People v. Yau

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7/23/2019 People v. Yau http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/people-v-yau 1/16 Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila  THIRD DIVISION G.R. No. !"#$! %u&ust !' !#( PEOP)E O* THE PHI)IPPINES' Plainti+,%ppellee' -s. PETRUS %U a./.a. 01ohn0 an2 0Ric/30 an2 SUS%N% %U 3 SUMOG4% a./.a. 0Susan0' %ccuse2,%ppellants. D E C I S I O N MENDO5%' 1.6  This is an appeal f7o8 the Septe8be7 $' !# Decision# of the Cou7t of %ppeals 9C%:' in C%,G.R. CR,I,IC No. !;((<' =hich a>78e2 the Dece8be7 #(' !!$ Decision of the Re&ional T7ial Cou7t' 47anch #(' Man2alu3on& Cit3 9RTC:. in C7i8inal Case No. MC,!(,$?;. The RTC foun2 accuse2,appellant Pet7us au 9Pet7us: &uilt3 be3on2 7easonable 2oubt as p7incipal of the c7i8e of /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8 an2 se7ious ille&al 2etention' as 2e@ne2 an2 penaliAe2 in %7ticle <$ of the Re-ise2 Penal Co2e 9RPC:' as a8en2e2 b3 Republic %ct No. $<B?' 9R.%. No. $<B?:' an2 con-icte2 accuse2,appellant Susana au 3 Su8o&ba 9Susana:as an acco8plice to the co88ission of the sa8e c7i8e.  The *acts Pet7us an2 Susana =e7e cha7&e2 =ith the c7i8e of i2nappin& *o7 Ranso8 in the Info78ation'; 2ate2 *eb7ua73 #;' !!(' the accusato73 po7tion of =hich 7ea2s6  That on o7 about 1anua73 !' !!(' at a7oun2 6!! P.M. in the -icinit3 of Shoe8a7t Me&a Mall' Man2alu3on& Cit3' the abo-ena8e2 accuse2' conspi7in&' confe2e7atin& an2 8utuall3 helpin& one anothe7' =ith the use of a sleepin& substance' 2i2 then an2 the7e' =illfull3' unla=full3 an2 feloniousl3 /i2nap an2 ta/e a=a3 %)%ST%IR 1OSEPH ONG)INGS%M inthe follo=in& 8anne7' to =it6 =hile sai2 %)%ST%IR  1OSEPH ONG)INGS%M =as on boa72 a =hite To3ota tai cab =ith plate nu8be7 PVD,##B bein& 27i-en b3 the abo-e,na8e2 accuse2 Pet7us au a./.a. 01ohn0 an2 0Ric/30 an2 the tai cab =as t7a-ellin& alon& Epifanio Delos Santos 9EDS%: %-enue' he su22enl3 fell unconscious an2 upon 7e&ainin& consciousness he =as al7ea23 han2cu+e2 an2 in chains insi2e a house locate2 at 4;' )' Ponsettia

Transcript of People v. Yau

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Republic of the PhilippinesSUPREME COURTManila

 THIRD DIVISION

G.R. No. !"#$! %u&ust !' !#(

PEOP)E O* THE PHI)IPPINES' Plainti+,%ppellee'-s.PETRUS %U a./.a. 01ohn0 an2 0Ric/30 an2 SUS%N% %U 3 SUMOG4%a./.a. 0Susan0' %ccuse2,%ppellants.

D E C I S I O N

MENDO5%' 1.6

 This is an appeal f7o8 the Septe8be7 $' !# Decision# of the Cou7t of %ppeals 9C%:' in C%,G.R. CR,I,IC No. !;((<' =hich a>78e2 theDece8be7 #(' !!$ Decision of the Re&ional T7ial Cou7t' 47anch #('Man2alu3on& Cit3 9RTC:. in C7i8inal Case No. MC,!(,$?;. The RTCfoun2 accuse2,appellant Pet7us au 9Pet7us: &uilt3 be3on2 7easonable2oubt as p7incipal of the c7i8e of /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8 an2 se7iousille&al 2etention' as 2e@ne2 an2 penaliAe2 in %7ticle <$ of the Re-ise2Penal Co2e 9RPC:' as a8en2e2 b3 Republic %ct No. $<B?' 9R.%. No.$<B?:' an2 con-icte2 accuse2,appellant Susana au 3 Su8o&ba9Susana:as an acco8plice to the co88ission of the sa8e c7i8e.

 The *acts

Pet7us an2 Susana =e7e cha7&e2 =ith the c7i8e of i2nappin& *o7Ranso8 in the Info78ation'; 2ate2 *eb7ua73 #;' !!(' the accusato73po7tion of =hich 7ea2s6

 That on o7 about 1anua73 !' !!(' at a7oun2 6!! P.M. in the -icinit3 of Shoe8a7t Me&a Mall' Man2alu3on& Cit3' the abo-ena8e2 accuse2'conspi7in&' confe2e7atin& an2 8utuall3 helpin& one anothe7' =ith theuse of a sleepin& substance' 2i2 then an2 the7e' =illfull3' unla=full3

an2 feloniousl3 /i2nap an2 ta/e a=a3 %)%ST%IR 1OSEPHONG)INGS%M inthe follo=in& 8anne7' to =it6 =hile sai2 %)%ST%IR 1OSEPH ONG)INGS%M =as on boa72 a =hite To3ota tai cab =ithplate nu8be7 PVD,##B bein& 27i-en b3 the abo-e,na8e2 accuse2Pet7us au a./.a. 01ohn0 an2 0Ric/30 an2 the tai cab =as t7a-ellin&alon& Epifanio Delos Santos 9EDS%: %-enue' he su22enl3 fellunconscious an2 upon 7e&ainin& consciousness he =as al7ea23han2cu+e2 an2 in chains insi2e a house locate2 at 4;' )' Ponsettia

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St.' Ca8illa So77ento Ho8es' Panapaan IV' 4acoo7' Ca-ite' =he7e he=as /ept fo7 t=ent3 t=o 9: 2a3s' =hich house is o=ne2 b3 accuse2Susana au 3 Su8o&ba an2 =hile the7ein he =as 8alt7eate2F that7anso8 in the a8ount of SI HUNDRED THOUS%ND DO))%RS9US<!!'!!!.!!: an2 TENT THOUS%ND PESOS 9Php!'!!!.!!: fo7

each 2a3 of 2etention =as 2e8an2e2 in echan&efo7 his safe 7eleaseuntil he =as @nall3 7escue2 on *eb7ua73 ##'!!(' b3 P%CER ope7ati-esof the Philippine National Police.

CONTR%R TO )%.

