Pence: Cyclotron

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  • 1. TheCyclotronBy: Andrea Pence

2. Research Question:How did the development of the cyclotron influence and develop the scientificenvironment in which we live today? 3. Cyclo:CircularWhat is a Cyclotron? Tron:Across Cyclotron Diagram 4. A cyclotron is A particle accelerator Sends charged particles, which constantly accelerate through a Dee, through a circular path until they are (most likely) directed towards a designated target for a specific purpose 5. How it works Electrons enter a vacuum in the device Vacuum is suspended between two magnetic poles High frequency, alternating voltage isthen applied to the Dee electrodes The particles increase speed and energy asthey travel along a spiral path With each turn on the spiral path theygain more speed, frequency, and energy Particles will continue on this path untilthey reach their target This creates secondary particles These can be measured by instruments les articat ed P cc eler 6. Uses of the Cyclotron For decades best source of highenergy beams for physicsexperiments Treatment for Cancer Proton Therapy PET imaging 7. Cyclotron Experiments Element 113 (Uut) recently discovered Element 115 (Uup) also recently discovered Dr. James Meadows used cyclotrons in anexperiment on radionuclide production Resonance in silicon and germanium 8. Advantages Utilizes a single, electricaldriver This saves energy and $ High power due to continuousstream of particles Compact design 9. Limitations Spiral beam of a cyclotronmeans it will only be efficientand work with Klystron typevoltage 10. Problems Solved Until the cyclotron, the linearaccelerator was the only way toproduce high-frequency radiowaves Pretty crappy The cyclotron has better wavesthan the linear accelerator < 11. Related Technology A magnetron is a acceleratorbased off of the cyclotron You all know what a magnetron is, you have one in your kitchen Magnetron = microwave 12. More Related Technology:Cyclotron RadiationWhat is it:Electromagnetic radiation emittedby charged particles Cyclotron radiation, foundaround black holes, is anexcellent source of informationabout distant magnetic fields 13. Cyclotron radiation wouldlikely be produced in a high-altitude nuclear explosion Gamma rays produced by thisexplosion would ionize atoms inthe upper atmosphere These free electrons wouldinteract with Earths magneticfeild 14. Produceing cyclotron radiationin the form of aelectromagnetic pulse EMP is a current concern of themilitary because it coulddamage solid, state equipment 15. The History of the Cyclotron is not some easily untangled web 16. Leo Lzilard Invented the Cyclotron Other inventions Nuclear Chain reaction Electron microscope Linear accelerator 17. Leos History Cyclotron: Szilard conceived this ideasomewhere in the 1900-1930 Nuclear Chain Reaction: 1933 Ernest Rutherford gives a speech proclaiming that atomic energy will never be useful Shocked, Szilard comes up with N.C.R. that very day Helped achieve atomic bomb with collaboration from Einstein and various other scientists Later in life he reported regretting having created the atomic bomb and hoped it wouldnt be used on the public 18. Continued 1960, Szilard is diagnosed withbladder cancer He is treated using his owntreatment regime (radiationtherapy (this therapy involvesthe use of cyclotrons)) Put into remission 19. Going On 1960, after being cured, hehelped found Council for aLivable World C.L.W.- organization dedicatedto protecting society fromeverything radioactive andatomic 20. Council for a Livable World Helps elect congressionalcandidates who support them 120 U.S arms control advocates 203 House of Representatives Raised 1.3 million in 2010 21. Who Else did They Endorse???October 3, 2007 C.L.W. praised senator Obama forhis pledge to improve Russian relationsC.L.W. backed B. Obama in his presidential 22. What Specifically hasC.L.W. Done? Ratified Chemical WeaponsConvention Outlaws production/ stockpiling of chemical weapons Ratified Intermediate-RangeNuclear Forces treaty Eliminated nuclear and conventional ground launched ballistic and cruise missiles between the USA and Soviet Union 23. Continuing On Ratified Strategic Arms ReductionTreaty Barred the USA and Soviet Union fromdeploying more than 6,000 nuclearwarheads Treaty expired 12-5-09, the New START wassigned by President Obama and went intoeffect 1-26-11 Banned biological weapons, andeliminated chemical weapons programs 24. Ensured limited deployment ofMX missile and B2 bomber Blocking deployment of NationalMissile Defense Stopped funding for BunkerBuster and Reliable ReplacementWarhead 25. Its slightly ironic thatC.L.W. stands to ban basicallyeverything the cyclotron standsfor + without the cyclotronC.L.W wouldnt really exist 26. =ing It All UpLeo Szilard created the cyclotronHe also invented N.C.R. Helpedcreate the atomic bomb RemorsefulBladder Cancer Cured usinginvented treatmentC.L.WGreatly influences the world we livein today*His remorsefulness of N.C.R., and hisinvention of the cyclotron all helped fuel theC.L.W insanity!!! 