strategies d. Make/buy analysis on components of PWBS

y Roles and Responsibility Assignments y Communications Management Plan y Communications Technology Requirements Plan

y Organization chart y Staffing Management Plan

y Prioritized risks

y Risk Response Plan

y May/buy decisions

y Contract SOW y Procurement Management Plan y Program specific qualified vendor list

Process Groups Program Governance 14. Plan Program Contracting y Evaluation criteria a. Identify type and detail of documentation y Procurement documents needed to implement contracts y Contracts Management b. Produce foundation and guidelines on which Plan effective program-level contract administration can be implemented. Executing (37 questions, 25%) y Integrates the projects, people and other resources to carry out the program management plan and deliver the program s benefits. y Ensure that benefits management, stakeholder management and program governance are executed. 1. Direct and Manage Program Execution y Work results y Expectations y Change requests a. Deliver the programs intended benefits. Management y Program termination b. Produce cumulative deliverables and other requests work products c. Track progress of work d. Implement approved change requests, corrective actions and preventative actions. 2. Develop Program Team y Performance a. Building individual and group competencies assessments and to enhance program performance improvements based b. Ongoing process on work results y Training records y Team competency assessments 3. Information Distribution y Formal a. Providing timely and accurate information to communications of program stakeholders in useful formats and program information appropriate media y Informal b. 3 major communication channels: clients, communications on an sponsors, component mangers as-needed basis

Benefits Management

Stakeholder Management

Process Groups 4. Request Seller Responses a. Issuing RFIs, RFPs, and RFQs and obtaining responses b. Used in early stages of planning to evaluate make vs buy decisions 5. Select Sellers a. Reviewing offers, choosing among potential sellers, negotiating contract terms.

Benefits Management

Stakeholder Management

Program Governance y Seller response to requests

y Contracts y Selected vendor(s) y Updates to procurement management plan y Agreements

Monitoring and Controlling (32 questions, 21%) y Monitoring and measuring of program progress against the benefit delivery expectations, identifying from the program management plan, and taking corrective action. y Obtaining and consolidating data on status and progress, interface with program governance structure, performance reporting, and integrated change control 1. Integrated Change Control y Updates a. Coordinating changes including changes to Program mgt plan cost, quality and scope Scope statement b. Approve/deny change requests Benefits realization c. Escalate requests plan d. Identify when change has occurred y Change requests e. Influence change factors decisions f. Ensure changes beneficial and agreed upon y Change register g. Managed approved changes y Modified project h. Perform throughout lifecycle priorities 2. Resource Control y Change requests a. Managing/tracking of all program resources y Expenditure reports and associated cost y Resource releases b. Analysis of resource expense y Utilization reports c. Resource commitments, allocations, and y Cross-charges release

Process Groups 3. Monitor and Control Program Work a. Collecting, measuring and consolidating performance information b. Assessing measurements and trends to generate improvements c. Analyze reported project results d. Similar to risk management focuses on performance vs. risk 4. Issue Management and Control a. Identifying, tracking and closing issues effectively b. Ensure stakeholder expectations are aligned with program activities and deliverables. c. Carried out in parallel with controlling risk 5. Scope Control a. Capture requested changes b. Evaluate request c. Decide on request disposition d. Communicate decision e. Archive request artifacts f. Initiate activities for approved requests 6. Schedule Control a. Ensure program will produce required deliverables on time 7. Cost Control a. Controlling changes to and producing information from the program budget b. Analyzing actual cost as incurred c. Addressing unanticipated events; both positive and negative

Benefits Management y Forecasts

Stakeholder Management y Communications messages

Program Governance y Change requests

y Change request y Escalated issues y Issues register y Proposed resolutions y Change request status information y Change request decisions y Program budget updates

y Information for stakeholders y Variance reports

y Change requests y Program schedule updates y Change requests y Estimate at completion y Program budget updates

Process Groups 8. Perform Quality Management a. Monitor specific program deliverables, products and results to ensure they meeting defined requirements

Benefits Management

Stakeholder Management

9. Communications Control a. Managing stakeholder communications 10. Performance Reporting a. Coordinating performance data b. Provide stakeholders with information about how resources are being used to deliver program benefits c. Conveyed via Information Distribution Process 11. Risk Monitoring and Control a. Risk Control - Tracking identified program risks b. Risk Monitoring - Executing risk response plans and evaluating effectiveness 12. Program Contract Administration a. Managing relationship with buyers and sellers b. Procurement of shared resources

Program Governance y Change requests y Quality checklists y Inspection/test reports y Measurement results y Non-conforming work product y Updated communications plan y Updated communications plan

y Change request y Risk register

y

y Program reports y Communications messages

y Adjustments to resource accounting y Approved pmt requests y Contract changes y Change requests

Closing (8 questions, 8%) y Formalize acceptance of a product, service or benefit/results and bring program or program component to orderly end.