Ve7sion of the P7osecution

In the %ppellees 47ief'( the O>ce of the Solicito7 Gene7al 9OSG:p7esente2 the follo=in& na77ation of the /i2nappin&6

On 1anua73 !' !!(' at a7oun2 #6;! in the afte7noon' p7i-ateco8plainant %lastai7 On&lin&s=a8' =ho is a p7acticin& la=3e7 an2business8an f7o8 the Unite2 States' =ent out of Ma/ati Shan&7ilaHotel' =he7e he =as billete2' an2 haile2 a =hite To3ota tai cab =ithplate nu8be7 PVD,##B to ta/e hi8 f7o8 the sai2 hotel to Vi77a MallShoppin& Cente7 in San 1uan' Met7o Manila. hile the sai2 taicab =aspl3in& alon& EDS%' an2 =ithin the -icinit3 of SM Me&a8all' p7i-ateco8plainant 7ecei-e2 a phone call f7o8 his associate ell3 ei in Hon&on&. He note2 that =hile he =as on the phone con-e7sin& =ith hisassociate' appellant Pet7us au' =ho8 he note2 to ha-e sho7t blac/hai7' a 8oustache an2 &ol2 f7a8e2 e3e&lasses' =oul2 f7o8 ti8e to

ti8e tu7n to hi8 an2 tal/ as if he =as also bein& spo/en to. The7eafte7'he felt &7o&&3 an2 2eci2e2 to han&,up his phone. He no lon&e7 /ne==hat t7anspi7e2 ecept that =hen he =o/e up l3in& 2o=n' his hea2 =asal7ea23 co-e7e2 =ith a plastic ba& an2 he =as han2cu+e2 an2 chaine2.

hen p7i-ate co8plainant co8plaine2 that the han2cu+s =e7e tooti&ht' a 8an =ho =as =ea7in& a 7e2 8as/ an2 int7o2uce2 hi8self as01ohn0 app7oache2 hi8 an2 7e8o-e2 the plastic ba& f7o8 his hea2 an2loosene2 his han2cu+. 1ohn info78e2 hi8 that he =as bein& /i2nappe2fo7 7anso8 an2 that he =ill be allo=e2 to 8a/e phone calls to hisfa8il3 an2 f7ien2s. Hou7s late7' 1ohn 7etu7ne2 =ith telephon3

eJuip8ent' tape 7eco72e7' phone an2 a special antennae cap fo7 thecellphone. ith these eJuip8ent' p7i-ate co8plainant =as allo=e2 tocall his &i7lf7ien2 an2 fathe7 an2 as/e2 the8 fo7 the PIN of his %TMca72s an2 fo7 8one3' ho=e-e7' =ith inst7uctions not to info78 the8that he =as /i2nappe2. % 2a3 afte7' he =as tol2 b3 his capto7 to call his&i7lf7ien2 an2 fathe7 to tell the8 thathe =as still ali-e as =ell as to7e-eal to the8 that he =as /i2nappe2 fo7 7anso8 an2 his /i2nappe7s=e7e 2e8an2in& Si Hun27e2 Thousan2 Dolla7s 9US<!!'!!!.!!: as

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7anso8 an2 T=ent3 Thousan2 Pesos 9Php!'!!!.!!: a 2a3 as 7oo8 an2boa72 fee.

 The p7i-ate co8plainants fa8il3' &i7lf7ien2 9I7is Chau: an2 f7ien2s7ecei-e2 a tet 8essa&e pu7po7te2l3 f7o8 the fo78e7 info78in& the8

that he =as /i2nappe2 an2 7anso8 fo7 his libe7t3 =as 2e8an2e2.

On 1anua73 #' !!(' the fa8il3 of the -icti8 info78e2 the Unite2States E8bass3 in Manila about the situation an2 a 8eetin& =ith the7ep7esentati-es of the Philippine National Police =as a77an&e2.

SubseJuentl3' Chau 7ecei-e2 an e8ail f7o8 the pu7po7te2 /i2nappe72e8an2in& US'!!!.!!. Chau then =i7e2 US#'!!!.!!' uponinst7uctions' to On& =ai Pin& th7u Met7o 4an/ an2 T7ust Co8pan3.)i/e=ise' p7i-ate co8plainants b7othe7 %a7on On&lin&s=a8 8a2eei&ht 9": 2eposits to On& =ai Pin&s account in Met7o 4an/'

a8ountin& to T=o Hun27e2 Thousan2 Pesos 9Php!!'!!!.!!:' to ensu7ehis b7othe7s safet3 an2 e-entual 7elease.

Du7in& p7i-ate co8plainants t=ent3,t=o 9: 2a3s of capti-it3' =hilehe =as allo=e2 to co88unicate =ith his fa8il3 al8ost 2ail3 to p7o-ethat he =as still ali-e an2 =as se7-e2 =ith 8eals al8ost @-e ti8es a2a3 eithe7 b3 1ohn o7 the othe7 accuse2 Susan au' he =as also8alt7eate2 i.e. beaten =ith stic/s' 8a2e to la3,2o=n bitin& a piece of=oo2 =hich =as 8a2e as ta7&et fo7 a 7iKe.

On *eb7ua73 #!' !!(' the P%CER 7ecei-e2 info78ation that a tai =ith

plate nu8be7 PVD ##B pl3in& alon& 4acoo7 =as -icti8iAin& passen&e7s.Upon inst7uctions of PLSupt. Isa&ani Ne7eA' 8e8be7s of the Police %nti,C7i8ean2 E8e7&enc3 Response Tas/ *o7ce 9P%CER: =e7e o72e7e2 top7ocee2 to 4acoo7' Ca-ite to loo/ fo7 To3ota Co7olla hite Taicab =ithPlate No. PVD ##B. On *eb7ua73 ##' !!(' at a7oun2 (6!! ocloc/ in the8o7nin&' the P%CER &7oup p7ocee2e2 to 4acoo7 an2 positione2the8sel-es alon& %&uinal2o Hi&h=a3 un2e7 the o-e7pass f7ontin& SM4acoo7. Not ha-in& cau&ht si&ht of the tai' afte7 th7ee hou7s' the&7oup 8o-e2 to a 2i+e7ent location alon& the %&uinal2o Hi&h=a3=he7e the3 =e7e able to chance upon the sai2 -ehicle. Thus' the3follo=e2 it' then Ka&&e2 it 2o=n an2 app7oache2 the 27i-e7. The 27i-e7

=as as/e2 to sc7oll 2o=n his =in2o= an2 =as tol2 that the -ehicle =asbein& use2 to -icti8iAe fo7ei&n nationals. %ppellant 2i2 not o+e7 to8a/e an3 co88ent. Hence' this p7o8pte2 the o>ce7s to as/ fo7 hisna8e an2 since he ans=e7e2 that he =as Pet7us au' a 47itish national'the3 as/e2 hi8 fo7 his 27i-e7s license an2 ca7 7e&ist7ation butappellant =as not able to p7o2uce an3. Since he coul2 not p7o2uce an327i-e7s license an2 ca7 7e&ist7ation' the3 =e7e suppose2 to b7in& hi8to the police station fo7 in-esti&ation' ho=e-e7' =hen sho=n a pictu7e

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of p7i-ate co8plainant an2 as/e2 if he /ne= hi8' he ans=e7e2 that the8an is bein& /ept in his house. He =as i88e2iatel3 info78e2 that he=as bein& place2 un2e7 a77est fo7 /i2nappin& p7i-ate co8plainant%lastai7 On&lin&s=a8 afte7 bein& info78e2 of his constitutional 7i&hts. The7eafte7' appellants cellphones' a TE Pal8top an2 Son3 E7ic/son

=e7e con@scate2. Upon inst7uctions of PLSupt. Ne7eA' appellant =asb7ou&ht to the pa7/in& lot of SM Cit3 4acoo7 fo7 a possible 7escueope7ations of the -icti8.