27. Ernest Lawrence August 8, 1901- August 27, 1958 He built, utilized, and improved thecyclotron 1939 Won Nobel Peace Prize in physics, forthe cyclotron Helped with Nuclear Fission Found a way to smash atoms and paved theway for nuclear weapons 28. Going On Lawrence Liberty ConventionalLibrary Founded Lawrence Berkley Lab 29. Continued :) 1958, the last year of hislife, Eisenhower sent Lawrenceto Geneva Switzerland Propose treaty Ban nuclear war testing withthe Soviet Union Chronic Colitis 30. Lawrence Berkley NationalLaboratory Contributions: Manhattan Project: Develop first atomic bomb in WW2 Applied Physics Laboratory at John Hopkins: Proximity Fuse MIT Radiation Laboratory: Radar 3 most useful war technologies 31. Princeton and the Cyclotron 2-23-1950 Oil fire destroyed Princetons$400,000 cyclotron Cause of blaze unknown Smoldered for 11 hours Only magnets were salvageable Approx. 6 months to rebuild Built in 1936 One of Americas first atomsmashers 32. Device had been shipped to LosAlmos, New Mexico in WW2 Had large role in creating theatomic bomb Was currently being used forresearch in Office of Navalresearch 33. The Science of the Cyclotron 34. Radionuclide What is a radionuclide: Atom w/ unstable nucleus Also known as radioisotopes Undergo radio active decay Occur naturally or artificially Emit gamma rays 35. Radionuclides and Cyclotrons Cyclotrons accelerate atomicparticles to hit a target whichproduce radionuclides Cyclotrons accelerate protonsat a target to make positronemitting radioisotopes Ex Fluorine 18 36. Nuclear Medicine Used for diagnoses, research, andtreatment Also used in single-proton emissioncomputed tomography and PET imaging In genetics, radioisotopes attachthemselves to molecules and allowtracing. They can show DNAreplication and amino acid transport 37. Can be used in foodpreservation Industry and mining Geology, archaeology, andpaleontology 38. Why do I care aboutradioisotopes??? Because: Americium 241 is a radioisotope found in smoke detectors Gadolinium 153 is a a radioisotope used in X-ray fluorescence and osteoporosis screening 39. Fluorine 18 Radioisotope Important source of positrons (+) Generally theyre produced bycyclotrons Used in the radiopharmaceuticalindustry Synthesized into fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG) for use in PET scans 40. PET imaging Positron Emission Tomography Nuclear Medicine Use trace amount of radioactive material(radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers) todiagnose and depict a disease Cancer Heart Disease Gastrointestinal diseases Nuclear medicine accuratelypinpoints molecular activity withinthe body 41. How it Works Radiotracers are injected,swallowed, or inhaled as a gas Accumulate in the organ/area beingexamined Radiotracers give off energy calleda gamma ray Then a gamma camera, PET scanner, orprobe detects this energy andconverts it into a picture with theassistance of a computer 42. Cyclotrons and PET Imaging Cyclotrons are needed togenerate the radiotracersneeded for PET Cyclotrons produce manydifferent kinds of radioactiveisotopes These must emit positrons when decaying 43. Most PET installations havecyclotrons by the PET machine Radiotracers can be synthesized quickly Radioisotopes decay very quickly and need to be administered to the patient as quickly as possible 44. The Cyclotron in Astrophysics:More Specifically MSU Leading isotope research facility Built 1963 Biggest nuclear science facility on auniversity campus Operates 2 superconducting cyclotrons Currently investigating properties ofrare isotopes and nuclear reactions Reactions that take place in stars Novae + supernovae 45. K1200 is the biggestaccelerator in the world Primary goal is currently tounderstand atomic nuclei Isotope research taking placeat MSU is key to understandinghow elements, and the universewere formed 46. CassiopeiaA supernovaremnant Remnants of a star that exploded in a supernova about 1000 years ago 47. The Cyclotron in Particle Physics The cyclotron smashes particlestogether Snap shots are taken of theseparticles when they collide Shots capture fundamentalparticles Piece together what happenedwhen the universe was created 48. Opened up new avenues toparticle physics andastrophysics Allowed physicists to accelerate particles they wouldnt have been able to otherwise Allows medical physicists andradiochemists better access topositron emitting radionuclides Radiation therapy 49. Conventional Radiationtherapy Uses linear accelerator Accelerates electrons and smashes theminto a target, producing gamma rays Gamma rays are then collimated into a beamand used to irritate a patients tumorCons: G-rays also irritate the tissuesurrounding the tumor Radiation oncologists can use differentangles of r-therapy to seemingly sparetissue 50. Radiation TherapyInvolving Cyclotrons Accelerates [cyclotron] protons to high energies Proton beam