Pershing II System Description

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    (U) PERSHING PROGRAM HISTORY(U) The Pershing development program was initiated in January 1958. Martin Marietta Aerospace was awarded the primecontract in March 1958. The first Pershing battalion was activated at Fort Sill in June 1962 and deployed in Europe in 1964.

    The Pershing I (PI) system was mounted on M-474 (modified M-113) tracked vehicles.(U) Initial assignment of the quick reaction alert (ORA) mission to Pershing units in Europe was in 1965. To increase thesystem's ability to shoot, move, and communicate in the QRA role, the Pershing Ia system was developed. This system replacedthe tracked vehicles with wheeled vehicles, including an improved erector launcher allowing a faster rate of fire, and was initiallydeployed in Europe in 1969. Additional system improvements, including the automatic reference system (ARS) and sequentiallaunch adapter (SLA), were fielded in 1976. The ARS provided automatic alignment of the missiles inertial reference system withou t presurveyed sites, and the SLA allowed countdown and launching of three missiles without moving the launch equipment andcables.(U) The 400th Pershing missile was fired by a German crew at the White Sands Missile Range on 15 October 1980. At thattime, the Army Pershing program manager noted that the Pershing system had established a commendable record in schedule, cost,and reliability, making it a top contender for the most successful major weapon system developed by the United States .

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    (U) PERSHING PROGRAM HISTORY

    1958 START OF PERSHING DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM1963 INITIAL DEPLOYMENT (ON SCHEDULE)

    -CONUS 2 BNS (1 TRAINING- 1 KOREA)- EUCOM 3 BNSFRG (GERMAN AIR FORCE) 2 WINGS1965 QUICK REACTION ALERT (ORA) MISSION ASSIGNED1969 Pia DEPLOYMENT

    ONE CONUS BN INACTIVATED1973 MODULAR IMPROVEMENTS (DIGITAL GUIDANCE)1976 ARS/SLA ISSUED1980 400TH PERSHING MISSILE FIRING1983 SCHEDULED Pl l DEPLOYMENT

    ALL PERSHING PROGRAM MILESTONES ON SCHEDULE

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    (U) PERSHING E V O ~ U T I O N (U) The Pershing I (PI) weapon system entered development in 1958. It was deployed with US units in 1963 and Germanunits in 1965. The system was deployed on t racked vehicles for cross-country mobil ity. An inertial guidance system provided therequired accuracy. The three USAREUR PI battalions were organized with four launchers per battalion and 187 men per missile-

    on-a-launcher. (U) In 1965, the Army was directed to pursue a program that would make Pershing suitable for the Quick Reaction Alert(ORA) role. This resulted in the development of the Pershing Ia (Pia) system which was deployed in 1969. The Pia program featured modernized ground support equipment and significantly increased the firepower of the Pershing force by increasing thenumber of launchers in each US battalion and German wing from 4 to 36. This allowed a dramatic reduction from 187 to 41 menper missile-on-a-launcher in a battalion. The PI tracked vehicles were replaced by wheeled vehicles for Pia to provide the increasedreliability required for the ORA role. Pia maintained the same warhead yields, accuracy, and range as the previous PI system.(U) A repackaging effo rt of the missile and power station was comple ted in 1974 to provide easier access to missile components, reduce maintenance, and improve reliability. A new digital guidance and control compute r combined the functions of theanalog control computer and the analog guidance computer into one package. The mean corrective maintenance time was decreased from 8.7 hours to a requirement of 3.8 hours. The reliability from 32 hours mean time between failures to a requirementof 65 hours.(U) Further improvements to the reliability, survivability, and responsiveness of the Pia system were realized in 1976-77with the fielding of the automatic reference system (ARS) and the sequential launch adapter (SLA). The ARS uses a Northseeking gyro to provide directional reference for the Pia guidance system. This increases the system survivability by eliminatingthe requirement for presurveyed launch sites. The SLA reduces reaction times by allowing the programmer test stat ion to launch

    up to three missiles without having to move or recable.(U) Pershing II (PII) is an evolutionary modernization of the Pia system currently in the field. New motor stages and aterminally guided reentry vehicle (RV) will give Pll significantly increased range and an order of magnitude improvement inaccuracy compared to Pia. The increased accuracy allows low yield warheads to be used that are consistent with SACEUR policyto reduce collateral damage while maintaining high weapon effectiveness. Pll has a planned IOC date of December 1983.