%ppellant le2 the tea8 to his house an2 afte7 openin& the &ate of his7esi2ence' he=as le2 bac/ to the police ca7. The 7est of the 8e8be7s of P%CER p7ocee2e2 insi2e the house an2 foun2 a 8an sittin& on the Koo7chaine2 an2 han2cu+e2. The 8an late7 i2enti@e2 hi8self as %lastai7On&lin&s=a8.

Du7in& the t7ial of the case' p7i-ate co8plainant positi-el3 i2enti@e2

Pet7us au as his capto7 an2 the tai 27i-e7. Test con2ucte2 b3 theUnite2 States *e2e7al 4u7eau of In-esti&ation 7e-eals that the DN%foun2 in the 8as/ use2 b3 p7i-ate co8plainants capto7 8atche2 thatof appellant Pet7us au.B

Ve7sion of the Defense

Pet7us an2 Susana 2enie2 the accusation' an2 state2 the follo=in& inthei7 47ief< to substantiate thei7 clai8 of innocence6

%ccuse2 Pet7us au 2enie2 ha-in& co88itte2 the c7i8e. He a-e77e2

that the suppose2 /i2nap -icti8 coo72inate2 =ith the police to set upthe subect case a&ainst hi8 an2 his fa8il3. He is a 47itish national. Heha2 been in the Philippines fo7 8an3 ti8es since he =as #( 3ea7s ol2.He ca8e to the count73 in 1ul3 !!# fo7 a -acation an2 ha2 not leftsince then. On Septe8be7 !!#' he &ot 8a77ie2 to Susana au. P7io7the7eto' he =as in Sin&apo7e 7unnin& so8e businesses. On 1anua73 !'!!(' at a7oun2 6!! ocloc/ in the afte7noon 9the 2ate an2 ti8e the-icti8 =as /i2nappe2:' Pet7us au =as at ho8e sleepin&.

On *eb7ua73 ##' !!( 9the 2ate the -icti8 =as alle&e2l3 7escue2: ata7oun2 "6;! Q ?6!! ocloc/ in the 8o7nin&' he =ent to his =ife Susana

in he7 shop an2 &ot 8one3 to be 2eposite2 to the %sia T7ust 4an/. Hepa7/e2 his ca7 outsi2e the ban/. %fte7 he ali&hte2 f7o8 his ca7' th7ee9;: 8en bi&&e7 than hi8 hel2 his han2s6 one 9#: of the8 hel2 his nec/. The3 pushe2 hi8 insi2e thei7 -an. The3 tie2 his han2s =ith pac/in&tape' co-e7e2 his e3es =ith the sa8e tape' an2 his hea2 =ith a plasticba&. The3 /ic/e2 an2 beat hi8 until he beca8e unconscious.

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hen he 7e&aine2 consciousness' he =as insi2e an ai7con2itione27oo8. His han2s =e7e han2cu+e2 an2 he felt -e73 col2 because hisbo23 =as =et. His hea2 =as still bein& co-e7e2. He shoute2 as/in&=he7e he =as. People ca8e in an2 he hea72 the8 tal/in& in Ta&alo&. The3 /ic/e2 hi8 fo7 about t=ent3 9!: secon2s. )ate7' he =as 8a2e to

sit' as he =as l3in& on the Koo7. He sai2 that he coul2 not see an3thin&'thus' so8eone 7e8o-e2 the co-e7 of his hea2. The3 accuse2 hi8 ofbein& a /i2nappe7' to =hich he 7eplie2 that he =as not. He plea2e2 tothe8 to allo= hi8 to 8a/e a call to the 47itish E8bass3' his f7ien2san2 his =ife' but to no a-ail.

hen he =as ta/en into custo23' he ha2 his =e22in& 7in&' =atch an2 a=aist ba& containin& his 47itish passpo7t' alien ce7ti@cate' 27i-e7slicense' %sia T7ust ban/boo/ in the na8e of Susana au' %TM Ca72s 9inhis na8e: of Met7oban/' PCI EJuitable 4an/ an2 4anco 2e O7o' VIS%Ca72' an2 so8e cash &i-en to hi8 b3 his =ife . He lost those pe7sonal

p7ope7ties.

%fte7 fou7 9(: to @-e 9B: hou7s' he =as t7ansfe77e2 to anothe7 7oo8=ithout a =in2o=. The follo=in& 2a3' he =as b7ou&ht to an2 2etaine2at the P%CER Custo2ial Cente7.

Pet7us au can spea/ En&lish but he is bette7 in the Chinese lan&ua&e'both Man2a7in an2 Cantonese. He bou&ht the tai he =as 27i-in& in%u&ust !!; fo7 Ei&ht3 *i-e Thousan2 Pesos 9Php"B'!!!.!!: fo7pe7sonal use an2Lo7 fo7 7esale. It ha2 a 2efecti-e en&ine 9usuall3o-e7heats:' =ithout an ai7con an2 cannot t7a-el fo7 lon& ou7ne3. He

2oes not 27i-e a tai to ea7n a li-in&. He ha2 police f7ien2s =ho tol2hi8 that he cannot 27i-e a tai as an occupation since his 27i-e7slicense is non,p7ofessional.

So8eti8e on 1une !!;' he an2 his =ife Susana ha2 a heate2a7&u8ent o-e7 his =o8aniAin&. Hence' she 2eci2e2 to li-e sepa7atel3f7o8 hi8 9thou&h she =as p7e&nant at that ti8e: an2 8o-e2 toanothe7 house 94loc/ B' )ot (' Tulip St7eet' %n27ea Villa&e' 4acoo7'Ca-ite:. So8eti8es' she =oul2 -isit hi8.

Pet7us clai8e2 that his house 2oes not ha-e a base8ent' cont7a73 to

the -icti8s testi8on3 that he =as place2 in the base8ent. He =as notin his house =hen the police o>ce7s alle&e2l3 7escue2 the /i2nappe2-icti8. He left his house in &oo2 con2ition in the 8o7nin& befo7e hisa77est. The =hite To3ota Co7olla tai he =as 27i-in& ha2 8a7/in&s offa2e2 &7e3' not blac/' as clai8e2 b3 %lastai7.

Du7in& the inJuest p7ocee2in&s' Pet7us au =as not assiste2 b3 acounsel an2 =as not info78e2of his constitutional 7i&hts.

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Susana Su8o&ba au 2enie2 the accusation that she =as in theco8pan3 of the /i2nappe7 e-e73 ti8e the latte7 se7-e2 %lastai7s foo29lunch an2 2inne7:. She is le&all3 8a77ie2 to Pet7us au. The3 ha-e t=o9: chil27en na8e2 Cha7lie an2 Vi-ian. On *eb7ua73 ##' !!(' she li-e2

at 4loc/ B' )ot (' Tulips St7eet' %n27ea Villa&e' 4acoo7' Ca-ite' =hilePet7us au li-e2 at 4loc/ ;' )ot ' Ponsettia St7eet' So77ento To=nHo8es' 4acoo7' Ca-ite' =ith his &i7lf7ien2. Susana an2 Pet7us =e7esepa7ate2 since 1une !!;.

