Periodic Table Presentation

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Transcript of Periodic Table Presentation

  • 1. The Periodic Table Chapter 6

2. Why is the Periodic Table importantto me? The periodic table is themost useful tool to achemist. You get to use it onevery test. It organizes lots ofinformation about all theknown elements. 3. Pre-Periodic Table Chemistry was a mess!!! No organization ofelements. Imagine going to a grocerystore with no organization!! Difficult to find information. Chemistry didnt makesense. 4. Dmitri Mendeleev: Father of the TableHOW HIS WORKED SOME PROBLEMS Put elements in rows by He left blank spaces forincreasing atomic weight. what he said wereundiscovered elements. Put elements in columns (Turned out he wasby the way they reacted.right!) He broke the pattern ofincreasing atomic weightto keep similar reactingelements together. 5. The Current Periodic Table Mendeleev wasnt too far off. Now the elements are put in rows by increasingATOMIC NUMBER!! The horizontal rows are called periods and arelabeled from 1 to 7. The vertical columns are called groups arelabeled from 1 to 18. 6. GroupsHeres Where the PeriodicTable Gets Useful!! Elements in theWhy?? They have the samesame group number of valencehave similar electrons.chemical and They will form the same kinds of ions.physicalproperties!! (Mendeleev did that on purpose.) 7. Families on the Periodic Table Columns are also groupedinto families. Families may be one column,or several columns puttogether. Families have names ratherthan numbers. (Just like yourfamily has a common lastname.) 8. Hydrogen Hydrogen belongs to a family of its own. Hydrogen is a diatomic, reactive gas. Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenberg. Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for automobiles 9. Alkali Metals 1st column on theperiodic table (Group 1)not including hydrogen. Very reactive metals,always combined withsomething else in nature(like in salt). Soft enough to cut with abutter knife 10. Alkaline Earth Metals Second column on theperiodic table. (Group 2) Reactive metals that arealways combined withnonmetals in nature. Several of theseelements are importantmineral nutrients (suchas Mg and Ca 11. Transition Metals Elements in groups 3-12 Less reactive harder metals Includes metals used in jewelry and construction. Metals used as metal. 12. Boron Family Elements in group 13 Aluminum metal wasonce rare and expensive,not a disposable metal. 13. Carbon Family Elements in group 14 Contains elementsimportant to life andcomputers. Carbon is the basis foran entire branch ofchemistry. Silicon and Germaniumare importantsemiconductors. 14. Nitrogen Family Elements in group 15 Nitrogen makes up over of the atmosphere. Nitrogen and phosphorusare both important inliving things. Most of the worldsnitrogen is not availableto living things. The red stuff on the tip ofmatches is phosphorus. 15. Oxygen Family or Chalcogens Elements in group 16 Oxygen is necessary forrespiration. Many things that stink,contain sulfur (rotteneggs, garlic, skunks,etc.) 16. Halogens Elements in group 17 Very reactive, volatile,diatomic, nonmetals Always found combinedwith other element innature . Used as disinfectantsand to strengthen teeth. 17. The Noble Gases 18. The Noble Gases Elements in group 18 VERY unreactive,monatomic gases Used in lighted neonsigns Used in blimps to fix theHindenberg problem. Have a full valence shell.