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    (U) PERSHING'S MISSION IN EUROPE(U) Pershing Ia is now deployed with three U.S. battalions in Europe and two Federal Republic of Germany Air Force wings.Each battalion and wing has 36 mobile launchers. During peacetime operations , a portion of the Pia assets are deployed on theQRA mission. The remainder are conduct ing field training or are maintained in kasernes awaiting alert. The system is designedto be highly mobile, permitting its dispersal to clandestine sites in times of alert or war. It is deployed at distances greater than100 km behind the FEBA or political border. Owing to its mobility and setback, Pershing is one of the most survivable theaternuclear weapons currently in Europe.(U) Deployment of PII will be similar to that of Pia. The quantity of erector launchers will be the same as Pia, with TOEreductions in the areas of vehicles, cables, and personnel. Through these reductions , the fielded system will exhibit greaterflexibility and increased survivability.

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    (U) U.S. Pl l SYSTEM FORCE STRUCTURE(U) The Pershing II force structure, basically the same as Pia, is made up of a CONUS Battalion, and in West Germany the56th Field Artillery (Pershing) Brigade plus a theater support platoon. (U) The Conus Battalion provides a rotational base for Pershing personnel returning from Europe and provides support forPershing firing activities in CONUS.

    . (U) The 56th Brigade consists of three field artillery (Pershing) battalions, a maintenance battalion, and an attached infantrybattalion (security).(U) The battalions are made up of a headquarters and service batte ry and four firing batteries with 9 launchers each. Eachbattery has three firing platoons with three missiles each. In peacetime the four batteries in each battalion rotate through fouralert readiness conditions, the highest being the assumption of a quick reaction alert status. At random times, during peacetime,batteries would move to the field under battalion control to maintain tactical proficiency.(U) During periods of tension (POT) one battery out of each four is moving at any one time, allowing 75 percent of theforce to maintain target coverage. Three firing platoons actually maintain geographical separation for increased survivabilityduring the movements. While deployed in platoon positions or while moving each platoon is capable of receiving a release message,independent of battery or battalion operations, and autonomously executing a fire mission.(U) The maintenance battalion provides all logistics, maintenance, and aviation support to the 56th Brigade. Direct supportand limited general support for all mission essential equipment is provided by the forward sup port companies assigned at each FAbattalion location.(U) The infantry battalion provides physical security at the Pershing ORA sites in peacetime. During periods of tension the

    infantry battalion provides the outside perimeter security for the Pershing platoons in the field.

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    IFA BNPERSHING

    II IHOAND FIRINGSVC BTRY BATTERY

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    PERSHING II SYSTEMFORCE STRUCTURE

    IFA BDECONUS BN PERSHING II

    I56TH BDEHQ

    I IHOAND FWD SPTHOCO CO(DS)

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    THEATERSUPPORTPLATOON

    ------,1 r_.__.,SUPPORT INFANTRY IBN BN Il ' -------- ' I

    MAINT AVIATIONAND SPTSUPPLY CO co

    NOTE: TOE BASED ON Pta SUPPORTBATTALION ORGANIZATION

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    (U) PERSHING II EFFECTIVENESS(U) Against a spectrum of targets varying from very soft to extremely hard, it can be seen that with the accuracy of Pia,even with high yield nuclear warheads, the probability of kill (PK) starts to degrade rapidly as target hardness increases. Onvery hard targets, it is necessary to plan multiple strikes to improve PK.(U) The pinpoint accuracy of PII (even with much smaller n