On *eb7ua73 ##' !!(' she calle2 hi8 to pic/ up the a8ount ofPhp$'!!!.!! 9ea7nin&s of he7 sa7i,sa7i sto7e: an2 to 2eposit it in he7account at %sia T7ust 4an/. She =oul2 7eJuest Pet7us to 2o such e77an2fo7 he7 as she 2oes not t7ust he7 househelp. Pet7us ca8e to he7 ata7oun2 $6!! ocloc/ in the 8o7nin&. %t a7oun2 ##6!! ocloc/ a.8. of thesa8e 2a3' fou79(: to @-e 9B: police8en a77i-e2 at he7 7esi2ence an2

tol2 he7 to co8e =ith the8 to the hospital =he7e Pet7us =as b7ou&htbecause he 8et a -ehicula7 acci2ent alon& %&uinal2o Hi&h=a3.

Susana' to&ethe7 =ith he7 chil27en an2 helpe7s' =ent =ith the8' an27o2e in thei7 -an. The3' ho=e-e7' =e7e not b7ou&ht to the hospital butto an o>ce. The7eat' Susana sa= he7 husban2 9al8ost 2ea2: insi2e as8all 7oo8 =ith a one,=a3 8i77o7. She =as not able to tal/ to hi8. She'to&ethe7 =ith he7 chil27en an2 helpe7s' =e7e 2etaine2 fo7 th7ee 9;:2a3s insi2e a s8all 7oo8. %fte7 th7ee 9;: 2a3s' he7 chil27en an2 helpe7s=e7e 7elease2 an2 the3 =ent ho8e. %t that ti8e' she =as not p7o-i2e2=ith the assistance of a counsel.

Susana state2 that he7 husban2s na8e is Pet7us au. He is not /no=neithe7 as 1ohn o7 On& =ai Pin&. He is en&a&e2 in the business ofbu3in& ca7s fo7 7esale. The3 o=ne2 th7ee 9;: houses an2 lots' all7e&iste7e2 in he7 na8e. %t the ti8e she =as ta/en into custo23 b3 thepolice' she ha2 =ithhe7 *i-e Thousan2 Pesos cash' %llie2 4an/passboo/ an2 %TM Ca72s 9%llie2 4an/ an2 %sia T7ust 4an/:' VIS% ca72'passpo7t' =e22in& 7in&' nec/lace an2 cellphone' =hich =e7e ta/ena=a3 b3 pe7sons =ho8 she 2oes not /no=.$

 The Rulin& of the RTC

In its u2&8ent' 2ate2 Dece8be7 #('!!$' the RTC con-icte2 Pet7us au' as p7incipal' of the c7i8e of /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8 an2 se7iousille&al 2etention' an2 Susana au'as an acco8plice to the co88issionthe7eof. The RTC foun2 the testi8onies of the p7osecution =itnessesc7e2ible an2 su>cient' =ith thei7 -e7sions of the inci2ent 2o-etailin&=ith each othe7 e-en on 8ino7 2etails. It obse7-e2 that Pet7us faile2 to7ebut his positi-e i2enti@cation b3 the -icti8' %lastai7 an2 his b7othe7

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%a7on 1ohn On&lin&s=a8 9%a7on 1ohn:' =ith =ho8 he tal/e2 fo7 se-e7alti8es o-e7 the phone. It state2 that the ci7cu8stantial e-i2encep7o+e7e2 b3 the p7osecution ha2 a2eJuatel3 7einfo7ce2 its theo73 thatPet7us =as the pe7pet7ato7 of the heinous act.

ith 7espect to Susana' the RTC =7ote that she =as positi-el3i2enti@e2 b3 %lastai7 as the *ilipino =o8an =ho fe2 hi8 o7acco8panie2 Pet7us in b7in&in& hi8 foo2 2u7in& his 2a3s ofcapti-it3 an2' fo7 sai2 7eason' shoul2 be hel2 liable as an acco8plice.

 The RTC 7eecte2 the t=in 2efenses of alibi an2 f7a8e,up sub8itte2 b3Pet7us an2 Susana because the sa8e =e7e unsubstantiate2 b3 clea7an2 con-incin& e-i2ence. The 2ispositi-e po7tion of the sai2 2ecisionstates6

HERE*ORE' this cou7t 7en2e7s u2&8ent @n2in& the accuse2 Pet7us

 au GUI)T 4EOND RE%SON%4)E DOU4T as p7incipal of the c7i8e of/i2nappin& fo7 7anso8 an2 se7ious ille&al 2etention an2 pu7suant toRepublic %ct No. ?;(<' he is he7eb3 sentence2 to su+e7 the p7ison te78of REC)USION PERPETU%. The cou7t also @n2s the accuse2 Susana auGUI)T 4EOND RE%SON%4)E DOU4T as acco8plice to the co88issionof the c7i8e of /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8 an2 se7ious ille&al 2etention an2appl3in& to he7 the bene@t of the In2ete78inate Sentence )a= =he7einhe7 8ini8u8 penalt3 shall be ta/en f7o8 the penalt3 net lo=e7 in2e&7ee of the i8posable penalt3 of REC)USION TEMPOR%) =hich isp7ision 8a3o7' she is he7eb3 the7efo7e sentence2 to su+e7 the p7isonte78 of EIGHT 9": E%RS an2 ONE 9#: D% of PRISION M%OR MINIMUM

%S MINIMUM to TE)VE 9#: E%RS an2 TEN 9#!: MONTHS ofREC)USION TEMPOR%) MINIMUM %S M%IMUM.%ccuse2 a7e c7e2ite2 infull of the p7e-enti-e i8p7ison8ent the3 ha-e al7ea23 se7-e2 incon@ne8ent.

*u7the7' both accuse2 a7e sentence2 to pa3' ointl3 an2 se-e7all3' the-icti8 %)%ST%IR 1OSEPH ONG)INGS%M actual 2a8a&es of T=oHun27e2 Se-ent3 Th7ee Thousan2 an2 One Hun27e2 Thi7t3 T=o Pesos9$;' #;.!!: plus inte7est f7o8 the @lin& of the info78ation until fullpa38ent' 8o7al 2a8a&es of One Million Pesos 9#'!!!'!!!.!!:' an2ee8pla73 2a8a&es of T=o Hun27e2 Thousan2 Pesos 9!!'!!!.!!:.

SO ORDERED."

UnfaAe2' Pet7us an2 Susana appeale2 the RTC u2&8ent of con-ictionbefo7e the C%.

 The Rulin& of the C%

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 The C% a>78e2 the con-iction of Pet7us an2 Susana.? The appellatecou7t li/e=ise lent c7e2ence to the testi8onies of the p7osecution=itnesses' =ho =e7e able to establish =ith ce7titu2e the co88ission of the c7i8e an2 the i2entities of the culp7its the7eof.

Hence' this appeal.

%SSIGNED ERRORS6

I

 THE TRI%) COURT GR%VE) ERRED IN NOT *INDING TH%T THE%CCUSED,%PPE))%NT %S I))EG%)) %RRESTED %ND %S SUCH' THEPIECES O* O41ECT EVIDENCE %))EGED) SEI5ED %RE IN%DMISSI4)E.

II

 THE TRI%) COURT GR%VE) ERRED IN *INDING TH%T THERE %SPOSITIVE IDENTI*IC%TION O* THE %CCUSED%PPE))%NT %S THE%))EGED IDN%PPER.

III

 THE TRI%) COURT GR%VE) ERRED IN *INDING THE %CCUSED,%PPE))%NT GUI)T 4EOND RE%SON%4)E DOU4T O* THE CRIMECH%RGED.#!

