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A STUDY IN PERSPECTIVE DRAWING by DAVID C. OPHEIM
TEM -SYS OM
A STUDY OF PERSPECTIVE DRAWING
COPYRIGHT 1992 DAVID OPHEIM
All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems - without written permission of the author.
Perspective is the most common method of depicting three dimensional forms realistically. Perspective is found in all types of printed matter. It is used widely in the professional areas: Architecture, Interior Design, Industrial Design, Commercial Art, Graphic & Environmental Design. In all instances drawings depicting ideas or real objects are communicated to a wide variety of viewers. Perspective has been with us for a long time. 15th Century painters used aerial perspective by incorporating a gradual change of intensity of colors and light. Adding overlap and a single vanishing point gave the illusion of objects gradually getting smaller as they went farther away. Two and three point perspective brought about new possibilities as it became necessary to show what objects and buildings would look like before they were manufactured or constructed. Designers then began to find better ways to develop their perspectives that would use less construction - resulting in faster solutions. Also, new tools such as ellipse guides and perspective grids have been introduced to help quicken this process. There have been several good textbooks which have each made a contribution to help us understand these processes. Unfortunately, they are now out of print. I have taught perspective for many years and have not found a comprehensive textbook. I solved this by writing a supplement in syllabus form. The syllabus eventually grew until it replaced the text. Students often encouraged me to put these notes in book form. I thank them for their encouragement, and to them, I dedicate this book.
My greatest challenge was to make the subject matter appealing to people with different interests and needs. Therefore, I have tried to make the examples very basic, so that they will relate to whatever your area of interest might be. I have also struggled with how technical it needs to be. What looks simple to some might seem to complex to others. So, I have kept the complexity to a minimum. It may not always be necessary to understand the underlying structure of some methods, if you are able to apply it. If you feel burdened by them, skip those sections and concentrate on the short-cuts. The structure is there though, for reference and background. The short-cuts will work without deeper understanding. It is like using a computer without knowing what actually makes it work. Those who know the inner workings can do much more with it, but the computer will work for the novice, if the right buttons are pushed. And, in the beginning, a computer can be pretty scary too. Personally, I think perspective is the greatest thing since ice cream. If you are skeptical of your ability to learn perspective, just remember, it is like reading and writing. Perspective is a learned skill. Once you have practiced and put it to use, you will be using perspective as easily as other skills you now have. The intent of this text is to give a comprehensive look at most of the approaches used today including shadow, reflections, rotations & surface development - hopefully, a useful text that teaches methods that will give you accurate and fast solutions. Lets get to it . . . .
TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTIONMULTI-VIEW DRAWINGS SINGLE-VIEW DRAWINGS PERSPECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS 1 & 2 POINT PERSPECTIVE EYE LEVEL (HORIZON) CONE OF VISION PERSPECTIVE USES USING ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS PLAN/ELEVATION METHOD WORKING BELOW HORIZON WORKING ABOVE HORIZON CONTROLLING VANISHING PTS. PLAN/ELEVATION IN USE LIMITATIONS & RELATIONSHIPS 2 POINT MEASURING SYSTEM HOW TO USE MEAS. SYSTEM SHORT CUTS MEAS. POINTS BY PREDICTION YARDSTICK PERSPECTIVE SELECTIONS APPLICATIONS OF HML CUBE CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM EXTENDED MEAS. INSIDE BASE LINES ELEVATION USING DIAGONALS HORIZONTAL FLAPS VERTICAL FLAPS MEAS. OUTSIDE BASE LINES MEAS. INSIDE BASE LINES LAYOUT TABLET MEASURES FREEHAND SKETCH MOLDED FORMS ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
CHAPTER 4 / 1 PT. PERSPECTIVECONVENTIONAL METHOD DEFINITIONS AND DISTORTION THREE SHORT CUTS 1 POINT FLOOR GRID METHOD SHORT CUT USING ELEVATION COMBINATION 1 & 2 POINT LARGE SCALE DRAWINGS SMALL OBJECT SKETCHES 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10