Process Groups 1. Close Program a. Formal acceptance of outcome by sponsor or customer b. Capture / archive records 2. Component Closure a. Close project or non-project activity b. Validate closure c. Records and communications 3. Contract Closure a. Closing contract according to terms b. Product verification c. Records

Benefits Management y Certificate of program completion y Final performance reviews y Certificate of component completion y

Stakeholder Management y Closure report

Program Governance y Program archives y Personnel records updated y Lessons learned y Project archives y Program archives y Resource availability updates y Contract completion certification y Contract termination documentation

y Communication messages

y

Knowledge Areas KNOWLEDGE AREAS Integration Management INITIATING (12%) y Initiate Programs y Authorize Projects MONITORING/CONTROLLING CLOSING (8%) (21%) Develop program y Direct and y Integrated Change y Close Program management plan Manage Program Control y Component y Interface planning Execution y Resource Control Closure y Transition y Monitor and Control planning Program Work y Resource planning y Issue Management and Control y Scope Definition y Scope Control y Create PWBS y Schedule y Schedule Control Development y Cost Estimating y Cost Control and Budgeting y Quality Planning y Quality y Quality Control Assurance y Human Resources y Acquire Team Planning y Develop Team y Communications y Disseminate y Communications Planning Information Control y Performance Reporting y Planning and y Monitoring and Analysis Control y Plan Purchases y Request Seller y Program Contract y Contract Closure and Acquisitions Responses Administration y Plan Contracting y Select Sellers PLANNING (20%) EXECUTING (25%)

Scope Management Time Management Cost Management Quality Management Human Resources Management Communications Management

y Initiate Team

Risk Management Procurement Management

3 broad management themes that are the keys to success of a program (Ch1, p9) 1. Benefits management definition and formalization of expected benefits that the program is intended to deliver a. Benefits realization plan key output of the Initiating Process b. Activities i. Assess the value and organization impact of the programs benefits ii. Identify the interdependencies of benefits being delivered among various projects with the program iii. Assign responsibility and accountability for the actual realization of the benefits from the program c. Critical component of the Initiate Program Process d. Benefits Sustainment Sixth phase of benefits management occurring after program is transitioned to operations 2. Program stakeholder management a. Identifying how the program will impact stakeholders and developing a communication strategy to engage the affected stakeholders, manage their expectations, and improve acceptance of the objectives of the program b. Must understand who the stakeholders are, the position they may take, they way they will exert their influence and their source of power 3. Program governance a. Process of developing, communication, implementing, monitoring, and assuring the policies, procedures, organizational structures, and practices associating with a given program. b. Controls the program and therefore bridges the program lifecycle and program management processes c. Result: framework for efficient and effective decision-making and delivery management focused on achieving program goals in a consistent manner, addressing appropriate risk and stakeholder requirements

Program Lifecycle with gate after each phase (Ch 2, p18) Lifecycle Phases 1. Pre-Program Setup (Similar to Initiating Phase) y Objective: Establish firm foundation of support and approval for the program 2. Program Setup (Similar to Planning Phase) y Purpose: Build a detailed roadmap that provides direction on how the program will be managed and defines key deliverables 3. Establishing Program Management and Technical Infrastructure y Purpose: Establish the structure in which work will occur along with the technical infrastructure to facilitate the work Benefits Management Identify y Identify and quantify business benefits Analysis y Derive and prioritize components y Derive benefits metrics Planning y Establish benefits realization plan y Establish benefits monitoring y Map benefits to program plan Realization y Monitor components y Maintain benefits register y Report benefits Stakeholder Management y Identification of stakeholders Program Governance y Gate: Approval in principle

y Analysis of stakeholder interests

y Gate: Approval authorizing execution of the program management plan

y Establish stakeholder management approach, tools, etc.

