Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

of 18 /18
Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience

Transcript of Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Page 1: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Persuasive AppealsPersuasive Appeals

Techniques for Persuading An Audience Techniques for Persuading An Audience

Page 2: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

What is a Persuasive Appeal?What is a Persuasive Appeal? An argument that a

speaker/writer directs toward a certain belief/feeling/attitude that his/her audience holds

Allows speaker/writer to tailor his/her argument in the best possible way according to his/her audience’s needs/desires

An argument that a speaker/writer directs toward a certain belief/feeling/attitude that his/her audience holds

Allows speaker/writer to tailor his/her argument in the best possible way according to his/her audience’s needs/desires

Page 3: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Three Types of Persuasive Appeals:

Three Types of Persuasive Appeals:

Appeal to ETHOS

Appeal to PATHOS

Appeal to LOGOS

Appeal to ETHOS

Appeal to PATHOS

Appeal to LOGOS

Page 4: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Appeals to ETHOS:Appeals to ETHOS: -Based on the

authority/credibility of the writer

-Writer must convince the audience of his/her good character, good sense, and good motives

-Created through known experience, expertise, credentials/certificiation, polished presentation of material

-Based on the authority/credibility of the writer

-Writer must convince the audience of his/her good character, good sense, and good motives

-Created through known experience, expertise, credentials/certificiation, polished presentation of material

Page 5: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Appeals to Pathos:Appeals to Pathos: -use emotions to persuade -attempt to persuade by making reader/listener feel guilt, love,

security, greed, pity, humor, etc. -shown through vivid, emotional language, and sensory details -are sometimes dangerous—when used as the main support

for an argument, they may be masking weak arguments

-use emotions to persuade -attempt to persuade by making reader/listener feel guilt, love,

security, greed, pity, humor, etc. -shown through vivid, emotional language, and sensory details -are sometimes dangerous—when used as the main support

for an argument, they may be masking weak arguments

Page 6: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Appeals to Logos:Appeals to Logos: -normally considered most

effective appeal -based on the logic, facts,

and evidence, which is usually considered to be most important to readers/listeners

-shown through details, statistics, expert testimony of a credible source, facts, definitions, witness statements

-normally considered most effective appeal

-based on the logic, facts, and evidence, which is usually considered to be most important to readers/listeners

-shown through details, statistics, expert testimony of a credible source, facts, definitions, witness statements

Page 7: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Persuasive Appeals Gone Bad= Logical Fallacies/Propaganda

Techniques

Persuasive Appeals Gone Bad= Logical Fallacies/Propaganda

Techniques Sometimes writers use

propaganda techniques to intentionally mislead their audience, OR logical fallacies because they use faulty reasoning when forming their argument. Either way, these are NOT effective ways to support an argument.

Sometimes writers use propaganda techniques to intentionally mislead their audience, OR logical fallacies because they use faulty reasoning when forming their argument. Either way, these are NOT effective ways to support an argument.

Page 8: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

8 Types of propaganda Techniques/Logical Fallacies

8 Types of propaganda Techniques/Logical Fallacies

Name CallingBandwagon/Appeal to numbers

Red-herringStrictly emotional appeal

TestimonialRepetition

Sweeping Generalization (stereotyping)Circular Argument

Page 9: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Logical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #1= Name CallingLogical Fallacy/propaganda

Technique #1= Name Calling Name calling=

attacking a person instead of an issue

Used frequently in political campaigns

Name calling= attacking a person instead of an issue

Used frequently in political campaigns

Page 10: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Logical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #2= BandwagonLogical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #2= Bandwagon A bandwagon appeal

tries to persuade the reader to think, do, or buy something because it is popular or because “everyone” is doing it.

A bandwagon appeal tries to persuade the reader to think, do, or buy something because it is popular or because “everyone” is doing it.

Page 11: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Logical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #3= Red HerringLogical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #3= Red Herring A red herring is an

attempt to distract the reader with details not relevant to the argument.

Example:The lawyer of a young man accused of assaulting his girlfriend described the case as a "very minor matter". The lawyer stated that “ninety people died in Iraq today, most of them kids," making his client’s actions “a very minor matter."

A red herring is an attempt to distract the reader with details not relevant to the argument.

Example:The lawyer of a young man accused of assaulting his girlfriend described the case as a "very minor matter". The lawyer stated that “ninety people died in Iraq today, most of them kids," making his client’s actions “a very minor matter."

Page 12: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Logical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #4= Emotional Appeal

Logical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #4= Emotional Appeal

An emotional appeal tries to persuade the reader by using words that appeal only to the reader’s emotions instead of to logic or reason.

As previously mentioned, emotional appeals are not always bad, they just should not be the SOLE basis of an argument

An emotional appeal tries to persuade the reader by using words that appeal only to the reader’s emotions instead of to logic or reason.

As previously mentioned, emotional appeals are not always bad, they just should not be the SOLE basis of an argument

Page 13: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Logical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #5= TestimonialLogical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #5= Testimonial A testimonial

attempts to persuade the reader by using a famous person to endorse a product or idea

A testimonial attempts to persuade the reader by using a famous person to endorse a product or idea

Page 14: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Logical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #6= RepetitionLogical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #6= Repetition Repetition attempts to

persuade the reader by repeating a message over and over again.

Repetition CAN be an effective persuasive technique when combined with other elements of a solid argument, but relying ONLY on repeating an idea is never very convincing

Repetition attempts to persuade the reader by repeating a message over and over again.

Repetition CAN be an effective persuasive technique when combined with other elements of a solid argument, but relying ONLY on repeating an idea is never very convincing

Page 15: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Logical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #7= Sweeping Generalization

Logical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #7= Sweeping Generalization

A sweeping generalization (stereotyping) makes an oversimplified statement about a group based on limited information.

A sweeping generalization (stereotyping) makes an oversimplified statement about a group based on limited information.

Page 16: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Logical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #8= Circular Argument

Logical Fallacy/propaganda Technique #8= Circular Argument

A circular argument states a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument

Also sometimes called “begging the question”

A circular argument states a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument

Also sometimes called “begging the question”

Page 17: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

Let’s Review!!!! What type of PERSUASIVE APPEAL is

used in the example below?

Let’s Review!!!! What type of PERSUASIVE APPEAL is

used in the example below?All parents should consider

taking their children fishing because:

# Fishing is an activity at which all kids can succeed at some level.

# Fishing encourages problem-solving and decision-making.

# Fishing links kids and the natural world in a way that can generate caring, responsibility and action.

All parents should consider taking their children fishing because:

# Fishing is an activity at which all kids can succeed at some level.

# Fishing encourages problem-solving and decision-making.

# Fishing links kids and the natural world in a way that can generate caring, responsibility and action.

Page 18: Persuasive Appeals Techniques for Persuading An Audience.

What type of PERSUASIVE APPEAL is used in the example below?What type of PERSUASIVE APPEAL is used in the example below?

Celebrating Halloween is a barbaric practice. Anyone who has seen a child after a post Trick-or-Treating candy binge would attest to the horrifying, damaging effects that this holiday has on young ones.

Celebrating Halloween is a barbaric practice. Anyone who has seen a child after a post Trick-or-Treating candy binge would attest to the horrifying, damaging effects that this holiday has on young ones.