CHAPTER 7 CIRCLES IN PERSPECTIVECIRCLES IN PERSPECTIVE ELLIPSES DEFINED 8 POINT METHOD 12 POIINT METHOD USING ELLIPSE GUIDES ELLIPSE ALINEMENTS ELLIPSE ANGLE MEASUREMENT ELLIPSE SIZE MEASUREMENT ELLIPSE GALORE 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2 2 3 4 5 7 8 12 13
CHAPTER 2 / PLAN ELEVATION
CHAPTER 5 MODULAR PERSPECTIVESQUARE TO CUBE MULTIPLICATION OF VIEWS DIVIDING LINES & RECTANGLES ENLARGEMENT AND REDUCTION VERTICAL SURFACE MULT. HORIZONTAL SURFACE MULT. REDUCTION OR ENLARGEMENT 2 POINT INTERIOR GRID DEVELOPMENT/HORIZ. PLANE DIAGONAL VANISHING POINT 2 POINT GRID - VERTICAL MEAS. 1 POINT GRID - VERTICAL MEAS. PERSPECTIVE TRACING GRIDS 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
CHAPTER 8 CYLINDERS AND SPHERESCYLINDERS FROM BOXES VERTICAL CYLINDER W/GUIDES CYLINDER CONSTRUCTIONS CYLINDER ROTATION CAMERA CONSTRUCTION CAMERA ILLUSTRATION SPHERE CONSTRUCTIONS SPHERE STUDIES SPHERE TO SCALE SPHERE SHORT CUT 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
CHAPTER 3 / MEASURING SYSTEM
CHAPTER 9 / SHADOWSLIGHT LOCATION 4 SHADOW TYPES PLOTTING BASICS PARALLEL METHOD VERTICAL PLANE HORIZONTAL PLANE BOX FORMS / EXTERIOR BOX FORMS / INTERIOR FLAGPOLE RULE MULTIPLE BOX SOLUTIONS WALL VARIATIONS 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 1 2 2 4 4 4 5 5 6 7
CHAPTER 6 MEASURING PLANE PERSPECTIVEGRID CONSTRUCTION INTERIOR/ARCH APPLICATION PRODUCT APPLICATION 6 - 2 6 - 6 6 - 7
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)CHAPTER 9 (CONTINUED)SHADOW SAVVY DOORWAYS & WINDOWS BOX WITH FLAPS PYRAMID CONSTRUCTION STANDING CYLINDERS HORIZONTAL CYLINDERS CYLINDER INSIDE SHADOW SPHERE SHADOW SHORT CUT SPHERE SHADOW SPHERE SHADOW ON WALL BOX FORM ON CONE CAST SHADOWS ON FORMS FLOATING FORMS CONVERGING LIGHT SHADOW POSITIVE LIGHT SHADOW NEGATIVE LIGHT SHADOW 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 7 8 9 9 10 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 27 30
CHAPTER 10 / REFLECTIONSFORMS INTO VERTICAL MIRROR REFLECTIONS INTO WALL REFLECTIONS OF FORMS CONVEX MIRROR HORIZONTAL CYLINDER SPHERE REFLECTIONS HIGHLIGHT & REFLECTIONS 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2 3 4 7 10 11 12
CHAPTER 123 POINT PERSPECTIVE CONVENTIONAL CONSTRUCTION TRIANGULAR METHOD 3 POINT EFFECT 12 - 2 12 - 3 12 - 4
CHAPTER 11 / FORM ROTATIONCUBE AROUND HORIZ. AXIS MULT. OF ROTATING CUBE MEASURING METHOD 90 ROTATION 1 POINT DRAWN ROTATED ROTATION OF CUBES 11 11 11 11 11 11 2 3 4 6 8 9
INTRODUCTION TO PERSPECTIVE
GETTING STARTEDIn order to define perspective it is necessary to be aware of several different types of drawings that give visual information about objects such as size, scale, and details. We need to take a quick look at 2 types that are the most common. . . the Multi-View and the Single-View.
PLAN V IEW
EV T EL FRON ELEV ATION
TION END V IEW
MULTI-VIEW DRAWINGS Multi-views show what an object looks like from several different directions at the same time. Objects are visually described in three dimensions (width, depth and height) by orthographic projection. Orthographic drawings give us true length visuals of the object by using several views arranged around a front elevation. All lines parallel to the edge of the object are shown in true length. This means that the actual dimension of the object is used either at full scale (actual size) or a scale representation of the size. These views are called projections because each view is projected from one of the other views. A good understanding of orthographic projections will help you understand the relationships of various surfaces.
PLAN OBLIQUE 90 degree corners sides true length or fraction and parallel
TRIMETRIC no angles equal sides true length or fraction and parallel
ELEVATION OBLIQUE (DIMETRIC) 2 angles equal, sides are true length and parallel
ISOMETRIC all angles equal all sides in true length and parallel
AXONOMETRIC VIEWS SINGLE-VIEW DRAWINGS Axonometric drawings also show all dimensions in true length, but use a single view showing three surfaces. Different sides are shown in direct relation to each other and are seen as parallels at different angles to the horizontal. Each type of drawing takes a different approach in communicating what the object looks like, but are all basically the same each emphasizing a different aspect of the object. Axons give a mental picture of what the object might look like, but will play visual tricks on you. Each veiw appears to get larger as it gets farther away. To get a more realistic looking drawing, a distortion called foreshortening is used. This is the basis of perspective drawing. Examples of different ways that perspective gives us more realistic and "believable" drawings and a fuller definition of perspective will follow . . . . .
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PERSPECTIVE DEFINED PERSPECTIVE is a system of drawing by which an