4. Delivering Incremental Benefits longest and most costly y Purpose: Initiate the component projects of the program and coordinate the deliverables to create incremental benefits. y Ends when planned benefits are achieved or a decision is made to terminate the program 5. Closing the Program y Purpose: controlled closedown of the program

y Monitor stakeholder list y Manage stakeholder changes

y Gate: Approval to close all program work is completed and benefits are accruing

Transition y Consolidate coordinated benefits y Transfer the ongoing responsibility

Lifecycle Phases Gate Reviews focus on strategic alignment, investment appraisal, monitoring and control of opportunities and threats, benefit assessment, and monitoring the portfolio outcomes Governance monitors the progress of the program and delivery of the coordinated benefits from its component projects.

Benefits Management

Stakeholder Management

Program Governance

10 Common Program Management Controls CONTROL Standards Policies and Procedures Program Plans DEFINITION Widely recognized and accepted standards. Program specific standards including quality, schedule, training, WBS Implement standards, processes and work methods that result in the work required by the program being performed. Formulates and documents the management strategy and approach for the program y Cost y Communications y Procurement y Quality y Resource y Risk y Schedule y Scope y Staffing Risk reviews, program management reviews, phase-gate reviews By an executive board or individual executive. Result in sign-off by the stakeholder to confirm that requirements are met. Require that information be substantiated, require demonstration that process, alignment with criteria. Includes control point, financial process, risk response and quality audits. Contract terms and clauses that are pre-developed and approved for inclusion. Standard lists established and maintained to control the routing and recipients of formal communications and messages sent to program stakeholders. Style guides, templates. Environmental legislation, government regulations and laws, legal opinions, legislative requirements and restrictions, and organizational legislations.

Reviews Oversight Audits Contracts Directories and Distribution Lists Documentation Regulations

Formulas y Calculating the number of lines of communication in the program stakeholder network o (n * (n 1 ) / 2 (n=# of stakeholders NOT including the program manager)

Definitions Term Assumptions Process Asset Library (PAL) Program Stakeholder Management Program Governance Program Management Themes Definition Factors considered true, real or certain Organizational process assets Defining the individuals and organizations whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by program outcomes Developing, communicating, implementing, monitoring, and assuring the policies, procedures, organizational structures, and practices associated with a specific program Benefits Management Program Stakeholder Management Program Governance Managing the daily flow of forward work progress by the delivery team Treating aspects of ongoing operations as projects in order to apply project management techniques to them A quantitative standard of measurement typically used in programs and projects to measure performance and progress Ongoing, repetitive activities producing the same result or providing the same service Group of persons organized for some purpose such as performing work Interrelated activities in an organization are grouped either as projects or operations The enterprise whose personnel are most directly involved in doing the work of the program Collection of components grouped together to facilitate effective management of the work to meet strategic business objectives Group of interrelated projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually Temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result

Execution Management Management by Projects Metric Operations Organization Performing Organization Portfolio Program Project

Term Portfolio Management Program Management Project Management Process Program Governance Board Program Director Program Manager Program Office Project Manager SMART Stakeholder Sub-Project Technique Tool

Definition Identify, authorizing, managing and controlling a portfolio to achieve strategic business objectives Centralized, coordinated management of a program to achieve the program s strategic benefits and objectives Applying knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements A series of actions brining about a results Group responsible for ensuring that program goals are achieved and proving support for addressing program risks and issues. Individual with executive ownership of the program or programs The individual responsible for managing the program The organization that provides support of individual program management teams or program mangers by handling administrative functions centrally Individuals responsible for managing the individual projects within the program Specific, Measurable, Actual, Realistic, Time-Based Individuals and organizations whose interest may be positively or negatively affected by program outcomes (directly or indirectly) Smaller portion of an overall project created when a project is subdivided into more manageable components or pieces. A defined systematic procedure employed by a human resource to produce a product, result or deliver a service Something tangible used in performing an activity to produce a project or result