Susana insiste2 that the t7ial cou7t e77e26 # in not &i-in& c7e2ence tohe7 clai8 that she =as li-in& sepa7atel3 =ith he7 husban2' Pet7us auF in not consi2e7in& that she =as not 8entione2 in the s=o7nstate8ent eecute2 b3 %lastai7' 2ate2 *eb7ua73 #' !!(' e-en =hensai2 -icti8 =as as/e2 if the7e =as anothe7 pe7son assistin& Pet7us inthe pe7pet7ation of the c7i8eF ; in not consi2e7in& the Resolution ofthe Depa7t8ent of 1ustice' 2ate2 *eb7ua73 #;' !!(' @n2in& p7obablecause a&ainst he7 because she is the 7e&iste7e2 o=ne7 of the house=he7e %lastai7 =as hel2 capti-e an2 not because she se7-e2 foo2 onthe -icti8F an2 ( in con-ictin& he7 as an acco8plice.##

On Septe8be7 ##' !#;' the Cou7t issue2 a 7esolution# notif3in& thepa7ties that the3 coul2 @le thei7 7especti-e supple8ental b7iefs if the3so 2esi7e. The People of the Philippines' 7ep7esente2 b3 the OSG' opte2not to @le an3 supple8ental b7ief' 8aintainin& its positions an2a7&u8ents in its b7ief ea7lie7 @le2 in C%,G.R. CR,H.C. No. !;((<.#;Pet7us @le2 his Supple8ental 47ief#( on Dece8be7 $' !#; ina8pli@cation of his a7&u8ents 7aise2 in his b7ief @le2 befo7e the C%.

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 The Cou7ts Rulin&

 The appeal is be7eft of 8e7it.

Encapsulate2' the issues he7ein focus on6 9a: the c7e2ibilit3 of the

p7osecution =itnessesF 9b: the su>cienc3 of the p7osecution e-i2enceto p7o-e the co88ission of /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8 an2 the i2entit3 ofthe culp7its the7eofF an2 9c: the 2e&7ee of 7esponsibilit3 of eachaccuse2appellant fo7 the c7i8e of /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8.

o7th 7eite7atin& on the issue of the c7e2ibilit3 of the =itnesses is the7ulin& of the Cou7t in People -. Maion#B that6

 The issue 7aise2 b3 accuse2,appellant in-ol-es the c7e2ibilit3 of=itness' =hich is best a227esse2 b3 the t7ial cou7t' it bein& in a bette7position to 2eci2e such Juestion' ha-in& hea72 the =itness an2

obse7-e2 his 2e8eano7' con2uct' an2 attitu2e un2e7 &7uelin&ea8ination. These a7e the 8ost si&ni@cant facto7s in e-aluatin& thesince7it3 of =itnesses an2 in unea7thin& the t7uth' especiall3 in theface of conKictin& testi8onies.Th7ou&h its obse7-ations 2u7in& theenti7e p7ocee2in&s' the t7ial cou7t can be epecte2 to 2ete78ine' =ith7easonable 2isc7etion' =hose testi8on3 to accept an2 =hich =itness tobelie-e. Ve7il3' @n2in&s of the t7ial cou7t on such 8atte7s =ill not be2istu7be2 on appeal unless so8e facts o7 ci7cu8stances of =ei&ht ha-ebeen o-e7loo/e2' 8isapp7ehen2e2 o7 8isinte7p7ete2 so as to8ate7iall3 a+ect the 2isposition of the case.#<

It has been an establishe2 7ule in appellate 7e-ie= that the t7ial cou7tsfactual @n2in&s' such as its assess8ent of the c7e2ibilit3 of the=itnesses' the p7obati-e =ei&ht of thei7 testi8onies' an2 theconclusions 27a=n f7o8 the factual @n2in&s' a7e acco72e2 &7eat7espect an2 ha-e e-en conclusi-e e+ect. Such factual @n2in&s an2conclusions assu8e e-en &7eate7 =ei&ht =hen the3 a7e a>78e2 b3 theC%#$

In the case at bench' the RTC &a-e8o7e =ei&ht an2 c7e2ence to thetesti8onies of the p7osecution =itnesses co8pa7e2 to those of theaccuse2appellants. %fte7 a u2icious 7e-ie= of the e-i2ence on 7eco72'

the Cou7t @n2s no co&ent 7eason to 2e-iate f7o8 the factual @n2in&s of the RTC an2 the C%' an2 thei7 7especti-e assess8ent an2 calib7ation of the c7e2ibilit3 of the p7osecution =itnesses.

In e-e73 c7i8inal case' the tas/ ofthe p7osecution is al=a3s t=o,fol2'that is' 9#: to p7o-e be3on2 7easonable 2oubt the co88ission of thec7i8e cha7&e2F an2 9: to establish =ith the sa8e Juantu8of p7oof thei2entit3 of the pe7son o7 pe7sons 7esponsible the7efo7' because' e-enif

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the co88ission of the c7i8e is a &i-en' the7e can be no con-iction=ithout the i2entit3 of the 8alefacto7 bein& li/e=ise clea7l3asce7taine2.#" He7e' the p7osecution =as able to satisfacto7il32ischa7&e this bu72en.

Victi8 %lastai7 positi-el3 i2enti@e2 Pet7us as the 27i-e7 of the =hite To3ota Co7olla taicab =ith Plate No. PVD ##B =hich he boa72e2 befo7ehe lost consciousness on the afte7noon of1anua73 !' !!(. He clai8e2that =hile he =as con-e7sin& =ith his business associate ell3 ei o-e7his phone insi2e the taicab' Pet7us =oul2 tu7n his face to=a72s hi8'f7o8 ti8e to ti8e' an2 =oul2 tal/ as if he =as bein& spo/en to. %lastai7clai8e2 that he ha2 a &oo2 loo/ an2 an a8ple oppo7tunit3to7e8e8be7 the facial featu7es of the 27i-e7 as to be able to 7eco&niAean2 i2entif3 hi8 in cou7t. It is the 8ost natu7al 7eaction fo7 -icti8s ofc7i8es to st7i-e to 7e8e8be7 the faces of thei7 accoste7s an2 the8anne7 in =hich the c7a-en acts a7e co88itte2.#?

%lastai7 also 7eco&niAe2 the -oice behin2 the 7e2 8as/ use2 b3 his/i2nappe7 as belon&in& to Pet7us. It =as establishe2 that f7o8 the @7stto the t=entieth 2a3 of %lastai7s capti-it3'his /i2nappe7 =oul2 8eethi8 @-e ti8es a 2a3 an2 =oul2 tal/ to hi8 fo7 an hou7' thus' enablin&hi8 to 7e8e8be7 the culp7its -oice =hich ha2 a uniJue tone an2noticeable Chinese accent. %lastai7 2ecla7e2 =ith ce7taint3 that it =asthe -oice of Pet7us. itness %a7on 1ohn insiste2 that the pe7son =hoint7o2uce2 hi8self as On& =ai Pin& an2 =ith =ho8 he ha2 tal/e2 o-e7the phone fo7 th7ee =ee/s' 2e8an2in& necessit3 8one3 an2 7anso8fo7 the 7elease of his b7othe7 %lastai7' =as Pet7us because of the

2istinct tone of his -oice =ith Chinese accent. The7e =as no sho=in&that %lastai7 an2 %a7on 1ohn ha2 an3 ill 8oti-e to falsel3 testif3 a&ainstPet7us. %s a 7ule' absent an3 e-i2ence sho=in& an3 7eason o7 8oti-efo7 p7osecution =itnesses to pe7u7e' the lo&ical conclusion is that nosuchi8p7ope7 8oti-e eists' an2 thei7 testi8onies a7e' thus' =o7th3 offull faith an2 c7e2it.!

