Pests & Diseases of Young Orchards - Fruit and & Diseases of Young Orchards. Dani Lightle....

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    19-Mar-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    216
  • download

    3

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Pests & Diseases of Young Orchards - Fruit and & Diseases of Young Orchards. Dani Lightle....

  • Pests & Diseases of Young Orchards

    Dani LightleUC Orchards Systems AdvisorGlenn, Butte, & Tehama Counties

    M. Gomes

  • Insect pests of young orchards

  • Ken Gray Insect Image Collection

    Peach twig borer - Anarsia lineatella

    Pest in almonds

    Direct pest & indirect pest

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Winter - hibernaculum

    Life cycle

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Winter - hibernaculum

    Spring shoot strikes

    Life cycle

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Winter - hibernaculum

    J. Eves Spring shoot strikes

    4 generations / year

    Ken Gray Insect Image Collection

    Life cycle

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Damage to young trees

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Shoot monitoring

    1st leaf trees (same year as planting)

    Scout in April

    Consider a May spray if more than 4 shoot strikes / tree

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Dormant monitoring

    Crotches of 1 to 3 year old wood

    No defined damage threshold If regularly finding

    hibernacula, may choose to treat

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Dormant monitoring

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Management UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines

    www.ipm.ucdavis.edu

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Management UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Flat-headed borer Chrysobothris mali

    Ken Gray Insect Image Collection

    M

    . Mor

    ris 2

    015

    Bugg

    uide

    .net

    Other borers

    Walnuts Almonds

    Prune limb borer Bondia comonanaAmerican plum borer Euzophera semifuneralis

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Management of tree borers

    Prevent damage by sunburn

    Almonds may require treatment Look for frass or gum balls Treat in 6 week intervals while problem continues Treatment options listed in pest management guidelines

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Diseases of young orchards

  • Disease triangleHost

    Pathogen Environment

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Pruning wound cankers many species

    Affect almonds and walnuts

    Causal agents may include: Botryosphaeria, Phytophthora,Ceratocystis, others

    Symptoms: Gummosis (almonds), cankers (both), branch or scaffold death (both)

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Band canker -Botryosphaeria dothidea

    Trunk and crown cankers many species

    Phytophthora cankers

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Water

    Host

    Pathogen Environment

    Disease triangle pruning wound cankers

    Pruning wound

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Water

    Host

    Pathogen Environment

    Disease triangle pruning wound cankers

    Pruning wound

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Preventing canopy, trunk, and crown cankers

    Dont prune before rain

    Avoid large cuts when unnecessary

    Glenn Moore Photography 2013

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Preventing pruning wound cankers

    Dont prune before rain

    Avoid large cuts when unnecessary

    Keep irrigation water out of the canopy

    Glenn Moore Photography 2013

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Preventing pruning wound cankers

    Dont prune before rain

    Avoid large cuts when unnecessary

    Keep irrigation water out of the canopy

    Almonds: Avoid wind cracks by tying

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Preventing pruning wound cankers

    Dont prune before rain

    Avoid large cuts when unnecessary

    Keep irrigation water out of the canopy

    Almonds: Avoid wind cracks by tying

    Avoid over-irrigation & over-saturated ground

    Glenn Moore Photography 2013

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Preventing pruning wound cankers

    Dont prune before rain

    Avoid large cuts when unnecessary

    Keep irrigation water out of the canopy

    Almonds: Avoid wind cracks by tying

    Avoid over-irrigation & over-saturated ground

    Fungicides will not cure infected trees Glenn Moore Photography 2013

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Crown gall Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Caused by a bacterium

    Affects both walnuts and almonds

    Can girdle young roots or trees

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Preventing and treating crown gall

    Prevention

    Galltrol or similar

    Avoid injuries to roots when planting

    Disinfect pruning shears & never put on ground

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Preventing and treating crown gall

    Treatment in walnuts

    Labor intensive (1-2hrs / tree)

    Excavate roots and expose galls

    Janine Hasey

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Preventing and treating crown gall

    Treatment in walnuts

    Labor intensive (1-2hrs / tree)

    Excavate roots and expose galls

    Janine Hasey

    Physically remove gall (hatchet, chisel, etc)

    Flame edges or treat with bacteriocide

    Leave uncovered for 1 year

    Janine Hasey

    D. Lightle 2016

  • Questions?

    Contact me: [email protected]

    M. Gomes

    Slide Number 1Slide Number 2Slide Number 3Slide Number 4Slide Number 5Slide Number 6Slide Number 7Slide Number 8Slide Number 9Slide Number 10Slide Number 11Slide Number 12Slide Number 13Slide Number 14Slide Number 15Slide Number 16Slide Number 17Slide Number 18Slide Number 19Slide Number 20Slide Number 21Slide Number 22Slide Number 23Slide Number 24Slide Number 25Slide Number 26Slide Number 27Slide Number 28Slide Number 29Slide Number 30