Term Program Life Cycle

Definition Five phases and phase gate reviews with overarching governance 1. Pre-Program Setup 2. Program Setup 3. Establish Program Management and Technical Infrastructure 4. Deliver Incremental Benefits 5. Closing Process of developing, communicating, implementing, aligning, monitoring and assuring the policies, procedures, organization structures, and practices associated with a given program. y Through phase gate reviews, monitors the progress of the program and the delivery of coordinated benefits from the component projects. y Creating and using a framework for efficient and effective decision-making Objective is to establish a firm foundation of support and approval for the program. Initiates the program with a mandate or program brief detailing the benefits that the program is expected to deliver. (Program Management Lifecycle Phase 1) Purpose is to build a detailed roadmap (program management plan) that provides direction on how the program will be managed and defines the programs key deliverables and components. (Program Management Lifecycle Phase 2) Purpose is to establish the program management and technical infrastructure that will support the program and its constituent projects as they deliver the expected benefits for the program. (Program Management Lifecycle Phase 3) Initiate the component projects of the program and coordinate the deliverables to create incremental benefits. (Program Management Lifecycle Phase 4) Controlled closedown of the program and transition of the artifacts, benefits monitoring and ongoing operations to other groups. (Program Management Lifecycle Phase 5) A pre-defined milestone at the end of a phase with predetermined exit criteria. Pre-defined milestones that provide an objective check against exit criteria of a completed phase to determine the readiness to proceed to the next phase in the program lifecycle. An outcome of actions and behaviors that provides utility to stakeholders

Program Governance

Pre-Program Set Up

Program Setup

Establishing Infrastructure

Delivering Incremental Benefits Closing the Program Phase Gate Phase Gate Review Benefits

Term Benefits Management Benefits Identification Benefits Analysis Benefits Planning

Definition Defining and formalizing expected benefits a program is intended to deliver. (Lifecycle Theme 1) y Identify and qualify business benefits y Derive and prioritize components y Derive benefits metrics y Establish benefits realization plan y Establish benefits monitoring y Map benefits into program plan y Monitor components y Maintain benefits register y Report benefits Consolidate coordinated benefits Transfer the ongoing responsibility A reference point that marks a major event in a project and is used to monitor the project's or program s progress. The term for an element that is necessary for a program or project to achieve its objectives. It is a critical factor or activity required for ensuring the success. Consistent and coherent set of documents that can be used to guide both program execution and control Tangible by product produced during the program/project lifecycles and product/deliverable development. An obligation handed down by an inter-governmental body. Group of processes that are performed as part of a phase. Thirty-nine processes. Defines and authorizes the program or a project within the program and produces the program benefits statement and benefits realization plan. Three processes. Plans the best alternatives courses of action to deliver the benefits and scope that the program was undertaken to address. Twelve processes.

Benefits Realization

Benefits Transition Milestone Critical Success Factor Program Management Plan Artifact Mandate Process Group Initiating Planning

Term Executing Monitoring and Controlling

Definition Integrates projects, people, and other resources to carry out the plan for the program and deliver the program s benefits. Seven processes Request that the program and its component projects be monitored against the benefit delivery expectations and that their project be regularly measured to identify variances from plan. Coordinates corrective actions, when necessary, to achieve program benefits. Formalizes acceptance of a project, service, or benefit/result; brings the program or program components (e.g., project) to an orderly end. Key areas of expertise and specialization that are implemented in the program and project management lifecycles by the processes. Identifying, defining, combining, unifying and coordinating program or project management activities. Defining and controlling what is and is not included in the program or project. Ensuring timely completion of the program or project. Ensuring that the program or project is completed within the approved budget by planning, estimating, budgeting and controlling costs. Ensuring the program or project satisfies the needs for which it was undertaken Organizing and managing the program or project team. Ensuring timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage and ultimate disposition of program or project information. Systematically identifying, analyzing and responding to program or project risks. Acquiring or purchasing goods and services to attain program or project scope. Obtaining value from the investment, such as savings in time or money Optimizing cost performance by identifying required functions, establishing values for those functions, and providing functions at lowest possible costs. Measuring whether activities are meeting objectives of vision and strategy in four categories: 1) financial, 2) customer, 3) internal business processes and 4) learning/growth Degree to which repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same results.

Closing Knowledge Area Integration Management Scope Management Time Management Cost Management Quality Management Human Resources Management Communication Management Risk Management Performance Management Value Realization Value Analysis Balanced Scorecard Precision

Term Accuracy

Definition The degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to the quantity s actual (true) value.