*u7the7' the p7osecution p7esente2 c7e2ible an2 su>cient pieces ofci7cu8stantial e-i2ence that le2 tothe inescapable an2 7easonableconclusion that Pet7us co88itte2 the c7i8e cha7&e2. The settle2 7ule isthat a u2&8ent of con-iction base2 on ci7cu8stantial e-i2ence can be

uphel2 onl3 if the follo=in& 7eJuisites concu76 9#: the7e is 8o7e thanone ci7cu8stanceF 9: the facts f7o8 =hich the infe7encesa7e 2e7i-e2a7e p7o-enF an2 9;: the co8bination of all the ci7cu8stances is such asto p7o2uce con-iction be3on2 7easonable 2oubt.# The co7olla73 7ule isthat the ci7cu8stances p7o-en 8ust constitute an unb7o/en chain=hich lea2s to one fai7 an2 7easonable conclusion pointin& to theaccuse2' to the eclusion of all othe7s' as the &uilt3 pe7son.

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 The co8bination of the follo=in& establishe2 facts an2 ci7cu8stancesa>78 the @n2in&s of &uilt b3 the RTC an2 the C%6

# The -icti8 =as 7escue2 b3 the police insi2e the house o=ne2 b3Pet7us an2 Susana' locate2 at 4loc/ ;' )ot ' Ponsettia St.' Ca8ella

So77ento Ho8es' 4acoo7' Ca-iteF

The To3ota Co7olla =hite taicab bea7in& Plate No. PVD ##B' =hichthe -icti8 7ecalle2 boa72in& in &oin& to Vi77a Mall G7eenhills Shoppin&Cente7 on the afte7noon of 1anua73 !' !!( an2 =he7e he lostconsciousness' =as foun2 in the possession of the accuse2,appellantPet7us on *eb7ua73 ##' !!(F

; The 27i-e7s license of Pet7us an2 an %TM ca72 in the na8e of On&=ai Pin& =e7e 7eco-e7e2 insi2e the To3ota Co7olla taicab of Pet7us auF

( In the house =he7e the -icti8 =as 7escue2' the follo=in& e-i2ence=e7e foun26 one 9#: chain =ith pa2loc/F han2cu+sF sho7t b7o/en chainFchec/e7e2 paa8aF blac/ blaAe7F one 9#: Onesi8us blac/ coatF t=o 9:-i2eo ca8e7a ca7t7i2&es' one sho=in& the -icti8 in l3in& 2o=n positionan2 fa8il3 foota&es' an2 the othe7 one labele2 0se scan2al0F ei&ht 9":pieces of cellphonesF noteboo/F t=o 9: Tal/ n Te SIM ca72sF Globe SIMca72F t=o 9: T7ansfe7 Ce7ti@cates of Title fo7 t=o pieces of lan2 in4acoo7' Ca-ite' un2e7 the na8e of Susana Su8o&baF o7i&inal cop3 ofthe O>cialReceipts an2 Ce7ti@cate of Re&ist7ation of a SuAu/i #??;8oto7c3cle bea7in& Plate No. M?$("F business license an2 8a3o7s

pe78it issue2 to Susana auF 8a77ia&e cont7act of Pet7us au an2Susana auF bi7th ce7ti@cate of Susana Su8o&baF bi7th ce7ti@cates ofthei7 chil27enF %CR of Pet7us auF Me7alco billsF %sia T7ust 2eposit slipsF@-e %TM 2eposit slipsF an2 P)DT billsF

B T=o 9: cellphones' a TE Pal8top an2 a Son3 E7ic/son =e7e foun2in the possession of Pet7us. Inci2entall3' it =as 7epo7te2 that the o=ne7ofthe TE Pal8top cellphone =as a ce7tain 1aspe7 4elt7an' also a/i2nappe2 -icti8 =hose =he7eabouts ha2 not been /no=n 3etF an2

< The DN% ea8ination on the 7e2 8as/ =o7n b3 the /i2nappe7 that

=as 7eco-e7e2 insi2e the house an2 on the buccal s=ab ta/en f7o8Pet7us sho=e2 that both DN% p7o@les 8atche2.;

 The Cou7t a&7ees =ith the @n2in&s of the RTC an2 the C% that thefo7e&oin& pieces of ci7cu8stantial e-i2ence' =hen anal3Ae2 an2 ta/ento&ethe7' 2e@nitel3 lea2 to no othe7 conclusion than that Pet7us =asthe autho7 of the /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8. hen -ie=e2 as a =hole' the

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p7osecution e-i2ence e+ecti-el3 establishe2 his &uilt be3on27easonable 2oubt.

 The ele8ents of i2nappin& *o7 Ranso8 un2e7 %7ticle <$ of the RPC'as a8en2e2 b3 R.%. No. $<B?' a7e asfollo=s6 9a: intent on the pa7t of

the accuse2 to 2ep7i-e the -icti8 of his libe7t3F 9b: actual 2ep7i-ationof the -icti8 of his libe7t3F an2 9c: 8oti-e of the accuse2' =hich iseto7tin& 7anso8 fo7 the 7elease of the -icti8.(

%ll of the fo7e&oin& ele8ents =e7e 2ul3 establishe2 b3 the testi8onialan2 2ocu8enta73 e-i2ences fo7 the p7osecution in the case at bench.*i7st' Pet7us is a p7i-ate in2i-i2ual. Secon2' Pet7us /i2nappe2 %lastai7b3 usin& sleepin& substance =hich 7en2e7e2 the latte7 unconscious=hile insi2e a taicab 27i-en b3 the sai2 accuse2,appellant. Thi72'Pet7us too/ an2 2etaine2 %lastai7 insi2e the house o=ne2 b3 hi8 an2Susana au in 4acoo7' Ca-ite' =he7e sai2 -icti8 =as han2cu+e2 an2

chaine2' an2 hence' 2ep7i-e2 of his libe7t3. *ou7th' %lastai7 =as ta/ena&ainst his =ill. %n2 @fth' Pet7us 8a2e 2e8an2s fo7 the 2eli-e73 of a7anso8in the a8ount of US<!!'!!!.!! fo7 the 7elease of the -icti8.

%nent the c7i8inal liabilit3 of eachaccuse2,appellant' the7e is no 2oubtthat Pet7us is liable as p7incipal of the c7i8e of /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8.Susana' on the othe7 han2' is liable onl3 as an acco8plice to the c7i8eas co77ectl3 foun2 b3 the lo=e7 cou7ts. It 8ust be e8phasiAe2 thatthe7e =as no e-i2ence in2ubitabl3 p7o-in& that Susanapa7ticipate2 inthe 2ecision to co88it the c7i8inal act. The onl3 e-i2ence thep7osecution ha2 a&ainst he7 =as the testi8on3 of %lastai7 to the e+ect

that he 7e8e8be7e2 he7 as the =o8an =ho &a-e foo2 to hi8 o7 =hoacco8panie2 his /i2nappe7 =hene-e7 he =oul2 b7in& foo2 to hi8e-e73 b7ea/fast' lunch an2 2inne7. 1u7isp7u2enceB is inst7ucti-e of theele8ents 7eJui7e2' in acco72ance =ith %7ticle #" of the RPC' in o72e7that a pe7son 8a3 be consi2e7e2 an acco8plice' na8el3' 9#: that the7ebea co88unit3 of 2esi&nF that is' /no=in& the c7i8inal 2esi&n of thep7incipal b3 2i7ect pa7ticipation' he concu7s =ith the latte7 in hispu7poseF 9: that he coope7ates in the eecution b3 p7e-ious o7si8ultaneous act' =ith the intention of suppl3in& 8ate7ial o7 8o7al ai2in the eecution of the c7i8e in an e>cacious =a3F an2 9;: that the7ebe a 7elation bet=een the acts 2one b3 the p7incipal an2 those

att7ibute2 to the pe7son cha7&e2 as acco8plice.

In the case at bench' Susana /ne= of the c7i8inal 2esi&n of he7husban2' Pet7us' but she /ept Juiet an2 ne-e7 7epo7te2 the inci2ent tothe police autho7ities. Instea2' she sta3e2 =ith Pet7us insi2e the housean2 &a-e foo2 to the -icti8 o7 acco8panie2 he7 husban2 =hen heb7ou&ht foo2 to the -icti8. Susana not onl3 countenance2Pet7us ille&alact' but also supplie2 hi8 =ith 8ate7ial an2 8o7al ai2. It has been hel2

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that bein& p7esent an2 &i-in& 8o7al suppo7t =hen a c7i8e is bein&co88itte2 8a/e a pe7son 7esponsible as an acco8plice in the c7i8eco88itte2.< %s /eenl3 obse7-e2 b3 the RTC' the act of &i-in& foo2 b3Susana to the -icti8 =as not essential an2 in2ispensable fo7 thepe7pet7ation ofthe c7i8e of /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8 but 8e7el3 an

ep7ession of s38path3 o7feelin& of suppo7t to he7 husban2.$Mo7eo-e7' this Cou7t is &ui2e2 b3 the 7ulin& in People -. De Ve7a'"=he7e it =as st7esse2 that in case of 2oubt' the pa7ticipation of theo+en2e7 =ill be consi2e7e2 as that of an acco8plice 7athe7 thanthat ofa p7incipal.

%lastai7s positi-e i2enti@cation of Susana is not in an3 bit p7eu2ice2b3 his failu7e to 8ention he7 na8e in his s=o7n state8ent' 2ate2*eb7ua73 #' !!(. It is =ell,settle2 that a>2a-its' bein& e pa7te' a7eal8ost al=a3s inco8plete an2 often inaccu7ate' but2o not 7eall32et7act f7o8 the c7e2ibilit3 of =itnesses.? Oftenti8es' the

alle&ationscontaine2 in a>2a-its in-ol-e2 8e7e passi-e 8ention of2etails ancho7e2 enti7el3 on the in-esti&ato7s Juestions. The2isc7epancies bet=een a s=o7n state8ent an2 a testi8on3 in cou7t 2onot out7i&htl3 ustif3 the acJuittal ofan accuse2' as testi8oniale-i2ence ca77ies 8o7e=ei&ht than an a>2a-it.;! Testi8onies &i-en2u7in& the t7ial a7e 8o7e eact an2 elabo7ate. 4esi2es' s=o7nstate8ents a7e often eecute2 =hen an a>ants 8ental faculties a7enot in such a state as to a+o72 the a>ant a fai7 oppo7tunit3 ofna77atin& in full the inci2ent =hich t7anspi7e2.;#

Gi-en the o-e7=hel8in& pictu7e of thei7 co8plicit3 in the c7i8e' this

Cou7t cannot accept the 2efenses of alibi an2 f7a8e,up inte7pose2 b3the accuse2,appellants. %libi is the =ea/est of all 2efenses' fo7 it iseas3 to cont7i-e an2 2i>cult to p7o-e. %libi 8ust be p7o-en b3 theaccuse2 =ith clea7 an2 con-incin& e-i2enceF othe7=ise it cannotp7e-ail o-e7 the positi-e testi8onies of c7e2ible =itnesses =ho testif3on a>78ati-e 8atte7s.; The 2efense of f7a8e,up' li/e alibi' has beenin-a7iabl3 -ie=e2 b3 this Cou7t =ith 2isfa-o7' fo7 it can easil3 beconcocte2 but is 2i>cult to p7o-e.#=phi# In o72e7 to p7ospe7' the2efense of f7a8e,up 8ust be p7o-en b3 the accuse2 =ith clea7 an2con-incin& e-i2ence.;; %pa7t f7o8 thei7 ba7e alle&ations' noco8petent an2 in2epen2ent e-i2ence =as a22uce2 b3 the accuse2,

appellants to substantiate thei7 t=in 2efenses of alibi an2 f7a8e,upan2' thus' 7e8ain selfse7-in& an2 2o not 8e7it an3 e-i2entia73 -alue.Mo7e i8po7tantl3' no=he7e in the 7eco72s 2oes it sho= of an3 2ubious7easons o7 i8p7ope7 8oti-e that coul2 ha-e i8pelle2 the p7osecution=itnesses' pa7ticula7l3 -icti8 %lastai7 On&lin&s=a8' to falsel3 testif3an2 fab7icate 2ocu8enta73 o7 obect e-i2ence ust to i8plicateaccuse2,appellants in such a heinous c7i8e as /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8.

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 Thei7 onl3 8oti-e =as to see to it that the /i2nappe7 be b7ou&ht to ustice an2 sentence2=ith the app7op7iate penalt3.

%s a last,2itch e+o7t to eculpate the8sel-es f7o8 an3 c7i8inalculpabilit3' the accuse2,appellants Juestione2 the le&alit3 of thei7

=a77antless a77ests. This too 8ust fail.

%n3 obection to the p7oce2u7e follo=e2 in the 8atte7 of the acJuisitionb3 a cou7t of u7is2iction o-e7 the pe7son of the accuse2 8ust beoppo7tunel3 7aise2 befo7e he ente7s his pleaF othe7=ise' the obectionis 2ee8e2 =ai-e2.;( The accuse2,appellants ne-e7 obecte2 to o7Juestione2 the le&alit3 of thei7 =a77antless a77ests o7 the acJuisition of u7is2iction b3 the RTC o-e7 thei7 pe7sons befo7e the3ente7e2 thei77especti-e pleas to the /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8 cha7&e. Consi2e7in& thislapse an2 couple2 =ith thei7 full an2 acti-e pa7ticipation in the t7ial ofthe case' accuse2,appellants =e7e 2ee8e2 to ha-e =ai-e2 an3

obection to thei7 =a77antless a77ests. The accuse2,appellants-olunta7il3 sub8itte2 to the u7is2iction of the RTC the7eb3 cu7in&=hate-e7 2efects that 8i&ht ha-e atten2e2 thei7 a77est. It bea7sst7essin& that the le&alit3 of the a77est a+ects onl3 the u7is2iction ofthe cou7t o-e7 thei7 pe7sons.;B Thei7 =a77antless a77ests cannot' b3the8sel-es' be the bases of thei7 acJuittal.

E-en assu8in& a7&uen2o that the accuse2,appellants 8a2e a ti8el3obection to thei7 =a77antless a77ests' u7isp7u2ence is 7eplete =ith7ulin&s that suppo7t the -ie= that thei7 con-iction =as p7ope7 2espitebein& ille&all3 a77este2 =ithout a =a77ant. In People -. Manlulu';< the

Cou7t 7ule2 that the ille&alit3 of the =a77antless a77est cannot 2ep7i-ethe State of its 7i&ht to p7osecute the &uilt3 =hen all othe7 facts on7eco72 point to thei7 culpabilit3. In2ee2' the ille&al a77est of an accuse2is not a su>cient cause fo7 settin& asi2e a -ali2 u2&8ent 7en2e7e2upon a su>cient co8plaint afte7 a t7ial f7ee f7o8 e77o7.;$

ith 7espect to the penalt3' the Cou7t @n2s that the RTC =as co77ect ini8posin& the penalt3 of 7eclusion pe7petua=ithout eli&ibilit3 of pa7olea&ainst Pet7us as p7incipal in the cha7&e of /i2nappin& fo7 7anso8 in-ie= of R.%. No. ?;(<' p7ohibitin& the 2eath penalt3. %lso' the Cou7t@n2s that the penalt3 of ei&ht 9": 3ea7s an2 one 9#: 2a3 of p7ision

8a3o7' as 8ini8u8' to t=el-e 9#: 3ea7s an2 ten 9#!: 8onths of7eclusion te8po7al' as 8ai8u8' 8ete2 out a&ainst Susana' anacco8plice' to be p7ope7.

 The Cou7t also sustains the RTC in a=a72in& actual 2a8a&es in thea8ount of $;'#;.!! plus inte7est co88itte2 f7o8 the @lin& of theinfo78ation until full3 pai2. %s 7e&a72s the 8o7al 2a8a&es a&ainst theaccuse2,appellants' the Cou7t @n2sthe a=a72 of P#'!!!'!!!.!! to be

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eo7bitant. Hence' the sa8e is bein& 7e2uce2 to P!!'!!!.!!' as the7easonable co8pensation fo7 the i&no8in3 an2 su+e7in&s that %lastai7an2 his fa8il3 en2u7e2 because of the accuse2,appellants inhu8aneacts of 2etainin& hi8 in han2cu+s an2 chains' an2 8entall3 to7tu7in&hi8 an2 his fa8il3 to 7aise the 7anso8 8one3. The fact that the3

su+e7e2 the t7au8a f7o8 8ental' ph3sical an2 ps3cholo&icalo72eal=hich constitutes the basis fo7 8o7al 2a8a&es un2e7 %7ticle #? ofthe Ci-il Co2e is too ob-ious to still 7eJui7e its 7ecital at the t7ialth7ou&h the supe7Kuit3 of a testi8onial cha7a2e. The Cou7t also @n2sthe a=a72 of ee8pla73 2a8a&es to be in o72e7 in -ie= of the p7esenceof the Jualif3in& ci7cu8stance of 2e8an2 fo7 7anso8' an2 to se7-e asan ea8ple an2 2ete77ence fo7 the public &oo2. The Cou7t' ho=e-e7'7e2uces the a8ount f7o8 P!!'!!!.!! to P#!!'!!!.!! in line =ithp7e-ailin& u7isp7u2ence.;"

 The RTC' ho=e-e7' e77e2 in 7ulin& that Susana =as soli2a7il3 liable =ith

Pet7us fo7 the pa38ent of 2a8a&es. This is an e77oneousappo7tion8ent of the 2a8a&es a=a72e2 because it 2oes not ta/e intoaccount the 2i+e7ence in the natu7e an2 2e&7ee of pa7ticipationbet=een the p7incipal' Pet7us' an2 the acco8plice' Susana. The 7ulin&of this Cou7t in People -. Montescla7os;? is inst7ucti-e on theappo7tion8ent of ci-il liabilities a8on& all the accuse2appellants. Theenti7e a8ount of the ci-il liabilities shoul2 be appo7tione2 a8on& allthose =ho coope7ate2 in the co88ission of the c7i8e acco72in& to the2e&7ees of thei7 liabilit3' 7especti-e 7esponsibilities an2 actualpa7ticipation. %cco72in&l3' Pet7us shoul2 shoul2e7 a &7eate7 sha7e inthe total a8ount of 2a8a&es than Susana =ho =as a2u2&e2 onl3 as

an acco8plice.

In @ne' the accuse2,appellants a7e o72e7e2 to pa3 the -icti8' %lastai7On&lin&s=a8 actual 2a8a&es in the a8ount of P$;' #;.!!F 8o7al2a8a&es in the a8ount of P!!'!!!.!!F an2 ee8pla73 2a8a&es inthe a8ount of P#!!'!!!.!!' o7 a total a8ount of PB$;' #;.!!. Ta/in&into consi2e7ation the 2e&7ee of thei7 pa7ticipation' the p7incipal'Pet7us' shoul2 be liable fo7 t=o,thi72s 9L;: of the total a8ount of the2a8a&es 9PB$;' #;.!! #;: o7 P;"'!"".!!F an2 the acco8plice'Susana' shoul2 be o72e7e2 to pa3 the 7e8ainin& one,thi72 9#L;: o7P#?#'!((.!!. Speci@call3' Pet7us shall be liable fo7 actual 2a8a&es in

the a8ount of P #"'!"".!!F 8o7al 2a8a&es in the a8ount ofP#;;';;;.;;F an2 ee8pla73 2a8a&es in the a8ount o7 P<<'<<<.< $Fan2 Susana fo7 the a8ount of P?#'!((.!! as actual 2a8a&esFP<<'<<<.<$ as 8o7al 2a8a&esF an2 P;;';;;.;; as ee8pla732a8a&es.

HERE*ORE' the Septe8be7 $' !# Decisi!n of the Cou7t of %ppealsin C%,G.R. CR,H.C. No. !;((< is %**IRMED =ith MODI*IC%TION in that

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accuse2,appellants Pet7us au an2 Susana au 3 Su8o&ba a7e o72e7e2to pa3 the -icti8 %lastai7 1oseph On&lin&s=a8 8o7al 2a8a&es in thea8ount of P!!'!!!.!! an2 ee8pla73 2a8a&es in the a8ount of Pl!!'!!!.!!. The a=a72 of actual 2a8a&es in the a8ount o7 P$;'#;.!! is 8aintaine2. The ci-il liabilities of the accuse2,appellants

shall be appo7tione2 as follo=s6

# Pet7us au is 2i7ecte2 to pa3 actual 2a8a&es in the a8ount ofP#"'!"".!!F 8o7al 2a8a&es in the a8ount of P #;;';;;.;;F an2ee8pla73 2a8a&es in the a8ount of P<<'<<<.<$F an2

Susana au 3 Su8o&ba is 2i7ecte2 to pa3 actual 2a8a&es in thea8ount of P?#'!((.!!' 8o7al 2a8a&es in the a8ount of P<<'<<<.<$an2 ee8pla73 2a8a&es in the a8ount of P;;';;;.;;.

SO ORDERED.